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PUBLIC DOCUMENT .... .... No. 34. 



TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL KEPOET 



State Board of Health 



MASSACHUSETTS. 



BOSTON : 
WRIGHT & POTTER PRINTING CO., STATE PRINTERS, 
18 Post Office Square. 

189o. 



Digitized by the Internet Arciiive 

in 2010 with funding from 
Columbia University Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/annualreportofs1894mass 



MEMBERS OF THE BOARD 

1894-1895. 



HENRY p. WALCOTT, M.D., Chair 
HIRAM F. MII.LS, C.E., . 
FRANK W. DRAPER, M.D., . 
GERARD C. TO BEY, Esq., . 

JAMES W. HULI 

CHARLES H. PORTER, . 
JOSEPH W. HASTINGS, M.D.,* 



OF Camhridge. 
OF Lawrence. 
OF Boston. 
OF Wareuam. 

OF PiTTSFIELI). 
OF QUINCY. 

OF Warren. 



Secretary. 
SAMUEL W. ABBOTT, M.D. 

Engineer. 
V. P. STEARNS, C.E. 



♦ Deceased. 



CONTENTS. 



FAOE 

1. General Report, vli 

Report upon Metropolitan Water Supply, cxvii 

Report of Joint Board upon the Improvement of Charles River, . . . cxxxiii 

2. Water Supply and Sewerage, — 

Report to the Legislature (under the provisions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888), 3 

Advice to Cities and Towns 5 

Water Supply, 7 

Sewerage and Sewage Disposal, o3 

Pollution of Rivers and Sources of Water Supply, 63 

Examination of Water Supplies, 71 

Examination of Rivers, 367 

Summary of Water Supply Statistics, 407 

The Composition of the Water of Deep Wells, by Thomas M. Drown, M.D., Chemist 

of the Board 423 

The Bacterial Contents of Certain Ground Waters, by W. T. Sedgwick, Ph.D., 

Biologist of the Board, and S. C. Prescott, S.B., 434 

Experiments on the Purification of Sewage and Water at the Lawrence Experiment 

Station, 447 

Filtration of Sewage, 448 

I'^iltration of Water 575 

Physical and Chemical Properties of Sands, by H. W. Clark, Chemist of the Law- 
rence Experiment Station, 703 

3. Report upon Food and Drug Inspection, 713 

Report of Dr. C. P. Worcester, Analyst, 733 

Report of Prof. C. A. Gocssniann, Analyst, 755 

4. Report upon Experiments on the Effect of Feeding upon Trichinosis in Hogs, by Prof. 

E. L. Mark of Harvard University, 750 

5. Kcport upon an Epidemic of Typhoid Fever in Marlborough, apparently due to Infected 

Skimmed Milk, by W. T. Sedgwick, Ph.D., Biologist of the Board, . . 7^5 

6. Statistical Summaries of Disease and Mortality 777 

Weekly Mortality Reports of Cities and Towns (18J)4), 770 

Fatality from Certain Infectious Diseases (1804) 788 

Reports of Diseases Dangerous to Public Health (chapter 302, Acts of 1803) (1894), 793 
Mortality Returns of places having more than 5,000 inhabitants (chapter 218, Acts 

of 1804) 800 

7. Health of Towns 817 

8. Index, 861 



GENERAL REPORT. 



The contents of the present volume comprise a report of the gen- 
eral work of the State Board of Health for the year ending Sept. 30, 
1894, and of that which relates to Water Supply and Sewerage for 
the calendar year 1894. 

This first portion, the general report, paged in Roman numerals, 
includes a brief statement of the work done under the statutes which 
define the work of the Board, and contains a summary of the vital 
statistics of the State for the year 1893. 

The second part of the report, paged in Arabic numerals, contains 
the fuller details of the work of the Board, under the acts relatins: 
to Water Supply and Sewerage, Food and Drug Inspection, Report- 
ing of Infectious Diseases and such papers relating to special topics 
as the Board has deemed it desirable to publish. 

The following members comprised the Board in 1894 : — 



Henuy p. AValcott, Chairman. 



Frank W. Draper. 
HiKAM F. Mills. 



J<_)SEPn W. IIastin«s. 

(iERAUI) C. TOHEY. 



James W. Hill. Cmaklis II. Porter. 

C. H. Porter of Quincy was appointed jn February, 1894, to fill 
the place made vacant by the death of Dr. Jones. Dr. J. W. 
Hastings' term expired May, 1894, and he was reappointed for 
seven years. 

During the year 1894, in addition to the regular routine work of 
the Board, the following special lines of work have been prose- 
cuted : — 

The investigations relating to a general supply of water for the 
metropolitan district, authorized by an act of 1893, were completed, 
and a report upon tlic same was transmitted to the Legislature. 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Under the provisions of chai)ter 42H of the Acts of 1894, a con- 
tract was made with the Eastern Dredging Company for the purpose 
of dredging" certain portions of the Concord and Sudbury rivers, 
and the work is now progressing. 

Under the organic act creating the Board and requiring it to 
"take cognizance of the interests of health and life among the 
citizens of the Commonwealth,'' the Board has taken measures to 
provide a supply of autitoxine, for use throughout the Common- 
wealth, for the purpose of diminishing the mortality from diphtheria. 

Further investigations relating to the reduction in the prevalence 
of trichinosis among swine will be found detailed in a communica- 
tion from Professor Mark of Harvard University. 

Progress has also been made in the investigations relating to the 
prevalence of malarial infection in the Charles River valley. 



Infectious Diseases. 

The principal outbreak of infectious disease worthy of note which 
occurred during the year was the epidemic of small-pox, which 
began in the previous year, 1893, and reached its height in April, 
1894, but had entirely subsided before midsummer. The principal 
data relative to the earlier period of this epidemic are detailed in 
the report of 1893. The following statement relates to the closing 
period of the epidemic, comprising the first half of 1894. A sum- 
mary of the ten-year period, 1885-94, is also presented. 



Small-pox. 

The epidemic of small-pox of 1893-94 culminated in April, 1894, 
60 cases being reported to the Board during that month. The fol- 
lowing table presents the monthly record of reported cases for the 
two years, 1893-94 : — 



lieportcd (Jasas of Small-pox, Mafi.suchuseUs, 1803-04. 





























. ._. 




















c 




C 


b 




YKAKH. 


& 


a 


^ 








, 


. 


§ 


% 


a 


% 

a 






i 


S 


1 






c 




5) 


p. 




o 


s 


o 




f-i 


£ 


a 


•< 


<• 


-^ 


•-5 


-f. 


VI 


O 


Vi 


« , 


E- 


189:;, 


7 


1 


2 


2 





1 








\ 


3 


« 


20 


44 


1894, . 


24 


ni 


.19 


no 


14 


13 


4 

















180 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 

Feporlcd Cnacs of Small-pox in Mnf^RnHmseili^ by Monlln^, 1S03-04. 



IX 



60 



50 



AO 



30 



20 



10 



1893 



1894 




By this table and dlagnim, it appears that 201 cases, or nearly 
nine-tenths of all that occurred in the two years, were reported in 
the seven months ending with June, 1894. In most of the previous 
epidemics of the past thirty years the height of the epidemic has 
come in midwinter. The following table ])resents a detailed state- 
ment of the cases reported during the year 1894, as copied from the 
individual returns sent to the office of the Board : — 

Cases of Small-pox rcporled to the State Board of Health in 1S04, under (he 
Provisions of Chapter 13S of the Acts of 1S93. 



1 

a 

3 

55 


Date 

of 

Report. 


rince 

of 

Occurrence. 


Katlonnlity 

of 

Patient. 


Occupation. 


Age. 


>< 


>.-3 


II 

Z 




1 


Jan. 1, 


Boeton, 


United States, . 


Iron moulder, . 


40 years. 


M. 


? 


- 


1 


2 


Jan. 2, 


Lowell, 


Irish, . 


Mill operolive, 


24 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


1 


3 


Jan. 2, 


Lowell, 


Irish, . 


- 


22 " 


F. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


4 


Jnn. 2, 


Lowell, . 


Irish, . 


- 


13 " 


F. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


6 


Jan. 4, 


Boeton, 


United States, . 


Xight watchman, . 


35 " 


U. 


No. 


- 


- 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 





Date 


Place 


Nationality 








>:.'d 


o 




S 
a 


of 
Report. 


of 
Occurrence. 


of 
Patient. 


Occupation. 


Age. 


.03 


S 2 

It 


li 

So; 
"A 


00 


6 


"Jan. 


5, 


Boston, 


Br. Provinces, . 


Teamster, 


25 years. 


M. 


No. 


- 


1 


7 


Jan. 


5, 


Boston, 


Br. Provinces, . 


Teamster, 


35 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


1 


8 


Jan. 


5, 


Worcester, 


Irish, 


Tanner, . 


37 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


9 


Jan. 


6, 


Lowell, 


Irish, 


Mill operative. 


26 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


1 


10 


Jan. 


6, 


Lowell, 


Irish, 


Mill oijerative, 


19 " 


F. 


Yes. 


- 


- 


11 


Jan. 


6, 


Lowell, 


Irish, 


Milk pedler, . 


21 «« 


M. 


•> 


- 


1 


12 


Jan. 


8, 


Boston, 


Irish, 


Carpenter, 


29 " 


M. 


Yes. 


2 


- 


13 


Jan. 


9. 


Boston, 


United States, . 


School boy, 


14 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


14 


Jan. 


12, 


Melhuen, . 


Br. Provinces, . 


Laborer, . 


22 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


15 


Jan. 


12, 


Methuen, . 


Scotland, . 


- 


7 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


16 


Jan. 


16, 


Marlborough, . 


Br. Provinces, . 


Book-keeper, . 


28 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


17 


Jan. 


18, 


Brookline, 


Br. Provinces, . 


Domestic, 


23 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


18 


Jan. 


18, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Wife of No. 5, 


25 " 


F. 


- 


- 


- 


19 


Jan. 


21, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


School boy. 


9 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


20 


Jan. 


22, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


26 " 


F. 


Yes. 


1 


1 


21 


Jan. 


28, 


Lowell, 


Br. Provinces, . 


Nurse, 


45 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


22 


Jan. 


29, 


Brookllnc, 


United States, . 


Draughtsman, . 


23 " 


M. 


Yes. 


- 


- 


23 


Jan. 


22, 


Worcester, 


United States, . 


Physician, 


30 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


24 


Jan. 


23, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Housewife, 


50 « 


P. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


25 


Feb. 


1, 


Boston, 


Irish, 


Housewife, 


27 " 


P. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


26 


Feb. 


1, 


Boston, 


Swede, 


Barber, . 


21 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


27 


Feb. 


8, 


Holyoke, . 


United States, . 


Rag worker, . 


29 " 


F. 


Yes. 


- 


- 


28 


Feb. 


15, 


Worcester, 


Irish, 


Nurse, 


27 " 


P. 


Yes. 


4 


- 


29 


Feb. 


16, 


Holyoke, . 


United States, . 


- 


6 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


SO 


Feb. 


16, 


Uolyokc, . 


United States, . 


- 


3 " 


P. 


No. 


- 


1 


31 


Feb. 


16, 


Holyoke, . 


United States, . 


- 


8 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


32 


Feb. 


16, 


Holyoke, . 


United States, . 


- 


6 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


33 


Feb. 


16, 


Holyoke, . 


United Stales, . 


- 


1 y. 4 m. 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


34 


Feb. 


18, 


Boston, 


Br. Provinces, . 


Laborer, . 


34 years. 


M. 


YOH. 


1 


1 


85 


Feb. 


18, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Waiter, . 


24 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


1 


36 


Feb. 


18, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Engineer, 


45 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


37 


Feb, 


19, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Housewife, 


32 " 


P. 


No. 


- 


- 


38 


Feb. 


19, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


14 days. 


M. 


No. 


- 


1 


39 


Feb. 


19, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Housewife, 


38 years. 


P. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


40 


Fob. 


20, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


4 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


1 


41 


Feb. 


20, 


Boston, 


Irish, 


- 


17 '< 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


42 


Feb. 


20, 


Boston, 


EnKland, . 


Mechanic, 


27 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


43 


Feb. 


21, 


Boston, 


Br. Provinces, . 


Moulder, . 


28 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



XI 





Date 


rince 


Nationality 








= 5 


o 

^ -: 




A 


of 


of 


of 


Occupation. 


Age. 






V ?° 


2 


a 

3 

a? 


Keport. 


Occurrence. 


Patient. 








> 3 




3 


44 


Feb. 22, 


Lawrence, 


United States, . 


- 


10 weeks. 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


45 


Feb. 23, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Moulder, . 


51 years. 


M. 


Yea. 


1 


- 


46 


Feb. 23, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Carpenter, 


37 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


1 


47 


Feb. 23, 


Holyokc, . 


Br. Provinces, . 


Mill operative. 


23 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


4S 


Feb. 24, 


Boston, 


Germany, . 


Housewife, . 


36 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


1 


49 


Feb. 25, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


35 " 


F. 


Yes. 


1 


1 


50 


Feb. 26, 


Boston, 


Scotland, . 


Housewife, 


37 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


51 


Feb. 20, 


Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


3 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


52 


Feb. 26 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Carpenter, 


47 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


53 


Feb. 26 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Yachtsman, 


29 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


54 


Feb. 27 


Boston, . 


United Stales, . 


- 


15 " 


F. 


- 


- 


- 


55 


Feb. 27 


Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


38 " 


M. 


Yes. 


2 


- 


56 


Mor. 2 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Laborer, . 


27 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


57 


Mar. 3 


Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


3 " 


F. 


Yes. 


2 


- 


58 


Mar. 5 


Boston, 


Irish, 


Laborer, . 


24 " 


M. 


Yes. 


2 


- 


59 


Mar. 5 


Boston, 


Irish, 


Laborer, . 


47 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


60 


Mar. 6 


Boston, 


United Stetes, . 


Bootblack, 


60 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


61 


Mar. 7 


Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


25 " 


F. 


Yes. 


2 


- 


62 


Mar. 7 


Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


52 " 


M. 


5 


- 


- 


63 


Mar. 7 


Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


ly. 3m. 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


64 


Mar. 11 


Lynn, 


United States, . 


Shoe operator. 


19 years. 


F. 


No. 


- 


I 


65 


Mar. 12 


Waltham, . 


United States, . 


- 


ly. 6m. 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


66 


Mar. 10 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Laborer, . 


21 years. 


M. 


No. 


- 


1 


67 


Mar. 10 


Boston, 


Irish, 


Laborer, . 


26 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


63 


Mar. 10 


, Boston, 


United States, . 


Laborer, . 


42 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


1 


69 


Mar. 13 


, Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


8 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


70 


Mar. 13 


, nolyoke, . 


Fr. Canadian, . 


- 


8 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


71 


Mar. 13 


, Holyoke, . 


Fr. Canadian, . 


- 


6 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


72 


Mar. 13 


, Holyoke, . 


Fr. Canadian, . 


- 


4 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


73 


Mar. 13 


, Holyoke, . 


Scotland, . 


Engineer, paper mill, 


47 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


74 


Mar. 13 


, Holyoke, . 


Scotland, . 


Child of No. 73, . 


2 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


76 


Mar. 13 


, Holyoke, . 


United States, . 


- 


7 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


76 


Mar. 13 


, Holyoke, . 


United States, . 


Bricklayer, 


42 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


1 


77 


Mar. 15 


, Holyoke, . 


Fr. Canadian, . 


- 


4 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


78 


Mar. 16 


, Boston, 


Uoited States, . 


- 


46 .. 


F. 


Yes. 


2 


- 


79 


Mar. 16 


, Boston, 


United States, . 


Domestic, 


24 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


80 


Mar. 17 


, Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


2y. 6m . 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


81 


Mar. 18 


, Holyoke, . 


Br. Provinces, . 


- 


5 years. 


M. 


Yes. 


? 


- 



xu 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Date 

of 

Kcport. 



Place 

of 

Occurrence. 



Xationality 

of 

Patient. 



Occupation. 



Age. 



5 = 


II 


No. 


_ 


No. 


- 


Yes. 


2 


Yes. 


1 


Yes. 


1 


Yes, 


1 


No. 


- 


No. 


- 


No. 


- 


? 


- 


No. 


- 


p 


- 


? 


y 


No. 


- 


Yes. 


1 


Yes. 


1 


No. 


- 


No. 


- 


Yes. 


- 


No. 


: 


No. 


- 


No. 


- 


No. 


- 


Yes. 


- 


No. 


- 


No. 


- 


Yes. 


2 


Yes. 


1 


No. 


- 


No. 


- 


Yes. 


- 


Yes. 


1 


No. 


- 


Yes. 


2 


No. 


- 


No. 


- 



82 I ilar. 20, 

83 ' Mar. 20, 

84 Mar. 20, 

85 Mar. 20, 

86 Mar. 21, 

87 i Mar. 21, 

88 I Mar. 24, 

89 I Mar. 24, 
Mar. 27, 
Mar. 28, 
Mar. 30, 
Mar. 31, 
Mar. 31, 
Apr. 2, 
Apr. 3, 
Apr. 5, 
Apr. 7, 
Apr. 7, 
Apr. 10, 
Apr. 11, 
Apr. 11, 
Apr. 11, 
Apr. 11, 
Apr. 13, 
Apr. 18, 
Apr. 15, 
Apr. 15, 
Apr. 16, 
Apr. 16, 
Apr. 17, 
Apr. 18, 
Apr. 18, 
Apr. 18, 
Apr. 20, 
Apr. 20, 
Apr. 23, 
Apr. 22, 



90 

91 

92 

93 

94 

95 

96 

97 

98 

99 

100 

101 

102 

103 

104 

105 

106 

107 

108 

109 

110 

111 

112 

113 

114 

115 

116 

117 

118 



110 Apr. 12, 



Boston, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Melrose, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Boston, 

Chicopee, 

Chicopee, 

Chicopee, 

Holyoke, 

Holyoke, 

Holyoke, 

Boston, 

Holyoke, 

Holyoke, 

Holyoke, 

Holyoke, 

Stonebam, 

Boston, 

Holyoke, 

Holyoke, 

Boston, 

Holyoke, 

Boston, 

Holyoke, 

Chicopee, 



United States, 
United States, 
Ireland, . 
Ireland, . 
United States, 
United States, 
United States, 
United States, 
United States, 
United States, 
United States, 
United States, 
Br. Provinces, 
Br. Provinces, 
Br. Provinces, 
United States, 
United States, 
Br. Provinces, 
Ireland, . 
France, 
Fr. Canadian, 
Fr. Canadian, 
Fr. Canadian, 
Fr. Canadian, 
Br. I'rovinccs, 
France, 
France, 
Fr. Canadian, 
Fr. Canadian, 
United States, 
Br. Provinces, 
Germany, 
United States, 
Scotland, . 
Fr. Canadian, 
United States, 
France, 
Ireland, . 



Laborer, 
Clerk, 



House servant, 
Teamster, 
Housekeeper, . 
Teamster, 
Morocco worker. 
Laborer, . 

Laborer, • 



Mill operative. 
Mill operative, 



■\Veaver, . 

Paper-mill operative, 
Mill operative. 
Housekeeper, . 
Walter, . 
School girl, 

IIouRcwIfe, 

Clerk, 



36 years. 
46 •• 

24 " 

25 " 
5 " 

1 mo. 

2 mos. 
28 years. 



26 years. 

20 " 

21 " 
17 " 

2 y. 6 m. 
37 years. 
19 

4 
22 
14 
40 
.32 
10 
27 
35 

2 
18 

6 
1 y. 2 m. 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. 



Xlll 





Date 


Place 


ICatioiiality 








>.-6 


o 




1 


of 


of 


of 


Occupation. 


Age. 




■-- 


S £ 


2 


s 

s 
S5 


Keport. 


Occurrence. 


Patient. 






X 


-> 




a 


120 


Apr. 5 


Chicopee,*. 


United States, . 


- 


3 y. 6 m. 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


121 


Apr. 5 


Chicopee, . 


Scotland, . 


Mill operative, 


27 years. 


F. 


Yes. 


2 


- 


122 


Apr. 12 


Chicopee, . 


United States, . 


Laborer, . 


17 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


123 


Apr. 12 


Chicopee, . 


Ireland, . 


Laborer, . 


49 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


124 


Apr. 12 


Chicopee, . 


United States, . 


School boy. 


14 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


125 


Apr. 12 


Chicopee, . 


England, . 


Mill operative. 


48 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


126 


Apr. 12 


Chicopee, . 


United States, . 


School girl. 


12 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


127 


Apr. 12 


Chicopee, . 


Ireland, . 


Nickel plater, . 


23 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


128 


Apr. 12 


Chicopee, . 


Br. Provinces, . 


School girl. 


17 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


129 


Apr. 12 


Chicopee, . 


Br. Provinces, . 


School girl, 


15 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


130 


Apr. 12 


Chicopee, . 


Br. Provinces, . 


Painter, . 


42 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


131 


Apr, 12 


Chicopee, . 


Fr. Canadian, . 


- 


23 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


1 


132 


Apr. U 


Chicopee, . 


Ireland, . 


Mill operative, 


20 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


133 


Apr. 14 


Chicopee, . 


Br. Provinces, . 


Weaver, . 


24 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


134 


Apr. 14 


Chicopee, . 


Fr. Canadian, . 


Barber, . 


22 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


135 


Apr. 15 


Chicopee, . 


Ireland, . 


School girl, 


7 " 


F. 


Yes. 





- 


136 


Apr. 15 


Chicopee, . 


Ireland, . 


Laborer, . 


31 " 


M. 


Yes. 


4 


- 


137 


Apr. 15 


Chicopee, . 


United States, . 


Mill operative, 


17 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


138 


Apr. 16 


Chicopee, . 


Ireland, . 


Mill operative. 


29 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


139 ; Apr. 17 


Chicopee, . 


Ireland, . 


Mill operative. 


32 •• 


F. 


Yes. 


2 


- 


140 


Apr. 17 


Chicopee, . 


Fr. Canadian, . 


Mill operative. 


27 " 


F. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


141 


Apr. 25 


Worcester, 


English, . 


Harness maker. 


23 " 


M. 


Yes. 


2 


- 


112 


Apr. 25 


Worcester, 


Swede (U. S.),. 


Housewife, 


39 " 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


143 


Apr. 25 


Worcester, 


England, . 


Housewife, 


30 " 


F. 


Yes. 


2 




144 


Apr. 25 


Worcester, 


England, . 


Harness maker, 


19 " 


M. 


Yes. 


2 


- 


145 


Apr. 26 


Chicopee, . 


Fr. Canadian, . 


Mill operative, 


26 " 


M. 


? 





- 


146 


Apr. 26 


Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


10 '• 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


147 


Apr. 27 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Stone cutter, . 


29 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


148 


Apr. 28 


Chicopee, . 


Irish, . . 


Housekeeper, . 


55 " 


F. 


Yes. 


p 


- 


149 


Apr. 27 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Physician, 


30 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


150 


Apr. 29 


Boston, 


United States, . 


- 


3 mos. 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


151 


Apr. SO 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Loborcr, . 


41 years. 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


152 


Apr. 30 


Holyoke, . 


United States, . 


Tramp, . 


24 " 


M. 


Yes. 


- 


- 


153 


Apr. 30 


Ilwlyoke, . 


Fr. Canadian, . 


Butcher, . 


29 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


154 


May 2 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Plumber, . 


22 " 


M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


155 


May 4 


Nftlicli, 


United States, . 


Bartender, 


- 


M. 


Yes. 


~ 


- 


156 


Miiy 7 


1 Woicester, 


France, 


Tramp, . 


41 " 


M. 


- 


? 


- 


157 


May 7 


1 Woicester, 


German (U. 8 ), 


Tramp, . 


19 " 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


15S 1 May 8 


Uolyoke, . 


Fr. Canadian, . 


Mill o^eraUve, . 


27 " 


M. 


No. 


'- 


- 



XIV 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



1 

5^ 


Date 
of 

Report. 


Place 

of 

Occurrence. 


Nationality 

of 

Patient. 


Occupation. 


Age. 


00 


go 
.2 c 


O 

SOO 


5 


159 


May 10 


Worcester, 


England, . 


Housewife, 


38 years. 


F. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


160 


Apr. 29 


Chicopee, . 


United States, . 


School girl, 


8 




F. 


No. 


- 


- 


161 


May 15 


Randolph, . 


United SUtes, . 


Housekeeper, . 


54 




F. 


Yee. 


- 


- 


162 


May 14 


Boston, 


United States, . 


Telegraph operator, 


24 




M. 


Yes. 


4 


- 


163 


May 18 


StateAlmshouse, 


United States, . 


Physician, 


27 




M. 


Yes. 


2 


- 


164 


May 25 


State Almsbouse, 


United States, . 


Mill operative. 


27 




M. 


No. 


- 


1 


165 


May 26 


Worcester, 


United States, . 


House painter. 


58 




M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


106 
167 


May 39 
May 31 


StateAlmehouse, 
Worcester, 


United States, . 
United States, . 


Medical student and 

nurse. 
Housekeeper, . 


22 

44 




M. 

F. 


No. 


? 


: 


168 
169 


May 23 
June 4 


Dalton, . 
Quincy, . 


United States, . 
United States, . 


Paper-mill operative 

ras; cutter. 
Waiter, . 


22 
46 




F. 
M. 


No. 

? 


? 


- 


170 


June 5 


Springfield, 


United States, . 


- 


ly 


ear. 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


171 


June 5 


Springfield, 


United Stales, . 


- 


4y 


ears. 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


172 


June 5 


Springfield, 


United States, . 


- 


3 


" 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


173 


June 9 


Chelsea, . 


United States, . 


- 


20 


<4 


F. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


174 


June 9 


Chelsea, . 


United States, . 


- 


2y 


6m. 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


175 


June 9 


Chelsea, . 


England, . 


Rubber worker, 


30 years. 


M. 


Yes. 


2 


- 


176 


June 9 


Chelsea, . 


United States, . 


- 


5y 


6m. 


M. 


No. 


- 


- 


177 


June 9 


Chelsea, . 


United States, . 


- 


3y 


6ra. 


F. 


No. 


- 


- 


178 


June 9 


Chelsea, . 


United States, . 


- 


21 years. 


F. 


Yes. 


2 


- 


179 


June 16 


StaieAlmshouBC, 


United States, . 


Nurse, . 


30 




F. 


? 


? 


- 


180 


June 20 


Worcester, 


England, . 


Machinist, 


58 




M. 


Yes. 





- 


181 


June 20 


Worcester, 


United States, . 


- 


61 




M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


182 


July 7 


Worcester, 


United States, . 


Book-keeper, . 


20 




M. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


183 


July 7 


Worcester, 


United States, . 


School teacher, 


24 




F. 


Yes. 


1 


- 


184 
185 


July 16 
July 3 


Worcester, 
Chelsea, . 


United States, . 
United StatcH, . 


Overseer public In- 
Biiiutlon. 


37 
30 




M. 
F. 


Yes. 
Yes. 


2 


- 



Persons vaccinated for the first time within ten days of date of report are not accounted as vacci- 
nated. 

NoTEfi.— 3. Vaccinated In Infancy; very faint scar. 4, 8, 10, 12, 20,23, 24, 25, 27, 36, 30. '11, 42, 
43, 45, 49, 52, r>:i, 55, M, .58, 59, 01, 67, OS, 73, 84, 85, 86, 87, 07, 107, 111, 114, 116, 117, 121, 123, 125, 134, 141, 
143, 144, 149, 151, 152, l.'i4, 161. 163, 105, 180, 183. Vaccinated in itif.incy. 5, 0, 18. Vnccinatc<l a few days 
before datir of report, but too late to bo of service. 13. One iinporfccl scar. 10. Vaiiclnatod ton years 
ago. 21. Had liad nmall pox when younger. 22. Vaccinated 14 ycaiH ago. 11. Hays ho waH vaoclnalod 
In childhood, but probably It did not "take." 28. Vacolnatod six wooks proviouH. 29,30. One week 
previous. 34. Said to have been vacclriato<l In Infancy; scar doubtful. 54, .')7. Vaccinated a few days 
before lllncMH. 00. Forty-live years ago. 91,94. Said to have been vaccinated In Infancy. 98. Said to 
have been vaccinated; Imperfect scar. 110. Vaccinated six years ago. 113. Father worked In paper 
mill. 122. Vaccinated ten years ago. 124. Vaccinated live years ago. 127. Vacolnalion seven years ago. 
135. Vacclr.ated one year ago. 136. Vaccinated two years ago. 140. Imperfect scar. 104. Vaccinated 
unsuccessfully. 153. Vaccinated three years ago. 159. Vaccinated one and a half years ago. 162. 
Vaccinated thrice. 173. Vaccinated twelve years ago. 175. Eight years ago. 17H. Twelve or fourteen 
years ago. 181. Vaccinated thlrty-eiglit years ago. 182. Twelve years ago. 184. Eight years ago. 185. 
Twenty years ago. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xv 

The cases and deaths reported in the foregoing table and in the 
table on page xviii, together with simiUir tables which have appeared 
in previous reports, do not include quite all which occurred in these 
ten years, since the law which requires the reporting of cases 
to the State Board of Health onl}'- provides a penalty in the case of 
those persons not reported to the Board who have no settlement 
in the Commonwealth. 

As compared with the epidemic of 1872-73, and the still greater 
prevalence in pre-vaccination times, the recent outbreak is scarcely 
worthy of mention. But the collection of more careful records dur- 
ing the past ten years furnishes data for conclusions as to the effect 
of better methods of control. 

The first table on page xvi shows the comparative prevalence of 
small-pox in Massachusetts for the past forty years. The data pre- 
sented are the deaths in each year, the percentage of the total mor- 
tality, and the death-rate per 10,000 of the living population. 

According to this table, it appears that there have been 4,548 
deaths from small-pox in Massachusetts in the forty years ending 
with 1894. Of this total of 4,548 deaths in the forty-year period, 
4,231 occurred in the first twenty years (1855-74), and 317 in the 
second twenty years (1875-94). The ratio in the first instance was 
IGO per million of the population annually, and in the second twenty 
years eight per million. For the decade ending with 1894 the mor- 
tality from this cause was less than four per million annually. 

The next table presents the number of deaths from small-pox at 
each period of life, as compared with the total mortality from this 
cause. For the sake of comparison, similar facts are presented for 
populations living in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. 



XVI 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Small-jyox 171 3fassacJmsetts. — Forty Years (1855-94). 



Yeaks. 


■5 

S 

GO 


o 

go 


o 

ii 


Teabs. 


a 

00 

a 

1 ^ 


2 

o 

o 
u :>> 


Katio per 10.000 of 
Living I'opulutlon. 


1855, . 


325 


1.56 


2.9 


1875, . 


84 


.09 


.2 


1856, 






140 


.68 


1.2 


1876, . 


81 


.09 


.2 


1857, 






23 


.11 


.2 


1877, . 


24 


.08 


.14 


1858, 






12 


.10 


.1 


1878, . 


2 


.007 


.012 


1859, 






255 


1.22 


2.1 


1879, . 


7 


.02 


.04 


iscn, 






334 


1.45 


2.7 


1880, . 


88 


.11 


.21 


1861. 






83 


.14 


.3 


1881, . 


47 


.13 


.25 


1862, 






40 


.17 


.3 


1882, . 


45 


.12 


.24 


1863, 






42 


.15 


.3 


1883, . 


5 


.01 


.03 


1864, 






242 


.84 


1.9 


1884, . 


3 


.008 


.01 


1865, 






221 


.84 


1.7 


1885, . 


19 


.05 


.10 


1866, 






141 


.59 


1.1 


1886, . 


_ 


_ 


_ 


1867, 






196 


.82 


1.5 


1887, . 


3 


.007 


.015 


1868, 






20 


.08 


.2 


1888, . 


8 


.019 


.04 


1869, 






59 


.22 


.4 


1889, . 


6 


.014 


.03 


1870, 






131 


.48 


.9 


1890, . 


1 


.002 


.004 


1871, 






294 


1.05 


1.9 


1891, . 


1 


.002 


.(04 


1872, 






1,029 


2.94 


6.7 


1892, . 


2 


.004 


.01 


1873, 






668 


1.97 


4.3 


1893, . 


9 


.02 


.04 


1874, 






26 


.08 


.2 


1894, . 
Totals, . 


32 


.06 


.13 


Totals, . 


4,231 


- 


- 


317 


- 


- 


Averages, 


- 


.83 


1.6 


Averages, 


- 


.04 


.08 



Deaths from Small-pox by A'je Periods. — Distribution of 1^000 Deaths. 



AOKS. 


Geneva, 
1680-1700. 


Kilmarnock 

(Scotland), 

1728-64. 


Massacliusetts, 
1801-03. 


Under 5 years, 

5 to 10 year.s, .... 

10 to 20 years, 

20 to 30 years, 

.SO to 40 years. 

40 ami upward, 

Not stated, .... 






805.5 
155.5 

2(5.5 

10. 


942 

34 

5 

6 
14 


327 

69 
118 
265 
101 
107 

13 








1,000 


1,000 


1,000 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xvii 

Statistics giving deaths by ages are not abundant for years prior 
to 1800. The foregoins: statistics, from authentic records of Geneva 
and from the very carefully kept record of a town clerk in a Scotch 
village, are believed to be trustworthy. A comparison of these figures 
for periods prior to 1800 with the table for Massachusetts for a 
recent period shows that a very marked change has taken i)lace in 
the comparative mortality at diiferent ages, and that some influence 
has been operative to effect a very decided change ; so that small- 
pox, which was almost exclusively a children's disease prior to 1800, 
has in recent times undergone a transformation, from the operation 
of some cause or other. This change has not taken place, so far as 
any records show, in the case of any other disease. 

In Geneva, from 1580 to 17(30, out of every 1,000 deaths from 
small-pox, 961 were those of children under ten years of age ; and 
in Kilmarnock during the thirty-six years (1728-64) 976 out of 
each 1,000 deaths from small-pox were also those of children under 
ten. 

In, Massachusetts, on the contrary, for the period 1861-93, but 
little more than one-third (396 out of 1,000) of all deaths from 
small-pox were those of children under ten, and the majority were 
those of persons over ten years old. The number of such deaths 
between the ages of twenty and thirty was more than double the 
number of deaths between ten and twenty. 

Now, this very decided change in the incidence of small-pox at 
different age periods, a change which has not taken place in the case 
of any other disease, can only be explained by some inHucnce which 
is exerted upon small-pox, but not upon other diseases; and this 
factor is the practice of vaccination. 

AVhen the population of a large city invaded by small-pox is sub- 
jected to a critical investigation, as was done l>y Dr. Barry in his 
searching examination of the population of Sheffield, Eng., in 1887, 
it was found to be possible to contrast the unvaccinated with the 
vaccinated population living under like conditions in the same city ; 
and the result was precisely similar to that which ai)pears in com- 
paring a community living in the last century before vaccination was 
practised with a vaccinated community living in the present century 
under an invasion of small-pox. 

Had the 327 infants in each 1,000 who died of small-pox in Mas- 
sachusetts in the period 1861-93 been successfully vaccinated, the 
contrast between the column for Massachusetts and the two pre- 



xvm 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



ceding columns taken from pre-vaccination periods would undoubt- 
edly have been much more striking, since the death from small-pox 
of a successfully vaccinated infant is an almost unknown event. 

As the protection afforded by primary vaccination begins to wane, 
and this well-known immunity is not re-established by re-vaccina- 
tion, the deaths begin to increase, as is shown in the column for 
Massachusetts by the figures 69, 118 and 265 for the successive age 
periods 5-10, 10-20, 20-30, these deaths being made up partly of 
unvacciuated persons who had not been exposed to small-pox in 
infancy, and partly of those who had been vaccinated in infancy, 
but had never submitted themselves to re-vaccination. 

During the past ten years very careful records have been kept, in 
consequence of a statute of 1883, requiring immediate notice of all 
cases of small-pox to the State authorities. From these records it 
has been possible to collect definite evidence relative to the protec- 
tion afforded by vaccination in this Commonwealth. The following 
table presents a summary of the cases : — 



Small-pox in Massachusetts, 1SS5-94.* — Comparative Fatality of the 
Vaccinated and Uhvaccinated. 





Totals. 


Vaccinated. 


Unvaccinatkd. 


Unknown. 


Ybars. 


6 


m 

a 


s 




a 


o 

Si 


a 


a 


4^ 

a 

6 


00 

a 
O 


3 
a 


B 


1885, . 
188R, . 

1887, . 

1888, . 

1889, . 

1890, . 

1891, . 

1892, . 

1893, . 

1894, . 


32 
3 

12 

32 

16 

6 

5 

19 

47 

185 


11 
1 
3 
5 
4 
1 
1 
2 
9 

32 


- 


7 
1 
6 

16 

11 

2 

1 

7 

11 

84 

145 


1 
1 

6 
8 


5.6 


13 

1 

6 
13 
3 
2 
3 

10 

29 

86 

165 


9 

1 
2 
3 

1 

1 

1 

8 

22 

48 


29.1 


12 
1 
1 
4 
2 
2 
1 
2 
7 

15 
47 


2 

1 
1 
2 
1 

1 

1 

4 

13 


- 




357 


69 


19.3 


27.4 



• Tfjc reasons for the slight discrepancy between this tabic and that which la given on page 
xvi are Btated on page xv. 



1805.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



XIX 



Summary. 
Total number of reported cases of small-pox, ten years ending Dec 31, 



189 i, 



Total number of deaths from small-pox in same period, 
Ratio of deaths to cases (per cent.), .... 



357 

69 

19.3 



Of the foregoing there were among the vaccinated (cases), 
Of the foregoing there were among the vaccinated (deaths), 
Ratio of deaths to cases among the vaccinated (per cent.), . 



145 



There were among the unvaccinated (cases), 

There were among the unvaccinated (deaths), . 

Ratio of deaths to cases among the unvaccinated (per cent.). 



165 

48 
29.1 



There were among those in whom the facts relative to vaccination wei'e 

doubtful or unknown (cases), 47 

Thei'e were among those in whom the facts relative to vaccination were 

doubtful or unknown (deaths), 13 

Ratio of deaths to cases among these (per cent.), 27.4 



Fatalilt/ of the Vaccinated from 

Small-pox. /{alio of 

JJcallis to Cases. 



100 



Falalilij of the Unvaccinated 

from .Sinall-pox. Ratio 

of Deaths to Cases. 



00 



29. 



5.5 



XX STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

The severe epidemic of 1872-73 is often quoted by the opponents 
of vaccination to disprove its efficacy ; but such statements, however, 
have no vahie, since they fail to show any definite information as to 
the comparative mortality from small-pox of the vaccinated and the 
unvaccinated. As a matter of fact, there are no statistics upon this 
point in Massachusetts for 3''ears prior to 1885. Hence the value of 
the foregoing tabular statement may be recognized, as confirming 
similar inquiries made in other countries. By this table it appears 
that the mortality from small-pox among the unvaccinated was 29.1 
per cent., as compared with only 5.5 per cent, among the vaccinated, 
that of the former being more than five times that of the latter. 

These 357 cases reported in the ten years ending with 1894 oc- 
curred in the followinof cities and towns : — 



Boston, ...... 138 

Holyoke, 40 

Chicopee, 31 

Worcester, 24 

Kew Bedford, . . . .17 

Lowell 12 

Spriiiorfield, 10 

Westfield, 9 

Chelsea, 9 

Huntington, 7 

Fall River, G 

State Almshouse, .... 4 



Haverhill, 2 

Quinc}', 2 

North Adams, 2 

Brookline, 2 

Pepperoll, 2 

Great Barrington, .... 2 

Lenox, 2 

Milton 2 

Methiien, 2 

Dal ton, 2 

Holden, 2 



In the following cities and towns, one in each: Lawrence, Lynn, Waltham, 
Cambridge, Melrose, Stoneham, Natick, Randolph, West Sprlnglield, Marlbor- 
ough, Soraervillc, Spencer, Pittsfield, Northborough, Lanesborough, Russell, 
Chester, Belchertown, Attleborough, Granville, Blackstone, Maynard, Medway, 
Sherborn, Adams and Williamstown. 

Thirteen of these cities and towns were places in which paper 
mills using rags are located; but the actual number of paper-mill 
operatives attacked with small-pox was only 19, or 5.4 per cent., a 
smaller ratio than that which prevailed in earlier epidemics. Sev- 
eral other persons were attacked who were doubtless indirectly 
ex[)Osed to infecticm fi'om rags, being persons of other occu[)ations 
living in the same families or tenements with paper-mill operatives. 
The outbreak in Cliicopeo in 1894 was traced to the neighboring 
paper-mill city of Holyoke. 

Outbreaks involving one or more cases in each occurred in Bos- 
ton in nine years out of the ten-year period ; in Holyoke, in six 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. 



XXI 



years; Springfield, four years; Lowell, three; Chelsea, three; 
Huntington, three ; Worcester, two ; Chicopee, two ; Dulton, two; 
Quincy, two ; New Bedford, two ; Westfield, two ; North Ad;inis, 
two ; and Pepperell, two. In two instances the occurrence of small- 
pox in two different years refers only to the prolongation of an out- 
break from December of one year into the winter months of the 
following year. 

The sexes of those cases which occurred in the first three years of 
this period were not stated. Of those cases in the remaining years 
wherein the sex was stated, 169 were males and 139 were females, 
or in the ratio of 129 males to each 100 females. 

The nationality of reported cases was as follows, so far as the 
nationality was stated : — 



United States, 
British Provinces, 
Ireland, . 
Portugal, 
England, 
Itaiy, . 
Scotland, 



118 


France, .... 


7 


86* 


Germany, 


4 


53 


Sweden, 


3 


12 


Russia, .... 


1 


10 


Belgium, 


1 


10 


Finland, ... 


1 


9 







Including French Canadians, 30. 



The occupations of the persons attacked were as follows, so far 
as was stated in the returns : — 



Operatives in paper mills, . 
Operatives in other mills (not 
paper mills), . . . . 

Housewives, 

Laborers, 

House servants, .... 
School children, .... 

Teamsters, 

Carpenters and cabinet makers, . 

Clerks 

Nurses, 

Physicians, 



19* 


Seamen, .... 


. "4 




Cigar makers. 


. 4 


23t 


Waiters, .... 


. 4 


28 


Harness makers, . . 


. 3 


21 


Iron moulders. 


. 3 


13 


Tramps, .... 


. 3 


13 


Painters, .... 


2 


5 


Weavers, 


2 


6 


Barbers, .... 


2 


4 


Book-keepers, . 


2 


4 


Night watchman, . 


. 2 


3 


Shoemakers, . 


2 



Of tlie following occupations one each: farmer, milk pedler, baker, engineer, 
mechanic, draughtsman, yachtsman, morocco worker, nickel plater, stone cutter, 
bricklayer, plumber, butcher, bartender, telegraph operator, school teacher, rub- 
ber worker, machinist, expressman, fishmonger, whip maker, brass worker, book- 
binder, salesman, errand bo}', hostler, bootblack, corset maker, overseer of public 
institution. 

• Females, 18; males, 1. t Females, 17; males, 6. 



XXll 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



SmalJ-pox bi/ Ages, and with regard to Vaccination. — The follow- 
ing table embraces the statistics of the cases and deaths from small- 
pox by ages for the vaccinated and unvaccinated and for the cases 
and deaths in which the facts as to vaccination were unknown or 
doubtful. These relate only to those cases and deaths which oc- 
curred in the seven years 1888-94 : — 



Small-pox. — Cases and Deaths in the Vaccinated and Unvaccinated, Massa- 
chusetts, 1888-94 (Seven Years). 









Vaccinated. 


Unvaccinated. 


Doubtful 
OR Unknown. 


Totals. 


Ages. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


Cases. 


Deaths. 


0- 1 year, . 

1- 5 years, . 
5-10 yeai-s, . 

10-15 years, . 
15-20 years, . 
20-30 years, . 
30-40 years, . 
40-50 years, . 
Over 50 years, 
Age unknown, 






4 

1 

13 

• 17 

51 

16 

16 

9 

8 


1 

3 
3 
1 


17 
36 
17 

6 

18 
33 
15 

3 

1 


9 
6 

4 

10 

5 

2 


2 
6 

12 
1 
3 
3 
4 


2 
4 

1 

1 


17 

40 
18 
21 
41 
88 
32 
22 
12 
8 


9 
6 


7 
17 
9 
3 
1 









130 


8 


146 


36 


31 


8 


307 


42 



The foregoing table contains much that is suffojestive as to the 
efficiency of vaccination. 

No vaccinated child under one year of age was attacked with small- 
pox, while there were 17 attacks of unvaccinated infants under one, 
and of these 9 died, or 53 per cent. 

Among vaccinated persons under fifteen years of age there were 
18 attacks and no deaths. 

Among unvaccinated persons under fifteen years old there were 
76 attacks and 15 deaths, or 19.7 per cent. 

Among vaccinated adults, or persons over fifteen years old, there 
wore 109 attacks and 8 deaths, or 7.3 per cent. 

Among unvaccinated adults over fifteen years old there were 6Q 
attacks and 21 deaths, or 31.8 per cent. 

It is also worthy of note that 39 school children, or children of 
school ages (5-15) were attacked, and of this number 23 were un- 
vaccinated. Out of this whole number (39), there were no deaths, 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xxiii 

this being the period of life in which the specific intensity of life is 
greatest, i. e., the power to resist fatal attacks of disease. 

Out of the whole numl)er of adults (109) who were recorded as 
having been vaccinated, 76, or nearly 70 per cent., were recorded 
as vaccinated in infancy only ; and, judging from the carefully 
recorded statistics of the German government, it is safe to presume 
that the 8 deaths of vaccinated adults occurred among this class 
exclusively. 

Small-pox Mortality. 

Share Borne by Children under 

10 Years of Age. , Share Borne by Persons over 10 Years of Age. 



41.7% 58.3% 

10 0%- 



The upper line of the diagram refers to the unvaccinated, and the lower line to the vaccinated 
class. 

It is also worthy of note, as shown in the foregoing diagram, that 
all of the deaths of the vaccinated were among adults, while among 
the unvaccinated 15 deaths, or nearly 42 per cent, of the deaths of 
the unvaccinated, occurred among children under ten years of age. 
These facts show unmistakably the saving of child life through vac- 
cination. 

It is to be regretted that statistics relative to revaccination could 
not be included in the foreo;oin<j tables. 

Typhoid Fever. 

The mortality from typhoid fever in Massachusetts has diminished 
with a comparatively uniform rate during the past thirty years or 
more, and the rapidity of its diminution may be taken as an index 
of progress in the introduction of pul)lic water supplies throughout 
the State. 

The old and once accepted theory of its intimate connection with 
periods of deficient rainfall and of consequent low water in wells and 
streams does not appear to be borne out by the experience of Massa- 
chusetts, since the disease has prevailed with about the same fre- 



xxiv STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

quency in years of deficient as well as of abundant rain, and some 
of the most severe epidemics have occurred in January and February, 
■when the rainfall was abundant. The general tendency, however, 
in a succession of years has been in the direction of a decrease in its 
frequency. 

The Board has been called to investigate a few limited epidemics 
during the year 1894, an account of one of which is presented in the 
present report, by Prof. W. T. Sedgwick, whose excellent papers in 
the report of 1892 upon the same subject are well known. 

Haverhill. — The following statement relates to a limited outbreak 
of illness which occurred in a shoe factory in Haverhill, situated upon 
the bank of the Merrimack River, near the railroad bridge. State- 
ments in regard to the matter first appeared in the newspapers, and 
about the same time a letter was received from a workman in the 
factory, who stated that he had been ill for several weeks, and attrib- 
uted his illness to the water used for drinking at the factory in 
question. On inquiring at the factory it appeared that previous to 
Jan. 20, 1894, the water used there was that of the city supply. 
About this time (January 20) a supply of water was introduced to 
this factory direct from the river. Many of the operatives drank 
of this water, and a considerable number (25 or 30) were taken 
ill and remained ill for varying periods of time. At the time of the 
visit of the secretary, in March, one man then seen was convalescing 
from an attack of typhoid fever, who had been an 0[)crative in this 
factory, and was taken ill a few days after drinking the water. 

Several physicians confirmed the statement as to the cflect upon 
the operatives of drinking this water. 

A puljlic city sewer discharges its contents a short distance only 
above the point from which this water was taken. 

The water had been introduced by the owners of the building 
without notifying either the tenants or the operatives as to its source 
or the danger of using it for drinking. The severe lesson which had 
been taught higher up in the same river at Lowell and Lawrence 
appears to have had no ellect upon the owners of tliis property at 
Haverhill. 

The State Board of Health, upon learning these facts, recom- 
mended the board of health of Haverhill " to put up a warning 
notice over each faucet where the water of the Merrimack River is 
provided, stating that the use of such water for drinking purposes 
is danirerous. The observations of the Board show that the use of 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. xxv 

such water has in many instances been attended with serious ilhiess 
and loss of life." The board of health of Haverhill complied with 
the advice of the State Board, and issued a regulation in conformity 
with its recommendation. 

JSforth Easton. — The Board was requested (Sept. 6, 1894) to in- 
vestigate the circumstances of a limited outbreak of typhoid fever in 
North Easton. The secretary visited North Easton soon after the 
receipt of information from that town, and upon conference with the 
local board of health and physicians found- that the number of cases 
was small. Some of these cases having occurred upon the route of a 
milkman, on visiting his dairy it appeared that he produced most of 
the milk which he sold in North Easton from a herd of twenty-two 
cows, and obtained the balance from a farmer who lived about a mile 
distant. Both of these dairies were in good condition, there had ])een 
no illness at either, and there was no reason to believe that the cases 
owed their origin to the milk supply. 

Cambinclf/e. — In the latter part of October it was reported by the 
board of health of Cambridge that several cases of tj'phoid fever had 
occurred on the route of a milkman who furnished a large number of 
customers. His depot or place from which the milk was issued was in 
West Somerville. The secretary visited this place Nov. 5, 1895. The 
milk dealer supplied three or four hundred families with about sixty 
cans of milk daily. The milk is collected by a collector from the 
towns of Bedford and Concord, Mass., and when received is put 
into a large tin mixer, capable of holding one hundred gallons or 
more. In continuance of this investigation, visits were made the 
same week to the ditferent dairies in Bedford and Concord, which 
supplied the milk route in Somerville, and to the physicians in those 
towns. It did not appear that any illness had occurred upon the 
farms which regularly supplied milk to the Somerville milk dealer 
which could in any way account for the outbreak. 

On further inquiry, it ap[)cared that a small dairy near the Shady 
Hill Nursery, on the line of a branch of the Boston & Maine Kail- 
road, occasionally furnished a few cans of milk in times of defi- 
ciency, which were supplied to the Somerville milkman. In the 
family of the owner of this small dairy there had been a case of 
♦'gastritis" in a young girl, not believed to be typhoid fever, and later 
other mild cases of illness in the same family, not requiring medical at- 
tendance. The date of this case of " gastritis" was September 13-23. 
The next house was occupied by a man and wife and nine boarders, 



xxvi STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

the latter being employed at the nursery. Out of this family of 
eleven persons nine had been ill with typhoid fever, their illness 
continuino; from about Aug^ust 20 till the last of October. The milk 
for the use of this family was supplied for most of this time by the 
small dairy adjoining the nursery. The connection of these cases 
with the milk supply referred to is not clear, but the nearness of the 
two houses and the visits of convalescing or ambulant cases from the 
boarding-house to the dairy in question, and possibly to the cow 
stables, would seem to afibrd at least a probable explanation of the 
contamination of the milk supply. The contractor was advised to 
cease taking milk from this source for a definite period. 

For convenience of reference the table published on page xii of 
the twenty-third annual report of the Board is repeated herewith, 
with the addition of the figures for the three years 1891-93 : — 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — No. 34. 



XXVll 



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xxviii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

Offensive Trades. 

During 1894 two petitions were received requesting the consider- 
ation of the Board under the provisions of the oflensive trade Acts. 

The two establishments referred to in these petitions were located 
in the cit}'^ of Woburn. The first was the establishment of the 
Butchers' Rendering Association, located near the eastern boundary 
of Woburn, and a few rods south of Cedar Street. The complain- 
ants were residents of Woburn and Stoneham, most of whom lived 
within a half-mile of the works. The establishment consisted of one 
wooden building, containing the usual apparatus for rendering the 
refuse products of meat markets, which were collected in the 
neighboring towns and were brought to the works for disposal. 
The processes conducted in the building were those of rendering 
bones and grease, the making of tallow, the drying of the refuse for 
conversion into fertilizers, and the burning of clay or marl. The 
liquid matter from the rendering tanks was conducted through an 
iron pipe to some trenches made in a gravel bed a few rods north of 
the works. 

The principal exhalations of foul odor appeared to arise from the 
discharge of the contents of the tanks when they Avere daily opened, 
from the drying of the refuse and from the decomposition of the 
liquid in the trenches. The trenches were covered with gravel to a 
depth of two or three feet, but the foul odor came up through the 
gravel and was conveyed by the winds toward the neighboring 
houses. This appeared to be the source of the most offensive odor. 

In compliance with the provision's of the statutes (chapter 80, 
section 93, Public Statutes), a hearing was given by the Board at 
its office on June 7, 1894, at which the petitioners and the associa- 
tion were rei)resented by counsel and several witnesses. 

As a result of this hearing, it was Voted, "That the Butchers' 
Rendering Association be advised to modify and improve its present 
methods of operation at its works in Woburn, and that further con- 
sideration of the matter of the petitioners bo continued until the first 
Thursday of July next." 

Upon receipt of this communication the association took measures 
to improve its methods of work. The interior of the building was 
put in more cleanly condition, and apparatus was i)urchascd for the 
more satisfactory treatment of the material. The use of sulphuric 
acid in the trenches outside the building was abandoned, and 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 34. xxix 

chloride of lime was substituted. A larger and deeper trench was 
dug and covered, and the liquor was conducted into it. The foul odor 
from this trench was now evidently the chief source of annoyance, 
and, altliough it was not so serious as it had been when the smaller 
trench was used, an extremely offensive stench still continued to arise 
through the gravel. 

About this time, Oct. 1, 1894, the works were destroyed by fire, 
and all operations and consequently all further nuisance ceased at 
this establishment. 

In November, 1894, a petition was received from the board of 
health, selectmen and one hundred and fifty citizens of Reading, 
requesting that the nuisance caused by the Pantasote works at North 
"Woburn should be abated. Complaint had already been made to 
the board of health of the city of Wol)urn in March, 1893, to the 
same effect, and a temporary cessation of operation at these works 
followed for nearly a year and a half. 

The estal)lisliment is located in the north-east part of Woburn, 
near Wilmington and Reading, west of the Boston & Maine Rail- 
road, Lowell division, and quite near the Merrimac Chemical Works. 
The process conducted here was the boiling of linseed oil at a hitrh 
temperature (500° F. or more). An extremely pungent and offen- 
sive odor was given off, which was even more offensive at a distance 
than it was in the immediate neighborhood of the works. This 
process is distinctly recognized as an offensive trade in Ballard's 
diluvium nuisances, and is subject to strict regulations in England. 

All of the complainants lived in Reading, ;it a distance of between 
one and two miles from the works, while the odor had been dis- 
tinctly recognized in other towns at a distance of four miles and 
more when the wind favored. 

On Nov. 20, 1894, the secretary visited the establishment, in 
company with the board of health of AVoburn, and while the work 
was in operation. As a result of this visit, and in compliance with 
the petition, a hearing was appointed for Dec. 1, 1894; but before 
the date of the hearing the board of health of Woburn issued an 
order prohibiting the further exercise of the business, and the 
annoyance ceased. 

Green Hakboii River. 

A petition was received in September from citizens of Marshfield 
living at Green Harbor River upon the sea-shore in that town, hav- 
ing reference to certain conditions existing at that place since the 



XXX STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

construction of a dike, which was built across the river or estuary 
about twenty years since. This dike was built under the provisions 
of chapter 303 of the Acts of 1871, and had for its object the re- 
claiming of a tract of salt marsh, having an area of two or three 
square miles. The desired object was accomplished, this tract 
being transformed into a fresh-water region. As a result, however, 
the harbor below the dike has become very much shallower than 
before, and above the dike in the various creeks and inlets an 
abundant growth of algfe in summer produces an offence to the eye 
and to the sense of smell. It was to this latter condition that atten- 
tion was particularly directed in the petition. 

It did not appear, upon examination, that the health of the neigh- 
boring population had been afiected by the existing condition of the 
marshes and creeks above the dike, nor that this condition was likely 
to prove harmful in the future. For the other condition — the silt- 
ing of the harbor below the dike — an adequate remedy is provided 
in the statute which authorized its construction. 

Impure Ice. 

In 1886, the following statute was enacted, having for its object 
the prevention of the sale of impure ice : — 

[Acts of 1886, CiiArTEn, 287, Section 1.] 

Upon complaint in writing of not less than twenty-five consumers of ice 
•which is cut, sold and held for sale from any pond or stream in this Com- 
monwealth, alleging that said ice is impure and injurious to health, the 
state board of health may appoint a time and place for hearing parties to 
be affected and give due notice thereof to such parties, and after such hear- 
ing said board may make such orders concerning the sale of said ice as in 
its judgment the public health requires. 

The two remaining sections of the law provided for an injunction 
to enforce such orders and for the right of appeal to a jury. 

In August, 1894, a petition was received from summer residents at 
Ch'fton in Marblehead, having the required number of signatures, 
asking the Board to investigate the ice supply of that place, which 
was procured from Ware's Pond, a small body of water in Marble- 
head near Svvampscott. A death had occurred at Clifton from 
typhoid fever among the persons using this ice, and attention had been 
attracted to this pond as a possible source of illness. An investiga- 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



XXXI 



tion of the pond and its surroundings, and an analysis of the water 
and ice were made by the Board. 

The pond is a small one, having an area of about four or five 
acres. It is shallow, and the bottom is muddy. It is near the rail- 
road track, and a few rods from the sea-shore. A short distance to 
the west is another pond of smaller size and similar character. The 
immediate borders of these ponds consist of meadow land, and on the 
south side there is a small wooded swamp. On the immediate water- 
shed of these ponds are not more than a half-dozen houses, none of 
which drain directly to the ponds. There is also one large stable 
north of Ware's Pond. 

The ice supply was exhausted in August, and the local dealer was 
obliged to go to New Hampshire for an additional supply ; hence at 
the time of the investigation in the autumn no ice remained for 
examination. A sample of water was then taken for analysis, and 
as soon as the ice had acquired a thickness sufficient for cutting 
(twelve inches), a sample of ice was taken (Jan. 15, 1895). The 
following is the result of the analysis of the water and ice : — 



[Parts per 100,000.] 





Appearance. 


Odob. 


1 


Turbidity. 


Sediment. 


o 

5 


Cold. 


Hot. 


13151 
13665 
13666 


i Distinct. 

1 

V. slight. 
None. 


Slight. 

Cons., 

dark. 
V. slight. 


0.53 
0.00 
0.00 


Decidedly moaldy, unpleasant. 
None. 
, None. 


Decidedly mouldy, uupleaeant. 

None. 

None. 



[Parts per 100,000.] 





liKSIDDF. ON 
EVAPOHATIOK. 


AUUONIA. 


c 

s 


NlTROOKN AS 


•a 

a 

a 
c 2 

M 

o 


m 

CI 

C 

o 

n 




1 

a 

a 
»5 


•a 


B S 
CO 

11 


■d 
o 
K 


i 


2 
1 "3 

P 


m 


m 

1 
;z; 


a 
o 


13161 


9.35 


3.35 


6.00 


.0528 


.0468 


1.59 


.0000 


.0008 


.7979 


3.1 


S .0100 

1 .0085 


13665 


- 


- 


- 


.0026 


.0116 


.10 


.0030 


.0000 


.1540 


- 


- 


13666 


- 


- 


- 


.OOH 


.0014 


.02 


.0030 


.0000 


.0113 


- 


- 



No. 13151. Pond. Sample of water collected Oct. 16, 1894. 
No. 130(55. Top of cuke snow ice. Snmple of ice collected .Tan. 15, 1S95. 
No. 136li6. Bottom of cake cleur ice. Siiiuplo of ice collected Jan. 15, 1895. 

The unusual ratio of chlorlac lu this sample is readily accounted for by the proximity of this pond 
to the sea-shore. 



xxxii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

As a result of this investigation and analysis, the Board found no 
reason to believe that the ice of Ware's Pond had proved injurious 
to health. It was, however, required that the local dealer should 
follow certain directions to insure a crop of ice of good quality ; 
namely, that the pond should not be flooded over existing ice, for 
the purpose of obtaining thicker ice, and that the upper two inches 
of ice should be shaved off and rejected. 

Notification of Infectious Diseases. 

The laws relating to the notification of infectious diseases have 
been revised from year to year, and are now in a more efficient form 
than ever before. 

The early laws requiring notice to be given by householders and 
physicians in cases of small-pox or other diseases dangerous to the 
public health were amended in 1884 by specifying also diphtheria 
and scarlet-fever. 

A further amendment required the disinfection of rooms occupied 
and articles used by the sick. 

A later amendment required the physician to give notice in writ- 
ing over his own signature. 

The Statutes of 1884, chapter 98, also required boards of health 
to keep records of cases of infectious diseases, and to give notice of 
such cases to the school committees. It also required the Secretary 
of State to furnish the blank record books for recording such cases 
of illness. 

By the Statutes of 1893 it was still further required that the local 
boards of health should notify the State Board of the occurrence of 
all cases of diseases dangerous to the public health which had within 
twenty-four hours been reported to such local boards of health. This 
law of 1893 has therefore been in operation a year and a half, and 
affords a useful method of obtaining frequent information as to the 
prevalence of infectious diseases throughout the State. Definite 
information as to the operation of this law may be found under the 
title of Infectious Disease Notification in the following pages. 

Trichinosis. 
Since the occurrence of the two outbreaks of trichinosis which 
occurred in Colcrain and in Jioston in the winter of 1892, compris- 
ing about fifty cases and five deaths, no further cases have been 
reported in the State. The Board has, however, continued its inves- 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. xxxiii 

tigations as to the causes of the disease, which were made the sub- 
ject of a report by Prof. E. L. Mark of Cambridge in the twentieth 
annual report of the Board (p. 713). These additional investiga- 
tions have been conducted at one of the State institutions, and pre- 
sent valuable information relative to the eflccts of careful methods of 
feeding in reducing the extent of trichinosis in swine. It is pro- 
posed to repeat the same series of experiments at another State 
institution. 



THE 

VITAL STATISTICS OF MASSACHUSETTS 

FOK 1893. 



The Vital Statistics of Massachusetts for 1893. 



By the Secretakt of the Board. 



Among the duties which were proposed and carefully defined by 
the Massachusetts Sanitary Commission of 1850 as properly belong- 
ing to a general or State board of health, special prominence was 
given to that of supervising the vital statistics of the State. 

The intimate connection between the vital statistics of a State or 
nation and its public health must be everywhere acknowledged, 
since the former constitutes the only accurate measure of the eflS- 
ciency with which public health measures have been administered. 
An annually increasing demand made upon the Board for informa- 
tion relative to the vital statistics of the State makes it necessary to 
supply this information through the annual reports of the Board. 

Dr. Billings, the highest American authority upon the subject, 
says : " My observation of the progress of public health work in 
this and in other countries for the past twenty years leads me to be- 
lieve that this progress, in any locality, for any considerable length 
of time, depends on the completeness of its vital statistics, and the 
use that is made of them" ("Transactions of American Public 
Health Association," Vol. 15, 1880, page 43). 

In the introduction of improved methods in the presentation of the 
following summary it has been the aim of the compiler to secure 
clearness and simplicity in the methods adopted, and to bring them 
into line with those of other countries, in order that comparison may 
thereby be more readily made. The compiler acknowledges his 
indebtedness to M. Kihosi of Budapesth for valuable advice. To 
him the world owes much for his earnest efforts in securing inter- 
national uniformity in the method of presentation of statistics. 

ITeio Features in the FoUowing Summary. 
Beginning with 1855, a table appears in the registration reports 
of Massachusetts which presents the numbers of persons dying in 
each year from certain diseases, by sexes, mouths of the year and 



xxxviii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

ages of life. Other tables are appended in the reports of the follow- 
ing years in which the same facts are presented for a group of years. 
The percentages of deaths in each sex were also given, the percent- 
ages of deaths in each mouth, and also those of each age period, as 
compared with the total mortality. The fallacy of emploj'ing the 
total mortality as the only standard of comparison has been so fre- 
quently pointed out* that it was deemed best in 1887 to introduce a 
new table, in which the deaths at each age of life are compared with 
the living population of the same age. 

These important and valuable tables are now reproduced in this 
Summary, and have been still further improved by the comparison of 
the deaths by sexes in the same manner with the living population of 
each sex. The effect of the inequalities in the lengths of the months 
is eliminated by adopting a standard of equal lengths of time in each 
month, and of reducing the numbers of deaths in such uniform 
divisions of time to a standard of 100, which answers the pur- 
pose, since the object in such a seasonal table is not to deter- 
mine the absolute number of deaths from a given cause in each 
month, but the relative intensity of a given disease or cause of 
death as shown by the mortality in these different portions of the 
year. 

The difference in the two methods becomes most apparent so far 
as seasonal prevalence is concerned in the case of a disease which, 
like consumption, shows a comparatively uniform mortality through- 
out the year. 

The same method has been employed in treating the monthly 
distribution of marriages, births and deaths, and is nearly iden- 
tical with that which is employed by Dr. R. Bockh, director of 
the statistical office of the city of Berlin, in his comprehensive year 
book. 

It is deemed advisable to omit altogether from the discussion of 
diseases the comparison with the total mortality, and to give only 
the ratio to the living population, except in Table 24, relating to the 
statistics of certain causes of death (1874-93). 

Comparison with the living population can be made with com- 
parative accuracy in Massachusetts in consequence of the f\ict that 

* See papers of Dr. W. E. Smith on consumption and pneumonia in Massachusetts, in 
"Transactions of Massachusetts Medical Society," 1887; and by Dr. E. Farnliam on consump- 
tion in Cambridge, in "Transactions of Massachusetts Association of Boards of Health," 
Vol. IV., IS'Jl. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xxxix 

a census is here made every five years, either by the State or 
national fjovcrnment, and within the limits of a five-year period it 
is not dillicult to estimate the population of each year with a fair 
degree of accuracy. The annual rate of growth for a century has 
never been less than one per cent., except in the war period 18G0- 
Q5, when it was about one-half of one per cent., and but once was it 
above three per cent, (in the period 1840-50). 

Another feature of importance is the table of vital statistics of 
cities and towns having over 10,000 inhabitants, which eml)races the 
period of three years, 1891-93. The fact that the urban popula- 
tion (cities and towns over 10,000) had grown from a percentage 
of less than one-fourth of the total population in 1840 to more than 
Go per cent, in 1890 sufficiently explains the importance of this 
table. A portion of the statistical tables for counties is presented ; 
but the rapidly increasing prominence of the urban population makes 
it essential to devote a greater amount of space to the municipalities 
having over 10,000 population in each. 

Eecent discussions upon infant mortality have also made it desira- 
])le to present this important portion of the subject with more than 
ordinary fulness of detail ; the death rates of children from all causes 
and from several of the diseases of childhood are for the first time 
presented for each separate year of life up to five years. 

The legislative discussions upon tuberculosis have induced us to 
introduce a comparatively greater number of carefully prepared sta- 
tistics in regard to this disease. 



General 8ummary» 

The number of registered marriages in 1893 was 22,814, the 
births were 67,192 and the deaths were 49,084. The still-births 
numbered 2,444. 

The ratios to the estimated living population were as follows : — 

Per 1,000. 

Marriage rate, . . . , 9.36 

Persons married, 18.71 

Birthrate, 27.55 

Death rate, 20.13 

Excess of birth rate over death rate, 7.42 



xl STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 



International Vital Statistics. 

In Table 1 are presented the marriage, birth and death rates 
of the Xew Enghind States and those of the principal countries of 
Europe having registration for a period of twenty years (1871-90) 
and for the years 1892 and 1893. 

The six New England States had in 1890 a population of 4,700,745, 
the estimate for 1893 being a little more than 5,000,000, and all the 
countries embraced in this summary had about 265,000,000 at the 
latest census. 

The estimates of population upon which the ratios for each country 
are based are made by the authorities having in charge the registra- 
tion of these countries. Those of the New England States are 
based upon the census of 1890, and the rate of growth in the pre- 
ceding intercensal period. 



PorULATION. 

"Population, as the natural basis of all vital statistics, necessarily demands pre- 
liminary consideration in any work dealing with that subject." — l)u. Fakr. 

The population of Massachusetts in 1890, as enumerated by the 
United States census officials, vv^as 2,238,943. 

8ex. — Of this number, 1,087,709 were males and 1,151,234 were 
females. 

Age. — Table 2 presents the figures of six census enumerations 
of the State by age periods, with the percentages at each age 
period. The total numbers of each sex are also given, with the 
percentages of each. The table shows that the percentages of 
males and females were more nearly alike at the census of 1890 
than at cither of the preceding census enumerations, being in the 
ratio of 1,000 males to 1,058 females, as compared with 1,000 males 
to 1,07G females as the mean of'the'six census enumerations. The 
percentages of persons living at the two age periods under five, and 
five to nine, had diminished, while those of the age periods above 
twenty years had increased, — a fact which is probably not due to a 
diminishing birth rate, but to an increased accession by immigration 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. 



xli 



at the later age periods. The birth rates have slightly increased 
from 1880 to lliOO. 

In this table the census figures are presented without correction 
or adjustment. 

The population of the counties in 1890 was as follows : — 



Barnstable, .... 


29,172 


Hampshire, 


51,859 


Berkshire, .... 


81,108 


' Middlesex, .... 


431,167 


Bristol, .... 


186,405 


Nantucket, .... 


3,268 


Dukes, 


4,369 


Norfolk, .... 


118,950 


Essex, ..... 


299,995 


Plymouth, .... 


92,700 


Franklin, .... 


38,610 


Suflfolk, . . '. 


484,780 


Hampden, .... 


135,713 . 


Worcester, .... 


280,787 


The State, 




2,238,943 





xlii 



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PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



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xliv 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



In the section of this summary which treats of deaths, the figures 
for the first five years of life for the census of 1890 have been redis- 
tributed or adjusted, in order to estimate the death rates at each 
separate year of life up to five years from all causes, and for certain 
of the destructive diseases of childhood with greater accuracy. For 
this purpose the general principles laid down in Mr. E. B. Elliott's 
article in the second volume of the ninth census have been employed. 
(See further discussion of this subject under the title of Deaths by 
Ages.) 

The estimate of the population of Massachusetts for 1893, upon 
which the marriage, birth and death rates in this summary are calcu- 
lated, is 2,438,362. 

Marriages. 

The whole number of marriages registered in Massachusetts in 
1893 was 22,814, which was a greater number than was registered 
in any previous year. This number indicated a marriage rate of 
18.71 per thousand of the estimated population (persons married), 
and 9.35 marriages per 1,000. 

The marriages and marriage rates for the ten years 1884-93 were 
as follows : — 

Table 3. — Marriages and Marriage Rates, 1S84-93. 



YEARS. 


Jlarrlagos. 


Marriage Kates. 


1884, . 

1885, 

1886, 

1887, 

1888, 

1889, 

1890, 

1891, 

1892, 

1893, 






















17,333 

17,052 
18,018 
19,533 
19,739 
20,397 
20,838 
21,675 
22,507 
22,814 


18.2 

17.6 
18.0 
19.0 

18.7 
18.7 
18.6 
18.8 
20.0 
18.7 


Tots 
Mea 


il, 
n, 


199,900 


18.6 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



xlv 



The mtirriage rate has declined during the period of registration, 
the highest marriage rate being that of 1854, when it was 24.8 per 
1,000 ; and the minimum was in 1878, when it was 14.9. The mean 
rate for the live-year period 1851-55 was 23.2, and that of the 
five-year period 1876-80 was 15.7. 

In the past ten years or more it has remained fairly uniform, the 
rate for. the five-year period 1881-85 being 18.5, and that of 188(3-90 
being 18.6. For the three years 1891-93 it was 18.9. 

The marriage rate of England has declined slightly, from a maxi- 
mum of 17.9 in 1853 to a minimum of 14.2 in 1886, and a slight 
increase to 15.6 in 1891. Those of Denmark, Sweden and Hungary 
have declined slightly, while those of Prussia, Italy and France 
have remained nearly stationary. 

Marriages by Counties. — The number of marriages in each county 
during the three years 1891, 1892, 1893, together with the marriage 
rates for 1890, was as follows : — 

Table 4. — Marriages by Counties, 1S91-03, and Marriage Sates, 1890. 











Marriage 




1891. 


1893. 


1893. 


Kates, 
1890. 


The State, 


21,675 


22,507 


22,814 


18.62 


Barnstable, 


24.5 


221 


209 


16.78 


Berkshire, 










605 


625 


613 


15.12 


Bristol, . 










1,850 


2,045 


2,089 


20.22 


Dukes, . 










33 


38 


39 


18.54 


Essex, , 










2,9(15 


2,899 


3,108 


18.48 


Franklin, 










310 


331 


335 


14.76 


Hampden, 










1,388 


1,479 


1,401 


17.64 


Hampshire, 










448 


438 


410 


16.26 


MiiUllesex, 










4,083 


4,259 


4,373 


17..>^0 


Nantucket, 










16 


28 


21 


11.00 


Norfolk. . 










944 


956 


976 


15.76 


Plymouth, 










798 


804 


840 


17.32 


Sutrolk, . 










5,574 


6,708 


5,745 


21.94 


Worcester, 










2,476 


2,676 


2,655 


17.70 



Note. — ^larriagcs and marriage rates of the urban population ma}* be found 
on a later page. 



Aqe. — The average ages at marriage of all men and women 
married, and of men and women married for the first time, were as 
follows : — 



xlvi 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Table 5. — Average Ages at Marriage, 1891-93, expressed in Years and Frac- 
tions of a Year. 



Average Age 

of All 
Bridegrooms. 



Average Age 

of 

All Brides. 



Average Age of 
SI en • 
Marrying for the 
First Time. 



Average Age of 

Women 

Marrying for the 

First Time. 



1891, . 

1892, . 

1893, . 



28.85 
28.85 
28.90 



25.53 
25.37 
25.47 



26.82 
26.76 
26.86 



24.28 
24.24 
24.40 



Four hundred and forty-one men and 3,628 women married when 
under twenty years of age, and 64 men and 5 women married when 
over seventy. Of the former class there were 46 women aged fifteen, 
10 aged fourteen and 1 of thirteen years ; all the men were over 
fifteen years of age. 

Seasons. — The marriages by calendar months were as follows for 

1893: — 

Table 6. — Man-iages by Months (1893), 





Marriages. 


Monthly Ratio 

compared Willi 

a Standard 

of 100.* 




Marriages. 


Monthly Katio 

compared with 

a Standard 

of lUO.* 


January, . 

February, . 

March, 

April, 

INIay, . 

June,. 

July, . . . 

August, 


1,999 
1,592 
1,000 
2,396 
1,636 
2,830 
1,570 
1,678 


103.2 
91.0 
51.6 

127.9 
84.5 

151.0 
81.1 
86.7 


September, 
October, . 
November, 
December, 
Unknown, 

Total, . 
Mean, . 


1,953 
2,319 
2,414 
1,413 
14 


104.2 

119.8 

128.8 

73.0 


22,814 


100.0 



* In this column the inaccuracies due to the unequal lengths of the months are eliminated by 
finding the daily number of marriages in each momh and comparing this numljcr with a daily 
standard of 100 for the whole year. 

The mean daily number of marriages for the year was 62.5. 



iving births registered in Massachusetts in 



Births. 

The whole number of 
1893 was 67,192, which was larger than that of any previous year 
since the beginning of registration. The birth rate was 27.6 per 
1,000 of the estimated living population, which was larger than that 
of any year since 1874 except that of 1892, which was 27.8. 

The births and birth rates for the ten years 1884-93 were as 
follows : — 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xlvii 

Table 1.— Births and Birth Rates, Ten Years, 1884-93. 



TEARa. 


Births. 


1 

Birth Bates. 


Years. 


Births. 


Birth Rates. 


1884, 
1885, 
1886, 

18.S7 


48,615 
48,790 
50,788 
53,174 
54,803 
57,075 
bl,m 


25.5 

25.1 
25.4 
25.9 
25.9 
20.2 
25.8 


1801, 

1892, 
1893, . 

Total, 

Mean, 


63,004 
65,824 
67,192 


27.4 

27.8 
27. G 


1888, 
1880, 
1890, 


567,132 


26.3 



8ex. — Of the whole number of living children born in 1893, 
34,328 were mules and 32,829 were females, indicating a ratio of 
1,046 males to 1,000 females, that of the period of forty-one years 
(1853-93) having been 1,055 males to 1,000 females. 

The following were the numbers by sexes for the three years 
1891-93: — 

Table 8. — Births by Sexes, 1891, 1892 and 1893. 



Years. 


Males. 


Females. 


Males to 1,000 
Females. 


1801 

1892 

1893, 


32,532 
33,758 
34,328 


30,434 
31,951 
32,829 


1,069 
1,057 
1,046 



The ratio of male to female births in England for the fifty-six 
years ending with 1893 was 1,043 males to 1,000 females. 

Seasons. — The number of births in each month and the monthly 
ratio reduced to a standard of 100 was as follows ; — 



Table 9. — Births by Moiiths (1893). 



Months. 


Births. 


Monthly Hatio 

reduced to a 

Standard of 100. 


Months. 


Births. 


aionthly Ratio 

reduced to a 

Standard of 100. 


January, . 

February, 

]\Ian-h, . 

April, 

May, . . 


5,611 
5,107 
6,549 
5,391 
5,163 
5,457 
6,095 
6,173 
5,638 


98.3 

99.1 

97.2 

97.6 

90.4 

98.8 

106.8 

lOS.l 

102.1 


October, . 

November, 

December, 

Unknown, 

Total, 

Mean, 


5,716 
5,519 
5,707 

G 


100.2 

90.9 
101.0 


July, 

Au,ii"ust, . 
September, 


67,192 


100.0 



xlviii 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



The mean daily number of births was 184.1, and from the foregoing 
table it appears that the highest daily number of births occurred in 
August, July and September, and the least in May, March and April. 

The highest quarterly percentage of births registered was in the 
third quarter of the year, and the same may be said of the births in 
each year of the previous twenty-year period, except 1873 and 1878, 
in which the greatest number was in the fourth quarter. 

Births by Oounties. — The numbers of living births in each county 
during the three years 1891, 1892 and 1893, together with the 
birth rates for 1890, were as follows : — 

Table 10.— Births by Counties, 1891-93, and Birth Rates, 1890. 











Birth Rates, 




1891. 


1893. 


1893. 


1890. 


The State, . 


63,00i 


65,824 


67,192 


25.81 


Barnstable, 


530 


546 


516 


16.38 


Berkshire, 








2,179 


2,083 


2,283 


26.32 


Bristol, . 








5,436 


5,924 


6,200 


26.58 


Dukes, 








56 


71 


73 


18.08 


Essex, 








7,804 


7,784 


8,392 


23.68 


Franklin, . 








813 


898 


908 


19.68 


Hampden, 








4,611 


4,708 


4,864 


30.47 


Hampshire, 








1,126 


1,229 


1,194 


20.90 


Middlesex, 








12,347 


12,879 


13,197 


25.85 


Nantucket, 








52 


50 


55 


15.30 


Norfolk, . 








2,947 


2,956 


3,132 


22.78 


Plvmouth, 








1,905 


1,946 


2,144 


18.96 


Suffolk, , 








15,227 


16,542 


15,538 


28.98 


"Worcester, 








7,971 


8,208 


8,696 


26.07 



Note — Births and birth rates of the urban population may be found on a 
later page. 

Illegitimacy. — The number of illegitimate births registered in 
1893 was 540. The .statistics of the years 1891, 1892 and 1893, 
with the ratios per 1,000 of living births, are as follows : — 



Taiu.e 11. — lUcf/itimate Births. 



Yeabs. 




Itatlo per 1,000 Births. 



1891, 
1892, 
1893, 



17.1 

15.0 

8.0 



The mean ratio for the ten years 1884-93 was 17.47 per 1,000 
births. 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



xlix 



Tahle 12 


— Illegilimale 


Births by Counties (1S91, 1892 


a«rf 


1S93), 






Thb 
State. 


2 

c 




o 


3 


M 


B 


a 

a 


o. 
S 


i 

i 


S 
C 




3 

i 


1 








S3 


« 


n 


Q 


M 


b 


H^ 


ta 


i 


55 


»? 


t. CO 


* 


1891, . 


1,078 


11 


21 


50 




79 


5 


44 


7 


121 


1 


22 


14 654 


49 


1892, . 


990 


8 


27 


65 


3 


81 


10 


62 


12 


171 


3 


21 


13 


445 


69 


1893, . 


540 


10 


26 


59 


1 


94 


10 


46 


8 


149 


2 


23 


11 


14 


87 



In the foregoing table are presented the statistics of illegitimate 
births ]>y counties for the three years ending with 1893. The special 
point worthy of note in this table is the apparent!}^ defective record 
of Suffolk County for the year 1893. 

The following are illegitimate birth rates for several countries for 
the five-year period 1878-82, and for the year 1889 {Bertillon) . 



Table 13. 







Illegitimate Rlrths to 




Illegitimate Births per 


Each 10,(W Unmarried 




1,000 Uirths.* 


Women over 
Fifteen Years of Age. 




1878-88. 


1880. 




Irflnnd, 


25 


28 


31 


Russia, . 












28 


27 


- 


Ilollaiul. . 












30 


33 


66 


Switzerland, . 












47 


47 


74 


Knpjland and Wales 












48 


46 


103 


Kalv, 












73 


73 


169 


Franco, . 












74 


84 


109 


]5el<rinin. 












77 


88 


139 


Korwav, . 












82 


74 


146 


Scotland. 












84 


79 


151 


German Kmpire, 












89 


- 


206 


Denmark, 












101 


93 


203 


Sweden, . 












1(11 


101 


158 


Saxony, . 












127 


125 


843 


Bavaria, . 












i:V2 


141 


295 


Austria, . 












143 


147 


830 



* Slill-hirths are excluded in the column for 1889, in estimating the ratio in all the countries 
except Switzerland and Bavaria. 

Plural Bh'thfi. — In 1893 there were registered C)19 cases of 
plural l)irths, being in the ratio of 9.1 per 1,000 births. The num- 
ber of childron born was 1,247, of which number 1,220 were twins 
and 27 wore triplets. Of the whole number, 627 were males and 
618 were females. 



1 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



The statistics for the three years 1891, 1892 and 1893 were as 

follows : — 

Table 14. 



YEARS. 


Cases 
of Twins. 


Cases 
of Triplets. 


Cases of 
Quad- 
ruplets. 


Numbers of 

Living Birtlis 

to one Case of 

Twins. 


Numher of 

Living lilrths 

to one Case of 

Triplets. 


1891, 


616 


7 


1 


102 


9,000 


1892, 


572 


8 


- 


115 


8,228 


1893, 


610 


9 


- 


110 


7,466 


Total 3 years, . 


1,798 


24 


1 


- 


- 


Mean, .... 


- 


- 


- 


109 


8,168 


Total eases 1874-93, 


8,847 


99 


- 


- 


- 


Mean, .... 


- 


- 


- 


114 


10,148 



There has been a notable increase in the number and ratio of cases 
of triplet births in the past six years, from 1 in 27,446 in 1888 to 1 
in 7,466 in 1893. 

8t'dl-hirths. — The total number of still-births registered in 1893 
was 2,444, the numbers for the two preceding years being 2,222 in 
1892 and 2,293 in 1891. 

The following are the statistics relative to the sexes of the still- 
born for 1893 and for the period 1853 to 1893, forty-one years : — • 



Total number of the still-born, 

Males, 

Females, 

Not stated, 

Ratio of males to 1,000 females, among those whose sex was 
known, 



1893. 185S-93. 

2,444 53,435 

1,420 29,517 

921 19,914 

103 4,004 



1,542 



1,482 



Deaths. 

" Mortality statistics surpass all other vital statistics in importance, whether thoy 
are considered from a social, an actuarial or a sanitary standpoint." — Newsiiolme. 

The number o.f deaths registered in 1893 was 49,084; this was 
greater than that of any previous year of registration. 

The death rate per 1,000 of the estimated living population was 
20.13, that of the decade ending with 1893 having been 19.66. 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— Xo. 34. 



The following are the deaths and death rates for the ten-year 
period 1884-93 : — 

Table 15. 



Years. 


Deaths. 


Death Rates. 


YEAB8. 


Deaths. 


Death Rates. 


1884, 


36,990 


19.4 


1890, 


43,528 


19.4 


1885, 


38,094 


19.6 


1891, . 


45,185 


19.6 


1886, 


37,244 


18.6 


1892, . 


48,762 


20.6 


1887, 


40,763 
42,097 


19.8 
19.9 


1893, 
Total, 


49,084 


20.1 


1888. 


423,524 


- 


1889, 


41,777 


19.2 1 


Mean, 


- 


19.06 



Deaths by Sexes. — The number of deaths of males recorded iu 
1893 was 24,899 and that of females was 24,185. Estimating the 
distribution of the sexes upon the same basis as in 1890, the death 
rates of the se.xes were 21.02 per 1,000 for males and 19.29 for 
females. 

Table 16. — Mortality of the Sexes, Census Tears and 1S93, 













Deathsof .Males to 




Deaths 


Deaths 


Death Rate 


Death Rate of 


1,CH0 Deaths of 




of Males. 


of Females. 


of Males. 


Females. 


Femiilesin E(iiial 
Numbers Living. 


1860, 


11,444 


11,547 


19.3 


18.4 


1,048 


1865, 








13,085 


13,024 


21.7 


19.6 


1,107 


1870, 








13,699 


13,598 


19.5 


18.6 


1,048 


1875. 








17,329 


17,619 


21.8 


20.5 


1 1,063 


1880, 








17,426 


17,852 


20. 3 


19.3 


1,052 


1885, 








18,889 


19,205 


20.2 


19.0 


1,063 


1890, 








21,767 


21,761 


20.0 


18.9 


1 1,058 


1893, 


24,899 


24,185 


21.0* 


19.3* 


1,089* 

1 



• Estimated. 



The disparity between the death rates of the sexes in Massachu- 
setts was generally less than that of England, which was as 1,117 
deaths of males to 1,000 deaths of females in equal numbers living 
for 1891, and as 1,102 to 1,000 for the whole period of registration 
(1838-93). 



lii 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Deaths by .Seasons. — In the following table are presented the 
statistics of deaths in Massachusetts by months and by sexes. For 
the purpose of presenting the seasonal mortality as fully and as 
clearly as possible, the method employed by Dr. Bockh of Berlin in 
his year book has been followed. The exceedingly accurate and 
careful statistical methods adopted in Berlin give to the mortality 
statistics of that city a value w^hich cannot be attained here under 
present American modes of collection of statistics. The figures in 
columns 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6 may be taken as correct, while those in 
column 4 are subject to such slight corrections as the next census 
may require. 

Table 17 . — MorlalUy by Months, Massachusetts {1893). 





1 


3 


3 


4 


5 

Monthly Mor- 


6 


Months. 








Death Rate 




Deaths per 




Males. 


Females. 


Totals. 


per 1,000. 


toa Standard 
of 100 * 


Day. 


January, 


2,027 


2,134 


4,161 


20.23 


99.8 


134.2 


February, 








1,905 


1,809 


3,714 


19.99 


98.6 


132.6 


March, . 








2,230 


2,145 


4,375 


21.27 


104.9 


141.1 


April, . 








2,253 


2,082 


4,335 


21.63 


107.4 


144.5 


IMay, . 








2,231 


2,090 


4,321 


20.87 


103.6 


139.4 


June, . 








1,654 


1,596 


3,250 


16.22 


80.5 


108.3 


July, . 








2,309 


2,047 


4,356 


20.88 


104.5 


140.5 


Aujjust, 








2,5-15 


2,389 


4,934 


23.65 


118.4 


159.2 


Se])teraber, 








1,991 


2,064 


4,055 


20.09 


100.5 


135.2 


Octoljer, 








1,831 


1,848 


3,679 


17.52 


88.3 


118.7 


November, 








1,720 


1,760 


3,480 


17.12 


86.3 


116.0 


December, 








2,203 


2,221 


4,424 


21.06 


106.1 


142.7 










24,899 


24,185 


49,084 


20.13 


100.0 


134.5 



* Column 5. In this colamn 100 is taken as the annual mean for a monthly period of uni- 
form length. 

In the foregoing table, in the figures presented in columns 4 and 5 
the inaccuracies due to the unequal length of the months have been 
eliminated by comparing the daily numl)er of deaths in each month 
with the mean daily number for the year. It is also quite plain that 
an estimate of population which may be applied in calculating the 
death rate in January and February cannot reasonably be api)Iied to 
the same purpose in November and December, since the annual 
increase of the population, amounting in recent years to about 
70,000 annually, is thus disregarded. Hence, in estimating the 
mortality rates given in column 4, a quarterly estimate has been 
adopted based upon the rate of growth from 1885 to 1890, after the 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. liii 

manner adopted by the Registrar General of England in bis weekly 
reports. By tbis table it appears tbat tbe montbs in wbicb tbe 
greatest daily number of deaths occurred were August, April and 
December, and those which had the least were June, November and 
October. 

The percentages of deaths in each quarter of the year were as fol- 
lows : — 

In the first quarter, 25.0 

In the second quarter, 24.3 

In the third quarter, 27.1 

In the fourth quarter, 23.6 

100.0 

Deaths by Counties. — The number of deaths in each county dur- 
ing the three years 1891, 1892 and 1893, together with the death 
rates for 1890, were as follows, still-births being in every instance 
excluded in this table : — 



Table 1H. — Death. 


' bjj Counties, 1891,1892 and 1893, and Death Bates, 1890, 










1 Denth Rates, 




1891. 


1892. 


1893. 


1»90. 


The State, 


45,185 


48,762 


49,084 


19.4 


Barnstable, 


615 


640 


592 


19.4 


Berkshire, 








1,436 


1,560 


1,505 


18.2 


Bristol, 








4,109 


4,367 


4,608 


20.3 


Dukes, 








109 


99 


115 


25.4 


Essex, 








5,916 


6,272 


6,064 


20.0 


Franklin, . 








699 


766 


654 


15.8 


llanijiden. 








2,644 


3,181 


2,999 


19.6 


Ilanipsliire, 








969 


1,051 


1,037 


18.5 


Middlesex, 








8,506 


9,038 


9,420 


18.4 


Nantucket, 








80 


120 


88 


24.5 


Norfolk, . 








1,945 


2,087 


2,294 


16.5 


riyniouth. 








1,580 


1,759 


1,751 


16.9 


Suftolk, . 








11,357 


12,013 


12,280 


22.3 


Worcester, 








5,220 


5,809 


5,677 


17.8 



Note. — Deaths and death rates of the urban jjopulation maybe found oa 
a later page. 



Deaths hy Ages. — No statement of mortality at dilTerent ages of 
life can have much value which fails to take into account the numbers 
of the living population at the same ages. In the absence of other 
figures the census must be the only guide, but in those States which 



liv 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



have a trustworthy system of registration of vital statistics the regis- 
tration of births and that of the deaths of children under five years 
of age may be employed to correct the defects which are found to 
exist in all census enumerations of the first years of life. In the 
United States census of 1870 (volume on vital statistics), a method 
is proposed for the redistribution of the figures of these ages of life 
and for supplying deficiencies. The defects of distribution referred 
to are due chiefly to the tendency of parents to state the ages of 
children inaccurately. 

The following figures illustrate this point: — 

Table 19. — Census of Children under Five Tears of Age. 



Population of 



United States 

Census, 1880. 



Massachusetts, 

1885 
(State Census). 



Massachusetts, 

1890 
(U. S. Census). 



England (1891). 



0-1 year, 

1 year, 

2 years, 

3 yeai's, 

4 years, 

Total population. 



1,447,983 
1,256,956 
1,427,086 
1,381,274 
1,401,217 

60,155,788 



35,888 
27,327 
40,353 
38,064 
36,706 

1,942,141 



43,043 
28,462 
46,726 
44,367 
41,160 

2,238,943 



754,533 
691,590 
707,179 
706,274 
693,914 

29,002,625 





Percentages of Total Population. 




0-1 year, . 




2.89 


1.86 


1.92 


2.60 


1 year, . 




2.50 


1.41 


1.27 


2.38 


2 years, . 




2.85 


2.08 


2.09 


2.44 


3 years, . 




2.75 


1.96 


1.98 


2.43 


4 years, . 




2.79 


1.89 


1.84 


2.89 



It is quite apparent that the foregoing numbers for Massachusetts 
especially those for the first three years of life, are seriously defective, 
not only in their proper distribution, but also in actual omissions of 
considerable numbers, when the births and the deaths of infants under 
one and successive ages are considered. Hence an adjusted table for 
the first five years becomes necessary, either with or without the actual 
addition of some assumed number. Mr. Elliott assumes the number 
100,000 as a proposed addition to the United States census figures 
for the whole population of the United States in 1870, in the first 
five years of life. It is possible, however, to arrive at a more defi- 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. Iv 

nite estimate in Massachusetts, in consequence of the existence in 
this State of a careful system of registration of births, marriages and 
deaths. A careful estimate in Massachusetts, deduced from the 
births and the deaths in the first years of life, leads to the conclusion 
that the omissions in this period (0-5 years) constitute a still greater 
ratio of the total population of the State in the two last census 
enumerations, than is represented by the number 100,000 as com- 
pared with the United States population of 1870.* 

An examination of the figures presented in the table on the pre- 
ceding page shows in each column certain peculiarities in the numbers 
representing the first three years of life. In each instance the number 
of children living in the period one to two years, shown in the second 
line of figures, is considerably less than that of either the preceding or 
the succeeding year, and in the two columns for Massachusetts the 
figures for the period two to three years (third line) are greater in 
each instance than those of infants under one (first line). These 
points are simplified by the percentages presented in the second part 
of the table. 

In a fixed population, in which migration plays no part, these 
figures should present a successive diminution from the age period 
0-1 onwards, the rate of diminution being dependent upon the mor- 
tality at different ages. Migration affects principally the adult ages 
of life, and in rough estimates of the first three years or more, its 
direct effect may practicall}'' be ignored, f 

After reviewing the method proposed by I\Ir. Elliott and the 
methods usually adopted for the construction of life tables, the fol- 
lowing percentages have been adopted for estimating the mortality 
rates of the first five years of life, and for those which relate to the 
diseases of childhood for the census years 1885-90 in Massachusetts. 

* Mr. Henry Gannett, in a recent contribution to the quarterly publications of tlie 
American Statistical Society, estimates the total deticiency of the U. S. census of 1890 at one 
million persons. — Publications Am. Statistical .Soc, Vol. IV., page 99. 

t The percentages of immigiants to United States by ages for fifty years were as follows : — 



30-35, 9.8 

35-40 6.7 

40 and over, 10 2 



100.00 



0-5, 7.9 

6-10 7.2 

10-15, 69 

15-20 14 3 

20-25, 20.9 

25-30, 16.1 

More than one-half were between the ages of fifteen and thirty years. The addition of a con- 
siderable number of immigrants to the population of ages 15-30 can have scarcely au apprecia- 
ble ctTect upon the death rate. If the additions were mainly of children of ages 5-15, the death 
rate would be diminished; if the additions were chiefly of ages above 30, the death rate would 
be materially increased thereby. 



Ivi 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



These percentages are calculated both for redistribution and for 
addition of sufficient numbers to conform to the figures for age 
mortality. 

Table 20. 



rERCENTAGES OF TOTAL 
FOPCLATION. 




0-1 year, 

1 year, 

2 years, 

3 years, 

4 years, 



These percentages differ but little from those which may be found 
in life tables. The difficulty of constructing such tables accurately 
for migratory populations, lil?e those of American States, as com- 
pared with the more stationary or fixed populations of European 
countries, must be recognized. 

In summing up this question in the twelfth volume of the tenth 
census, page cxliii. Dr. Billings says : " The preparation for any given 
locality, race or occupation, in this country^ of a life table which 
shall accurately represent the tendency to death or the probability 
of survival at each age is practically impossible, because of the 
want of accuracy in the necessary data, and because of the irregular 
migrations of the population. It should be clearly understood that 
all tables of vital statistics, including data from large numbers of 
people, even when these are obtained by the most accurate census 
possible, and by the most complete system of registration which 
can be enforced, give probabilities only, and that scientific accuracy 
in this field is practically unattainable." 

Dr. Farr says, in commenting upon this subject, " The years of 
infant life cannot be accurately deduced from decennial enumera- 
tions of the infants living at the date of the census. . . . The diffi- 
culties arise from the want of exactly observed facts." 

A comparison of the mortality of children under one year of age 
with the births constitutes the most accurate method of estimating 
the infant mortality for any given year, since the registration of 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



Ivii 



births may be deemed to be fairly complete, the deficiencies amount- 
ing probably to less than one per cent.* 

The following table presents the mortality of infants under one 
year, as compared with living births for the twenty years, 1874-93 : — 



Table 21. — Infant Mortality. Ratio of Deaths tinder One Year to Living 

Births per 1,000. 



1874, . 


161.3 


1879, . 


142.8 


1884, . 


158.9 


I 
1889. . 


162.2 


1875, . 


172.0 


1880, . 


169.5 


1885, . 


156.5 


1890, . 


166.5 


1876, . 


154.6 


1881, . 


165.2 


1886, . 


159.5 


1891, . 


169.0 


1877, . 


152.4 


1882, . 


164.4 


1887, . 


162.6 


1892, . 


166.5 


1878, . 


148.7 


1883, . 


163.3 


1888, . 


164.9 


1893, . 


165.3 



Mean, 1874-93, 161.9. 

Note. — The figures in this table are obtained by comparing the deaths of 
infants under one in each year with the births which occurred in the twelve 
nionth.s ending with June 30 of the same year, since about one-half of the deaths 
of infants under one, occurring in each year, were those of infants who were born 
in the year immediately preceding. 

The foreo-oinof mean constitutes the ratio of 160,914 deaths of 
infants under one year to 093,807 living births. 

The extremes during the past forty-five years were 119.1 per 
1,000 births in 1857 and 202.7 in 1872. 

Deaths at Extreme Old Age. — The numl)cr of deaths of persons 
who had lived to the age of ninety years and over in 1893 was 465. 
Of this number, 370 were from ninety to ninety-five years of age at 
death, 77 were from ninety-five to one hundred, and 18 were one 
hundred years and over. 

Of the whole number who died at ages beyond ninety years, 152 
were men and 313 were women, or in the ratio of 100 men to 206 
women. 



• " The mortiility of infants tuulcr one year, calculated with reference to the nuinlicr of births 
during the year, is, perhaps, the l)est single test of sanitary condition which wc can have." — 
BiLLiNOS, Viuil Statistics, " The Sanitary Engineer," January, 18Si, page 103. 



Ivili STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 



Causes of Death. 

The system of classification of diseases and causes of death pro- 
posed by Dr. AYm. Farr has been in use among English-speaking 
nations with occasional modifications for nearly half a century, and 
that of Professor Virchow in Germany since 1873. It now becomes 
an important question whether a revision of existing classifications 
is not desirable, in order that the grouping of diseases or causes of 
death may be consistent with the progress of medical science. The 
chief advantage of retaining old and well-known classifications lies in 
the facility of comparison of the statistics of difierent years or periods 
of time. In the course of time, however, these groupings lose their 
significance, and gradually manifest a lack of harmony with prevail- 
ing systems of pathology. Groupings or general divisions, compris- 
ing several causes of death in one class, have less significance than 
the same diseases considered separately. The class of so-called 
developmental diseases or causes of death, for example, conveys but 
little meaning as a whole. The general class of local diseases so long 
in use is much less significant as a whole than the subdivisions of which 
it is composed. The class of deaths by violence is quite distinct, and 
must necessarily be subject to less change than the others. The trans- 
fer of tuberculosis to a place among infectious diseases appears to be an 
inevitable conclusion, and this transfer of more than ten per cent, of 
the total mortality from one group or class to another necessarily 
disturbs the statistical comparison in a very marked degree. This 
change already appears in the nosological tables of some countries 
and cities of considerable size. 

Hence, in the following discussion of the causes of death in Massa- 
chusetts for 1893, but little prominence will be given to the general 
groupings of causes of death, and single causes of death which have 
unusual import will be treated with considerable fulness of detail. 
These comprise chiefly the principal infectious diseases, together 
with those local diseases which are very destructive to life. 

In the following table the old classification is retained for the 
present, for the purpose of comparison : — 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



lix 



Table 22. — Causes of Death, by Classes. Ratio per 10,000 of the Population. 



Ykars 


I. 

Infectfons 
Diseases. 


II. 

Constitu- 
tional 
Diseases. 


ni. 

Local 
Diseases. 


IV. 
Devel- 
opmental 
Diseases.* 


V. 

Deaths 

from 

Violence. 


1865, 

1870 

1875 

1880 

1885, 

1889, 

1890, 

1891, .... 

1892, .... 

1893, 


64.87 

47.45 

58.96 

47.41 

36.74 

36.92 
36.09 
35.87 
39.02 
35.84 


51.63 

49.30 

49.40 

45.89 

45.94 

41.36 
41.14 
39.26 
39.34 
38.50 


50.79 

51.86 

65.44 

73.73 

82.76 

83.57 
87.13 
91.20 
96.50 
96.25 


26.48 

21.87 

23.16 

19.52 

20.65 

20.10 
19.63 
20.05 
20.12 
19.41 


7.34 

7.79 

8.61 

7.19 

7.48 

7.78 
8.10 
8.04 
8.78 
9.08 


Mean (five years) 1889-93, . 


36.75 


39.87 


91.12 


19.86 


8.37 



* Still-births excluded. 

By this table it appears that very marked changes have taken 
place in the groups marked I., II. and III., the first two having 
notably decreased, while the third has quite as notably increased. 

The following table presents the mortality from the ten most 
prominent causes of death in Massachusetts for the ten years 1864: 
to 1893, in the order of their prominence : — 



Ix 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



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1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. Ixi 

From this table it appears that consumption has maintained its 
position at the head of the list for the whole decade, although very 
closel}'^ approached by pneumonia in 1893. Brain diseases held the 
second place from 1884 to 1891, and for the two years, 1892 and 
1893, was displaced by pneumonia. Diphtheria and croup attained 
the seventh place for the first five years, and then rose to the fifth, 
but finally fell to the last place in 1891 and 1893. 

Statistics of Certain Causes of Death, Massachusetts, 1893. 

In the tables 24, 25, 26, 27 and 28 are presented the principal 
statistics relative to the following causes of death : — 

Sraall-pox. Pneumonia. 

Measles. Whooping-cough. 

Soarlet-fever. Cancer. 

Diphtheria and croup. Kidney diseases. 

Typhoid fever. Heart diseases. 

Cholera infantum. Brain diseases. 
Consumption. 

The data presented are the following: — 

Number of deaths from each of the foregoing causes in each year for 
twenty years (1874-189;3) Table 24 

Death rate from each of the same causes per 10,000 of the living popu- 
lation for each year, "24 

Percentage of tlie total moitality for each year, "24 

The means for the twenty -year period, "24 

The total deaths and deaths for each sex from each of ten causes of death 
for tlie thirty-three years (1861-1893) "25 

The deaths in each month from each of the same causes for the same 

period "25 

The deaths at each of eleven ages for the same period from each of ten 
causes, "25 

The monthly ratio of deaths reduced to a standard of 100 with the ine- 
qualities of time eliminated, "26 

The death rate per 10,i)00 living from each of these ten causes for the 

same period, " •_'? 

The death rate of each sex from each of these causes for the same period, " 27 

The average annual mortality at each age period, compared with the 
living population at each age, expressed as a ratio per 10,000 of the 
living population. In this table the error due to the inaccuracies 
and deliciencies in the census distribution of the first years of life, 
represented in the age period 0-5, has been corrected upon an ap- 
proximate basis, ..........." "27 

The mortality statistics of the year 1893 from the same causes, the 

ratios being omitted, "28 



Ixii 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 






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^ 


T1« 


o 


3 


1)1 


s 


CO 


'5. 


.re 

CO 




■suiAi'i ooiroi 

Jad aiBji njuaa 


«o 

CO 


o 


CO 


ci 




00 

•>* 


■M 

CO 


IN 

si 




CO 


CO 
CO 


o 

CO 


"T 


CJl 


-* 
N 


00 


a> 


- 


00 


CO 

CO 


(N 

CO 




•sqjBea 


IN 

C0_ 


tD_ 


1 


to 


o 


o 


s 


05 
CO 


CO 


5 


g 


00 


CO 
CO 


-1< 
en 


o 


00 


to 


CO 


o> 


o 


IN 

IN 
CO 
IN 




m 

3 


•XJIIBJJOK IBlo.r, 
jo a)^B)ua3jaj 


o 


£ 


■* 


^ 


(» 


o 


s 


g 


00 


00 


s. 


t^^ 


CO 


<N 


s 


•<)< 


^ 


g 


00 


to 
ire 


o 




•aniAiT Of)0'OI 
Jad ajBU 4iBaa 


o 


IH 


CO 


00 


00 


'-'. 


n 


CO 
1-4 


•* 


t- 


I" 


to 
rH 


to 




o 


oo 


ire 


e3 


"t 


CO 


CO 




■sqjBaci 


s 


i 


•^ 


CO 


o 


t» 


CO 


o 

?5 


s 


CO 


K 


CO 
CO 


o 

CO 


■>JI 




r-l 


rH 


CO 


00 




H 

1 

•< 


■illlBWOK IBIOX 

jo a>9B|ua3ja,i 


o 


s 


g 


CO 

o 


o 


o 


^ 


CO 


IN 


o 


o 


o 


1 


i 


IN 

o 


o 


s 


C-l 

g 




o 


o 




•au|An fxw'oi 

jad a)B}{ Misaa 


« 


^ 


e« 


■* 


s 


3 


s 


in 


^ 


s 


o 


o 


' 


o 


o 


° 


^ 


s 

o 


o 


-»l 

o 


oo 
o 




•gqjBaa 


ID 


;; 


CO 


3 


C4 


t- 


ss 


5 


^ 


U5 


CO 


at 


1 


CO 


CO 


to 


'^ 


■-' 


M 


o> 


M 








-*" 


.re 


to 

CO 


^ 


00 


oT 


o* 


CO 




CO 


f-1 


ire 


lO 


l-H 


oo" 


1 


00 


CO 




CO 


a 
a 
<u 

a 

p 

CJ 

1 

o 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 3i. 



Ixiii 






i 

s 

n 

■* 
td 

00 

a 
pa 


•^tlimJore I«1"J, 
JO 0i<H)U0aj3J 




1» 


3 

00 


00 
00 


00 
00 


o 


OS 


CI 

Ol 


3 

o 


o 


CI 

o 

o 


Cl 

CO 

o 


o 


o 


?3 

o 


C5 


to 




d 


^ 1 

o 1 


•auiAii OOO'OI 






00 


to 


to 


o 


^ 


•* 


o 


o> 


o 

o 
c< 


CI 


§ 


CI 


00 


<o 

9 


in 
t= 

CI 


CJ 

o 


CJ 


*T 1 

00 I 


•emv9(i 


» o 


g 




CO 


o 


o 

CO 


U5 

CO 
CO 


CO 

"- 

CO 


"N 

to 

CO 


to 
to 

CO 


o> 

co" 


09 


C1_ 




CO 




■» 


in 


to 


s 1 


u 
G 


;0 38u)U09i3J 


o> o 

o> 00 
« CO 




CO 


to 


to 


'tl" 


CO 


o 

4» 


o 




in 


3 

to 


§ 

to 


d 


00 


00 




in 

to 


o 


Cl 

o 
to 


■SiiIAiT ooo'or 

13d 0JU5I HJUJfl 


0> r-< 


o 


ffl 


00 


to 

00 


cj 


o 


o 


lO 


'^ 


m 


o 


CO 




c» 


CO 

•n 


to 
uo 


o 


■<t 


oo 

1~t 


•BqjBoa 


IM_ C? 




.-■5 
CO 


'^ 


::- 


to 
■N 


CO 


o 
of 


CO 

cT 


e-f 


cT 


in 

CO 


o 

Cl" 


to 
c>_ 

CO 


o 
oo 

CO 


co" 


o 

o 

CO 


CO 


lO 

CO 


I" 
.1* 

o 


n 

H 

2 


•^4II«jjoit!Bjox 

;0 3ilB)U33J3J 


in lo 


•* 


^ 


to 


00 


00 


(N 


^ 

(N 


3 

M 


o 
c-i 


to 
cJ 


o 

CO 


m 


CO 

CO 


o 

CO 


cJ 


CO 


m 
CO 


CO 
CO 


to 

lO 

c« 


■auiAi'i ockVoi 






CO 


to 

CO 


03 


o» 

CO 




•* 


lO 


CJ 

in 


to 
in 


in 


>n 


c^ 
to 


00 

•a 


iO 


•* 
<o 


in 
to 


Cl 

to 


o 

•o 


•BmBDQ 




1 


to 


to 


g 


or 
to 


i 


00 


g 


I 


1 


in 

CO 


o 

CJ 


oo 

eo_ 


00 
Cl_ 


CO 

1 


t^ 


>n 


in 

to 


oo 

iO_ 


is 


•^jiiBuoiv- imoj, 

}0 aHviuioiij 


s § 


00 
<3> 


<o 

O 




e4 


■N 


s 

e4 


to 

<N 


7^ 


to 

00 

cJ 


00 

cJ 


to 
cJ 


00 

ci 


CO 

o 

CO 


CO 


OJ 

CO 


o 

CO 


00 

c5 


o 

CO 


d 

r- 

ci 


■S'MAn'ooo'oi 
jod ojsa umaa 


to >n 
eo CO 


a 

CO 


00 
CO 






?1 


lo' 


CO 


in 


to 

in 


to 

lO 


lO 


in 


o 

to 


to 


to 


to 


a 


CO 

to 


CO 
IS 


•sqjBoa 




in 


<o 


i 


00 


IN 

o> 


o> 


o> 


to 


o 
o 






^ 


to 

CJ_ 


s 

CO 


S5 

CO 


in 


§ 


in 




5 
p 
6 

JS 

o 
2 

1 


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IH 


s 


00 


^ 


« 


<o 


g 


C4 


to 

CO 


2 


" 


CO 


S 


00 


■* 


CO 

oo 


00 


lO 


to 


« 


■«H!A!T OOO'OI 
i3d ajBa M»Bja 


00 o 


^ 






t- 


CO 


IN 


•^ 


"7 


ci 


a 


T* 


- 


Cl 


t 


to 


a 


o 


"": 


r-t 


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0> <M 

5 5 




i 


1 


IM 


g3 


(^^ 


'to 

(N 


s 


o 


■& 


c» 


c^ 

n 
o 


Cl 


o 

CO 


s 

CO 




00 


5 


g 
lO 





;0 98«)UQ3J3J 


OB O 
t-^ 00 


^ 




CO 

a 
<o 


00 


a 


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00 




s 

00 


in 


o 
en 


to 


d 


00 


00 a 


oi 


d 


^ 


s 

oo 


■auiAH OOO'OI 

Jad Bjia msaa 


00 00 


(D 


to 


IN 


o 


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to 


e» 


<N 

to 


eo 


a» 


CI 


CO 

to 


to 


00 

in 


o 

00 


00 


CJ 

c3 


to 
ci 

Cl 


to 
to 


•BHIBDa 


to o 

CI w 




IN 


ef 


5 


o 

CO 


to 
o>_ 

IN* 




in 

•r 
o 
co" 


to 

3 
M* 


oo 
to 

-i> 

CO 


<o 

CO 
00 

cf 


co" 


CO 


o 
co" 


00 


CO 

■»" 


?. 

o 
o" 


1 


1 






00 00 


to* 

00 


00 


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00 


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1 


1 


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i 


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00 


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00 


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i 


1 


5 

00 


s 


i 


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■ 1 

■ 
p 

1 

-3 

c 
a 

1 1 
1 



Ixiv 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 









On 



a Co 



60 



f^ 



05 



w 

« 


•<s> 


bq 


^^ 




!&» 










60 


^« 


<W 


55 


s 


■« 


r; 


'^ 





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ft ,t> 
O S. 



-^ 



^ 



to 10 Oi <M C^ CO CO 

10 eo to 00 CO o -(< 



CO (M -t< ^ 

— t^ 00 '-f 

>— 'lOO-iOiOO'^OcO'C'O 
O '-<" O CC ■^' CO CN CO -"d^^ CO ci" 



'-'OOi(MCO(MOitM'^(>JOOiO(M 
(M__ CT5_ O CO CO_ ^__ X__ -^^ '-J_ CO r--__ -rf^ 
iOC0C0»OOC000-^-*-*Cc"-Tti 



(Nr^i-icoio-^ooooot^ 
CO CO c 'o ci 10 o 00 >o -^ 

(N (M CO CO -^ t-_, CO CO__ CO__ iO_ 

i-T CO -^'" cri CO 



CO r-l CO 
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a> CO iT5 
o ^ -t^ 

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(MOOOOOC^-t<iO 

-r< 10 ^+1 CO T-H 00 CO 
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CO r^ CO 



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0> CO t^ 10 Oi lO o 



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00 (M CO 

CO CT>_ C^ 

CO 10 lO CO c>r 



t>-ior^-t*Cit^-^(Mco 

COCOCD»OCOCOOO'-I00 

ocococoor-»ocDo> 



T-H (M (M 



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00 


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lococoocrsiot^cooi 



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o o <::■ 



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CO -^ C5 
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CO CO (M 



CO I-* 00 »o 



CO!MCO(M(M(M»Hi-( 



>0 O (M 



T-i(Mcor«coeocO'0 
h-cor— -ncoi-HCOcri'^o 

■^iOCOQOa5C5t^-^CM 



CO CO 

o <y^ 

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CO 





h- 


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r, Oil;— st-^~ 









cs <a 






S ^" to ^ 2 

s 3 3 « " 

t-5 t-3 *l3 CC O 



Q ^ 



•xas 



•fellXNOI^ 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



Ixv 



eo 


•* 


to 


to 


1— 1 


CO 


CO 


rj< 


(M 


CM 


(N 


CO 


t^ 


-«*< 


-t< 


-p 


-f 


CO 


CO 


eo 


r^ 


o 


-f 


o 




-r 


t> 


00, 


CO 


C7> 


O, 


CO 


CO 


lO 


-^, 


11 




o. 


(M 




























o 


o" 


c^ 




cs 


"O 


CO 


o^ 


oo' 


o" 


C' 


lO* 




oo 


cs 
















'"' 








»o 


o 


o 


t^ 


o 


C5 


CO 


r^ 


CO 


^^ 


o 


o 


^^ 


«— 1 


cr> 


cr. 


«o 


-K 


1—* 


c^ 


o 


o 


o 


oo 


-t< 


o 


o 


o< 


o 


(M 


T— ' 


CO, 


t-. 


r— < 


o. 


CM 


CO 


CO 


"O 




























»o" 


O) 


I-t 


CO 


CO 


o 


~f 


<>» 


•o' 


c^ 


t>r 


rH 




1^ 








rH 


>o 


eo 


(>4 


1—1 


1— ( 








'"' 


























eo 


Oi 


t- 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


1 


i 


t» 


o 


00 
























eo 


<?j. 


















































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oo 
























«o 


to 
























r>. 


(M 


00 


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(M 


CO 


O 


CO 


<M 


CO 


•o 


o 


m 


•o 


o 


00 


"<»< 


t— 


Ol 


t^ 


o 


O 


o 


CO 


t^ 


CJ 


T— 1 


o. 


(N 


<N 


«o 


»o 


CO 


00 


(M, 


lO 


o 






























to 


00 


1—1 














rH 


T-l 


1— 1 




rH 


























i-< 


•o 


o 


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to 


<M 


o 


o 


C5 


CO 


00 


CO 


^^ 


to 


o 


o 


to 


o 


C5 


o 


CO 


CO 


(M 


lO 


<M 


•^ 


00 


"O 


o. 


-^ 


o. 


cn. 




CO 


o 


Oi, 


-J<, 


UO 


rH 




























CO 


c^ 


ci 


C^' 


o 


CO 


~t* 


oT 


c^ 


1— t 


1—1 






eo 


























>o 


'^^ 


-^ 


CO 


r^ 


00 


CI 


00 


OS 


CI 


CO 


c^ 


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o 




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c^ 


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1-1 












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o 


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1— < 














































to 


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1—1 
























fi 


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00 


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o 


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o 


c« 


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CO 


1—1 


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CO 


<M 


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t- 


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■saoy 













Ixvi 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



CO 
C5 

I 









s 

ns 



s 

^ 



!| 






« s 



DO 


,—1 


CM 


CO 


W 


o 


r^ 


a> 


o 


»o 


>o 


lO 


O 


C3 


CO 


o 


c^ 


c-i 


c^ 


CO 


■^ 


CO 


"O 


CO 


lO 


o 


o 


tM 


r^ 


_ 


o 


r^ 


,_, 


-o 


(M 


CO 


fN 


a> 


o 


to 


o 


o 


o 




CO 


'^ 


CO 


T}< 


«o 


C5 


<M 


o 


J— 1 






r-H 


'"' 














T-H 


i-H 


o 


o 


r^ 


~^ 


fM 


~v 


(M 


00 


t--. 


00 


CJi 


h- 


o 


CO 


OS 


c^ 


<o 


lO 


lO 


lO 


o 


CO 


CO 


■^ 


CN 


o 



o o o o 



CO 00 lO CO CO 



CO CO lO h- o 



05 Oi 0> O^ OS o 



(N 00 CO 



iO-<*i>OOO^COOO 



•O CO CO 



lO CO lO o 



CO ^ <M 



t-" 




CO 


CO 

o 


CO 






CO 


o 

CO 


CO 




o 
o 


>* 
-1 rH 


lO 


CO 

I-H 


CO 
1—1 


CO 

CO 


o 


O 


CO 


I^ 


CO 
CO 


CO 
I-H 


o 

rH 



CO CO OJ Cft 



lO cji o 



^O uO CT5 



CO '-' M CO CO 



-t< lO -+< O 



iC3COCiO<MC<)'00 
t-~C^COOO>— iiOO 



CO O -H t^ 'O 'O lO O 

COOC5COCOl^-^<CO 



CO tH "O 



^' -t: :- -2 JD 



a V ^ 






•siixxoi\[ 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



Ixvii 



•2 















.« -^ 



fe^ 



'^ 


!^ 




H 


Sf> 


14) 














c 





)^ 


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1 


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e 


S 


kq 


K 




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V 


CI 


Ctj 




? 


lai 


<« 


<0 


^ 





f*l 



n 

< 



1 


un 


CO 


CO 


Ci 


cr> 





^J 


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CO 


C5 





CO r^ 


eo 




>— ' 


TTi 


^- 


CO 


00 


t^ 


^- 


00 


t^ 


01 


Oi 


t^ 


»o 





^ 


UO 


Tf 


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eo 





f^ 


T-H 


a> 


CO -♦< 


^ 




i-( 


T-H 


1-H 


-i* 












T-H 




eo t^ 


eo 


c 
























































0. 


t^ 


CO 


OJ 


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Ixviii 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



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1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34, 



Ixiz 



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Ixx STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

8maU-pox. 

The number of deaths for the twenty-year period 1874-93 is 
presented in Table 24, together with the death rate and the per- 
centage of the total mortality for each year. The numbers were 
extremely variable, and ranged from 47 deaths in 1881 to in 
1886. The greatest number in any one year during the past half- 
century was 1,029, in 1872. The whole number of registered 
deaths from this disease in the twenty-year period 1854-73 was 
4,412, and that of the period 1874-93 was 311. The annual mortal- 
ity per 10,000 of the living population in the former period was 1.7, 
and that of the latter period was only .08. 

Sex. — In Table 27 it appears that the mortality of males from 
small-pox was greater than that of females, in the ratio of .74 per 
10,000 of the living males to .47 per 10,000 of living females, or in 
the ratio of 157 males to 100 females for the period of thirty-three 
years, 1861-93. 

Seasons of the Year. — Upon a mean monthly standard of 100 
the greatest mortality from this cause occurred in December (177.1) 
and the least in August (40.3). 

Age. — The effect of age upon the mortality from small-pox is 
shown in Table 27, wherein the deaths at each age are compared 
with the living population at the same age of life. This table 
embraces a period of thirty-three years (1861-93). The death 
rates at different ages are considerably less in each instance than 
those presented in the Registration Report of 1890, in consequence 
of the addition to the present table of the statistics of five additional 
years, 1861-62, 1891-93, in each of which the deaths from small- 
pox were below the mean annual number of the period. The high- 
est death rate of any age (1.88 per 10,000 living) was that of the 
first period (0-5 years), the next highest (.82) that of the period 
20-30 years, while the lowest (.21 and .22) were those of the age 
periods 60 to 70 and 10 to 15 years. 

(Further information relative to the influence of vaccination and 
that of other conditions on small-pox mortality may be found on 
pages viii-xxiii in the General Report, under the title of " Infectious 
Diseases.") 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. Ixxi 

Measles. 

The deaths from measles in Massachusetts in 1893 were 27G, and 
the death rate per 10,000 of the popuUition was 1.1, as compared 
with 88 deaths and a death rate of .4 per 10,000 in 1892, and an 
annual mean of .9 for the twenty-year period (1874-93). The 
maximum death rate of the period was 2.2 per 10,000 in 1887 and 
the minimum was .1 in 1879. (See Table 24.) 

Sex. — The mortality of males from this cause in 1893 was less 
than that of females, but for the whole period (1861-93) the mor- 
tality of males was greater than that of females, in the ratio of 1.25 
to 1.15 per 10,000 living, or as 109 males to each 100 females in 
equal numbers living. 

Seasons of f lie Year. — The greatest mortality from measles in 
any month of 1893 occurred in May and the least in September. 
For the whole period of thirty-three years (1861-93), upon a 
monthly standard of 100 the figures were a maximum of 166.6 for 
May and a minimum of 35.0 for October. 

Af/e. — By far the greatest number of deaths from measles in 
1893 occurred in the age period 0-5 years, the deaths of persons 
over 10 years of age being comparatively few. For the whole 
period of thirty-three years the highest mortality from measles 
(9.36 per 10,000 living at the same age of life) was in the period of 
infancy (0-5), and the lowest (.07) was in the period 50-60 years. 

In consequence of the demand for a more thorough consideration 
of the mortality from the diseases of childhood and of a finer divi- 
sion of age periods than has hitherto been presented, the mortality 
from such diseases has been (at the suggestion of the State Board 
of Health) expressed in separate years for each of the years under 5, 
since and including 1887, in each of the State Registration Reports, 
and the statistics of certain children's diseases for the separate years 
up to 5, including measles, will be found on a later page. 

Scarlet-fever. 
The deaths from scarlet-fever in 1893 were 810 and the death rate 
3.3 per 10,000 of the population, as compared with 669 deaths and 
a death rate of 2.8 from the same cause in 1892, and an annual mean 
of 3.2 for the twenty-year period, 1874-93. The maxiniuni death 
rate of the period from this cause was 10.2 per 10,000 in 1875, and 
the minimum was .8 in 1889. 



Ixxii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

Sex. — The deaths of males in 1891 were slightly less than those 
of females, but for the thirty-three-year period 1861-93 the death 
rate of males was greater in the ratio of 4.91 males per 10,000 liv- 
ing to 4.62 females, or as 106 males to 100 females in equal num- 
bers living. 

Seasons of the Year. — The greatest mortality from scarlet-fever 
in any month in 1893 occurred in January and the least in August. 
Upon a monthly standard of 100 the figures show a maximum of 
134.2 for January for the thirty-three-year period (1861-93), and a 
minimum of 55.6 for September. 

Age. — The deaths of children under five from scarlet-fever were 
512, and those of children from 5 to 10 years were 219, and these 
deaths constituted 90 per cent, of the total mortality from scarlet- 
fever in the year 1893. 

For the thirty-three-year period (1861-93) the death rate from 
this cause among children under 5 years of age was 30.2 per 10,000 
of the population of that age, the death rate diminishing for each 
successive age period to a ratio of only .05 per 10,000 for the ages 
40-70 and still less in old age. The deaths and death rates for the 
separate single years from to 5 will be found on a later page. 

Diphtheria and Croup. 

The deaths from diphtheria and croup in 1893 were 1,394 and the 
death rate 5.7 per 10,000 of the population, as compared with 1,455 
and a death rate of 6.1 per 10,000 in 1892, and an annual mean of 
9.8 for the twenty-year period (1874-93). The maximum death 
rate for the period from diphtheria and croup was 19.6 in 1876 and 
the minimum was 5.3 in 1891. 

Sex. — The deaths of males and females in 1893 were exactly 
equal, being 697 for each sex. But for diphtheria the deaths of 
females exceeded those of males by 20, and for croup those of males 
were the greater by 20 ; and, since the numbers of males and 
females in the living population are nearly equal in the first five years 
of life, these numbers are fairly comparable. For the whole period of 
thirty-three years (1861-93) the death rate of males from diphtheria 
was less than that of females, in the ratio of 6.14 males per 10,000 
to 6.18 females, or as 99 males to 100 females in equal numbers 
living. 

Seasons of the Year. — The greatest mortality from these com- 
bined causes in 1893 was in November (168 deaths) and the least 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — No. 34. Ixxiii 

was in June (7.')). Upon a monthly standard of 100 for the period 
18(31-93, the greatest mortality from diphtheria (134.4) occurred in 
November and the least (6(5.5) in August. That of December 
(133.7) was nearly as great as that of November. 

For croup the highest monthly mortality, upon the same basis 
(158.3), was in December and the least was in July (40.7). la 
this instance also the mortality for November (156.98) was nearly 
identical with that of December. 

Af/e. — The deaths of children under 5 from diphtheria in 1893 
were 670, and there were 269 from croup, and those of children from 
5 to 10 years of age from the same causes were respectively 278 and 
51. From diphtheria there were 123 deaths of persons over 10 years 
of age, and from croup there were only 2. 

For the thirty-three-year period (1861-93) the death rate of chil- 
dren under 5 from diphtheria was 32.7 per 10,000 living of the same 
age, and for the next period (5-10 years) it was 18.6 per 10,000, and 
diminishing for each successive period to the age 40-50, when it was 
.36, and then remaining nearly the same with but little variation up 
to old age. 

The death rate of children under 5 from croup for the same period 
was 24.1 per 10,000 living of the same age, that of the age 5-10 was 
4.3 per 10,000, while that of all succeeding ages from croup was 
extremely slight. 

Ti/phokl Fever. 

The deaths from typhoid fever in 1893 were 750 and the death 
rate per 10,000 was 3.1, as compared with 827 deaths and a death 
rate of 3.5 in 1892. The mean death rate of the twenty-year period 
was 4.5 per 10,000. The maximum death rate from this cause was 
7.1 in 1874, the first year, and the minimum was 3.1 in 1893, the 
last year of the period, the diminution throughout the period being 
comparatively uniform. 

Sex. — The deaths of males were 425 and those of females were 
325 in 1893. For the thirty-three-year period the death rate of 
males was 6.53 and that of females was 5.42 per 10,000, or in the 
ratio of 120 males to 100 females in equal numbers living. 

Seasons of the Year. — The greatest mortality from typhoid fever 
occurred in September and October and the least in INIarch and May. 
For the thirty-three-yoar period (1861-93) the maximum mortality 
on a monthly standard of 100 was 187.4 in October and the minimum 
(56.4) was in June. 



Ixxiv 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jiin. 



Age. — Of the 750 registered deaths from typhoid fever in 1893, 
491, or 65'^ per cent., were those of persons between 15 and 40 years 
of age. 

The followinor fiam-es show the death rates at diflerent aijes from 
typhoid fever, both for the year 1893 and for the thirty-three-year 
period (1861-93). They are here introduced because not only has 
the general death rate from this disease diminished, but the death 
rates at the diflerent ao;es have underojone marked chanoes when con- 
sidered in relation to each other, the greatest chanijes having taken 
place at the extremes of life Coincident with this fact it should be 
rioted that in the earliest years of this period (1861-93) the distinc- 
tive characteristics of typhoid and typhus fevers were not so sharply 
defined as at present, and cases of the latter disease are undoubtedly 
included in the early statistics of the long period. 

The relative mortality from typhoid fever at different ages of life 

shows a comparatively uniform incidence for the youngest ages up 

Typhoid FEVEE. *» ^^ J^^^'^' ^ith a Considerable in- 

Beath Rates per 10,000 for the Population CrcaSC bctweCn the agCS of 15 and 
Living at Each Age Period. o r» i i • i i • /• 

30, and a more decided mcrease from 
60 to the close of life, for the thirty- 
three years 1801-93. For the year 
18!l3 there is an increase with con- 
siderable uniformity from the earliest 
period up to the age period 15-30 
years, while for the remainder of life 
up to 70 years the ratio presents a 
similar average rate to that of the 
period 10-15 years, the ratio for each period being generally less 
than those of the group of years 18(51-93. The figure 1.58 for the 
old-age period, 80 -|-, for 1893, nmst be regarded as having but little 
significance, since it represents the ratio for 3 deaths only, while 
that of the thirty-three-year period represents 523 deaths. 



Ages. 


1861-93. 


1893. 


0-*5 


4.22 


0.91 


5-10, . 








3! 65 


1.67 


10-1.5, . 








4.70 


2.12 


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9.15 


4.96 


20-30, . 








8.15 


4.40 


30-40, . 








4.92 


4.21 


40-50, . 








4.09 


2.24 


50-60, . 








4.65 


2.09 


60-70, . 








5.16 


2.87 


70-80, . 








10.76 


3.11 


80 and over, 






12.49 


1.58 



Cholera Infantum. 
The number of deaths from cholera infantum registered iYi 1893 
was 2,704, and the death rate was 11.1 per 10,000 of the living 
population, as compared with 2,898 deaths and a death rate of 
12.2 from the same cause in 1892. The mean annual death rate 
of the twenty-year period (1874-93) from this cause was 11.1. 
The maximum death rate of the twenty years was 15.8 in 1875, and 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. Ixxv 

the minimum was 7.7 in 1879. The birth rate of the same year was 
also the least 1)1 rth rate of the whole period of registration. 

Sex. — The deaths of males from cholera infimtum in 1893 were 
1,423 and those of females were 1,281. For the whole period 
(18G1-93) the death rates of the sexes were for males 12.3 per 
10,000 and for females 10.0 of the living population at all ages. 

Since the mortality from this disease affects appreciably only the 
age period 0-5 years, the factors employed for comparison should 
be the numbers of each sex in the first years of life, in which age 
the sex distribution is more uniform than that of the general popu- 
lation. Employing, therefore, this distribution, the death rate of 
the sexes for cholera infantum is found to be as 112 males to each 
100 females in equal numbers living. 

Seasons of the Year. — Of the whole number of deaths from 
cholera infantum in 1893, 2,395, or 88.6 per cent., occurred in the 
months of July, August and September. In neither of the six 
spring and Avinter months did the deaths from the same cause 
exceed 20. Upon a monthly standard of 100 the highest mortality 
(459.2) for the thirty-three-year period (1861-93) occurred in 
August, and the least (4.9) in February. 

Af/e. — Nearly the entire mortality from this disease occurred in 
the first period of life (0-5 years), both for the year 1893 and for 
the thirty-three-year period (1861-93). The death rate per 10,000 
of the same age for the whole period was 106.5. A better estimate 
may be found on a later page for single years of life for a seven 
year period. 

Consumpfion. 

The facts in regard to this disease will be treated more in detail 
in this summary than those which relate to other diseases, for two 
reasons : first, it is the most prominent and destructive cause of 
death ; second, a widespread interest in this disease has been 
created by the discussions relating to the prevalence of tuberculosis 
among cattle. 

The whole number of deaths registered as from consumption (of 
the lungs) for the period of registration (1842-93) was 243,006. 

The following tables present the number of deaths, together with 
the death rate per 10,000 of the population, the percentage of the 
deaths from all causes for each year, and the mean death rate of 
five-3'ear periods from 1851 to 1893 (forty-three years).* 

• The figures for years previous to 1851 are defective, the returns of several cities aud towns 
being omitted. 



Ixxvi 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



From this table and diagram it appears that there has been a pro- 
gressive and quite uniform decrease in the death rate from consump- 
tion in Massachusetts for nearly the whole period, the maximum 
and minimum death rates being 42.7 per 10,000 of the population 
in 1853 and 22.7 in 1893, the last year of the period. The figures 
for the five-year periods were as follows : — 



Table 29. — Death Rate from Consumption in Massachusetts, 1851-93, in Five- 
year Periods, 



1851-55, 


41.1 


1866-70, . 


33.4 


1881-85, . 


31.4 


1856-60, 


38.9 


1871-75, . 


34.6 


1886-90, . 


27.3 


1861-65, 


36.5 


1876-80, . 


31.0 


1891-93, . 


23.6 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



Ixxvii 



Deaths per 10/)00 Living. 




Ixxviii 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Table 30. — Consumption. 







Death Kate 


Average Di-ath 


rerceiitiiKe of 


Tears. 


Deaths. 


per 10,000 


Kate per 10,000 
LlviiifT, Five- 


Total 






Livhig. 


year Periods. 


Mortality. 


1851, 


3,982 


39.0 


^ r 


21.03 


1852, 












4,155 


39.7 


1 1 


22.48 


1853, 












4..^!i3 


42.7 


\ 41.1 { 


22.62 


1854, 












4,611 


41.8 




21.53 


1855, 












4,750 


41.9 


J \ 


22.84 


1856, 












4,701 


40.8 


^ { 22.67 


1857, 












4,625 


39.5 


21.73 
} 38.9 { 22.02 


1858, 












4,574 


38.4 


1859, 












4,704 


38.9 




22.43 


1860, 












4,557 


37.0 


19.76 


1861, 












4,522 


36.5 


■^ f 


18.78 


1862, 












4,269 


34.3 


18.58 


1863, 












4,6G7 


37.3 


)■ 36.5 - 


10.82 


1864, 












4,733 


37.6 




16.46 


1865, 












4,661 


36.8 


) 


17.82 


1866, 












4,600 


35.3 


] 


19.46 


1867, 












4,362 


32.6 


19.15 


1868, 












4,437 


32.2 


\ 33.4 . 


17.33 


1869, 












4,659 


32.9 




17.88 


1870, 












5,003 


34.3 


18.30 


1871, 












5,070 


33.9 


1 r 


18.14 


1872, 












6,556 


36.3 


1 1 


15.87 


1873, 












5,556 


35.3 


;. 34.6 <; 


16.38 


1874, 












6,284 


32.8 


1 
J I 


16.57 


1875, 












5,738 


34.7 


16.40 


1876, 












5,327 


32.2 


1 r 


16.05 


1877, 












5,457 


32.0 


1 


17.41 


1878, 












6,334 


30.8 


;. 31.0 { 


17.04 


1879, 












5,223 


29.7 


1 1 


16.42 


1880, 












5,494 


30.8 


J I 


15.57 


1881, 












5,886 


32.4 


N /- 


16.14 


1882, 












5.865 


31.8 


15.93 


1883, 












5,931 


31.6 


> 31.4 <; 


15.71 


1884, 












5,798 


30.4 


1 1 


15.67 


1885, 












5,955 


30.7 


J I 


15.63 


1886, 












5,897 


29.5 


1 r 


15.83 


1887, 












5,871 


28.6 


i 1 


1-1.40 


1888, 












5,728 


27.1 


\ "■' 1 


13.61 


1^89, 












6,581 


25.7 


13.36 


1890, 












5,791 


25.9 


J I 


13.31 


1891, 












6,484 


23.8 


) ( 


12.14 


1892, 












6,739 


24.2 


> 23.6 } 


11.77 


1893, 












5,527 


22.7 


) I 


11.25 



Sex and Age. — As a niattor of convonicnce, these two condi- 
tions, sex and age, will I)e considered together with reference to the 
mortality from consumption. 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 34. 



Ixxix 



The deaths of mules from consumption in 1893 were 2,G27 and 
those of females were 2,900. For the period of thirty-three years 
(18(51-93) the death rate of males was 29.1 per 10,000 and that of 
females was 32.3 per 10,000, or as 90 males to 100 females in equal 
numbers living. This ditference in the death rate of the sexes has 
diminished, since the deaths for the seven years 1887-93 show that 
the death rate of males was as 95 to each 100 females in equal num- 
bers living. 

The death rate of the two sexes from consumption at each age 
period is presented in Table 31, wherein it appears that the death 
rate of females is greater at each ago up to the period 30-40, when 
the death rate of the two sexes is equal, and from that time onward 
to the close of life the death rate of males is the greater. 

The relative difference between the death rate of males and that 
of females is greatest at the age period 10-15, when the death 
rate of females from consumption is three times as great as that of 
males. In the next period (15-20) the death rate of females still 
remains the greater by more than 50 per cent. In the age period 
50-GO, on the other hand, the death rat6 of males becomes the 
greater by nearly 50 per cent. (These statistics embrace 39,721 
deaths, and cover the period of seven years, the census figures of 
1890 being used here as the basis of comparison, that year being 
the mid-year of the period.) 

The figures in the last column of this seven-year table may be 
compared with those of the thirty- three-year table (Table 27). 
Comparing the long period of thirty-three years with the short or 
closing period of seven years, it appears that the decrease in the 
death rate from consumption has taken place at every period of 
life, but the greatest relative decrease was in the ages from 60 
onward to the close of life, and the least was in the period 10-15 
years. 

Mortality from Consumiytion, b>/ Sex and Ages, Massachusetts. 

40 30 20 10 10 20 30 40 




Ixxx 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Table 31. — Mortality from Consumpiwn , by Age mid Sex, 1SS7-93. 











Death Rate frosi Consumttion per 




1887-93. 


1887-93. 


io,ouo OF 

Each Agh 


IHB rOPULATlON LIVING AT 

Period fok Each Sex. 


Ages. 


Deaths from 
Consumption. 






1887-93. 






















Males. 


Females. 


Males. 


Females. 


Totals. 


Under 5, 


1,715 


861 


854 


11.2 


11.3 


11.3 


to 10, . 


376 


158 


218 


2.3 


3.2 


2.7 


10 to 15, . 


808 


202 


606 


3.0 


9.1 


6.0 


15 to 20, . 


3,722 


1,379 


2,343 


18.9 


30.3 


24.8 


20 to 30, . 


12,339 


5,492 


6,847 


35.4 


40.1 


37.9 


30 to 40, . 


8,557 


4,212 


4,345 


35.8 


35.8 


35.8 


40 to 50, . 


5,119 


2,643 


2,476 


30.7 


27.2 


28.9 


50 to 60, . 


3,204 


1,815 


1,389 


30.9 


21.0 


25.7 


60 to 70, . 


2,261 


1,203 


1,058 


32.1 


24.9 


28.3 


70 to 80, . 


1,248 


609 


639 


34.1 


30.1 


31.9 


Over 80, . 


294 


121 


173 


24.9 


22.6 


23.5 


Ages not stated, . 


78 


34 


44 


- 


- 


- 


Totals, 


39,721 


18,729 


20,992 


- 


- 


- 


Mean, . 


- 


- 


- 


24.6 


26.0 


25.3 



Mortality from Consumption, by Months, 
Massachusetts. 



OtC- 



Mn 



/Seasons of the Year. — The comparative uniformity in the mor- 
tality rate from consump- 
tion throughout the j^ear 
makes it especially neces- 
sary to eliminate the in- 
equality in the lengths of 
the months, if exactness in 
comparison is sought. As 
an example, the least num- 
ber of deaths from consump- 
tion in any month in 1^93 
was 414 in February; but, 
if the relative intensity is 
desired, the deaths in equal 
periods of time were greater 
in February than those of 
any other month except 
January, March, April and 







% 
?• 


^<vn::^^ 


1 


1 



'tnr 



■wo<" 



May. This appears also to be true of the long period of thirty- 
three years (1861-93). Upon a monthly standard of 100 the 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. 



Ixxxi 



monthly departures from the mean were as follows for the thirty- 
three-year period : — 



In .January, 
February, 
March, . 
April, . 
May, . 
June, 



+2.4 


In July, 


. —6.5 


+4.0 


August, . 


. -2.9 


+8.3 


September, . 


. —1.9 


+8.6 


October, 


. —3.6 


+0.5 


November, . 


. —4.5 


—6.7 


December, . 


. —2.7 



Density of Population. — The effect of density of population 
upon the mortality from consumption is shown by the following 
figures, in which the mortality of dense districts is assumed to be 
1,000: — 



Mortality from consumption in demise districts. 
Mortality from consumption in medium districts. 
Mortality from consumption in sparse districts. 



1,000 
810 
727 



In using the foregoing terms, the word.tZense applies to districts 
having less than one acre to each inhabitant, medium applies to 
those districts in which there was more than one acre but less than 
four acres to each inhabitant, and s/jar.se applies to those districts in 
which there were more than four acres to each inhabitant. 

The data in the foregoing paragraph were compiled from a total 
of 112,604 deaths from consumption. 




W. SPARSE 



?^ 






727 



Geographical Dixtrihution. — The following statement is taken 
from a paper on the " Geographical Distribution of certain Causes 
of Death in Massachusetts," in the twenty-third annual report of the 
State Board of Health, 1891 : — 



It appears that the mortality from phthisis in Massachusetts diminishes 
in its ratio to the distance from the sea-coast. Dividing the State counties 
into the following groups, the mortality from phthisis was as follows : — 



Ixxxii STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Jan. 



GROUPS. 



Annual Ratio of 

Mortality from 

Phtliisis per 10,000 

of Population. 



1. All of the sen-coast counties except Suffolk, 

2. Worcester County, 

3. The Co!inecticut River counties, . 

4. Berkshire County 



27.5 
23.7 



Nantucket, at the extreme east, and with an insular climate, had a ratio 
of 45.3. I have excepted Suffolk County from the foregoing list, for the 
reason that its excessive density of population and the existence in Boston 
of several large hospitals and places where consumptives are received as 
patients may be considered as having much greater influence than geo- 
graphical position upon the phthisis death rate. Admitting Suffolk County 
to the list, with its mortality ratio of 38.1, the mortality rate of the group 
thus constituted would be 33.1. 

If we assume the mortality from phthisis in the western county (Berk- 
shire) as 1,000, that of the Connecticut valley counties was 1,160 ; that of 
Worcester County was 1,177; that of the sea-coast counties (except Suf- 
folk) was 1,312 ; that of Suffolk was 1,008 ; that of Nantucket was 1,911. 

A similar observation was made by Dr. H. I. Bowditch, in his paper 
entitled "Consumption in Massachusetts," and at a later date it was also 
very clearly shown by Dr. W. Everett Smith, in another paper before the 
Massachusetts Medical Society in 1888. 

Classification by Toivns. 

In examining the list of cities and towns, the 10 towns having the lowest 
ratios upon the list are all small towns, having an average population in 
each of but 828. Tiiree only had more than 1,000 inhabitants in each. 
Four of the number are Berkshire towns. New Ashford, lowest in rank, 
is a small town of 203 iuluibitants (census of IHHO), upon very high land, 
south-west of Mt. Greylock, the highest land in tlie State. It has a popu- 
lation devoted almost exclusively to farming. Dunstable, Littleton and 
Burlington are three farming towns of small [iopulation, situated in nortli- 
ern Middlesex, and not far apart. Their inhabited portions are mostly 
liigh and dry. Naliant, Revere and WinUiro[) are tlu-ee nearly contiguous 
towns upon the sea-coast, each Iiaving a resident and transient summer 
poiJiihition of considerable size, in addition to the permanent population. 

Of the 32 towns in Berkshire, 7 held positions more than fifty per cent. 
lower than the average of the State in their mortality from consumption, 
and only 1 of the number, the small town of Alford, had a death rate from 
this cause which was higher than that of the State. 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. 



Ixxxiii 



There was not one town in the State in which there was no death from 
consumption in the twenty years, and the number of deaths ranged from 2 
only in New Ashford up to 28,666 in Boston. 

The first city to appear in the list is Newton, ranking as 60 (the State 
being 100), and followed by other cities in the following order: — 



Newton, 


60 


Chelsea, 


92 


Salem, . 


. 103 


Pittsfield, . 


75 


Holyoke, 


92 


Lynn, . 


. 104 


Gloucester, . 


82 


Wobiirn, 


93 


New Bedford, . 


. 105 


Qulncy, 


82 


Taunton, 


94 


Fall River, . 


. lu7 


Fitchburg, . 


83 


Brockton, 


94 


Chicopee, . 


. 113 


Maiden, 


86 


Cambridge, 


94 


Lowell, 


. 114 


Springfield, . 


89 


Marlborough 


, . . . 96 


Newburyport, 


. 114 


Somerville, . 


. . 89 


Northampto 


a, . . .97 


Lawrence, . 


. 122 


Worcester, . 


90 


Haverhill, 


98 


Boston, 


. 127 


Wollham, . 


91 


The State, 


. 100 







At the other extreme, the two small Indian towns of Gay Head and 
IMashpee only had i)hthisis death rates more 'than fifty per cent, higher 
than the average. 

Out of the 14 towns of which Barnstable County was comprised at the 
beginning of the period (1871-90), 9 are to be found among those having 
a mortality rate from phthisis as great as or greater than that of the State 
at large. 

Of the 58 cities and towns which had high ratios (higher than those of 
the State), 36 were in the sea-coast and island counties of Essex, Suffolk, 
Norfolk, Bristol, Plymouth, Barnstable, Dukes and Nantucket. These 36 
towns contained over 85 per cent, of the population of the group of 58. 
Nineteen out of this number are situated immediately upon the sea-coast. 

The only cities and large towns having high ratios of mortality from 
phthisis, and also located at a considerable distance from the sea-coast, are 
Lowell, Chicopee, Ware and Milford. 

A similar tabulation was made in 1865 by Dr. George Derby, afterward 
secretary of the State Board of Health. This table included a period of 
ten years, none of which were within the time of the present inquiry. These 
were the ten years 18r)6-65. 

From his published list of towns having high and low mortality from con- 
sumption we find that 13 towns in the list of low mortality are west of the 
Connecticut Ixiver. Twenty-three out of the 25 continued to have low or 
comparatively low ratios in the later period, and among these Nahant, 
"Weston, Kichmond and New Ashford retained positions quite near the 
minimum in both periods. 



Ixxxiv STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

In the lists of towns having high mortality from consumption the names 
of Randolph, Chatham and Orleans appear in both groups, while Fall River, 
"Ware and Rockport appear in the former list, and also have comparatively 
high positions in the later list. The two small towns of Wales and Oak- 
ham show a very marked improvement, having been the ninth and tenth in 
point of high mortality in the earlier list, while in the later list (1871-90) 
"Wales appears among the 20 towns having lowest mortality, and Oakham 
has a comparatively low position. The towns of Upton, Northfield, Russell, 
Salisbury, Millbury, Royalston, Tyngsborough, Enfield, Chesterfield, West 
Newbury, Ashby, Pepperell and Lunenburg changed their position from a 
high to a comparatively low rank. 

Among the cities, Newton maintains a very low rank in each table, and 
Holyoke, which was a small town in the earlier period, was lowest in the 
earlier list but has an intermediate place in the later table. 

In the earlier table Fall River was the only city among the 20 places hav- 
ing the highest mortality from phthisis, but in the later list Boston appears 
among the 20 highest as the city having highest ratio of mortality from 
phthisis ; while Lawrence, Newburyport, Lowell and Chicopee follow in the 
order named, and Fall River takes a lower position than either of these. 

Another condition favorable to the development of phthisis is location at 
a low level as compared with the level of the sea. Berkshire, Franklin and 
the other western counties, having low ratios of mortality from this cause, 
are all at elevations much higher than the sea-coast counties. 

Further and more detailed information relative to the mortality 
from consumption in each city and town in the State may be found 
in the twenty-third annual report of the Board, already mentioned, 
pages 844-855. 

Pneumonia, 

The deaths from pneumonia in the State in 1893 were 5,499 and 
the death rate per 10,000 of the population was 22.6, as compared 
with a death rate of 21.2 in 1892. There has been an increase in 
the mortality, comparing the first years of the twenty-year period 
(1874-93) with the closing years of the period. The mean death 
rate of the period was 16. G. The minimum death rate from this 
cause was 11. G in 1877 and the maximum was 22.6 in 1893. 

Sex. — The death rate of males was greater than that of females, 
being, for the period of thirty-three years, ending with 1893, 16.1 
per 10,000 living males and 14.4 per 10,000 females, or as 112 
males to each 100 females in equal numbers living. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. Ixxxv 

Seasons of the Year. — The greatest mortality from this cause in 
1893 was in the months of April and December, and the least in 
August and September. For the whole period of thirty-three 
years (1861-93J, and upon a mean monthly standard of 100, the 
greatest mortality was in January (160.9) and March (157.0), and 
the least was in August (33.5) and July (41.4). 

Afje. — The mortality at different ages from pneumonia for 1893 
is shown in Table 28, wherein the greatest absolute number of 
deaths is found to have occurred in the age period 0-5 years and 
the least in the period 10-15 years. But these figures have little 
significance when compared with the relative death rates shown in 
Table 27 for the thirty-three-year period ending with 1893. By 
this table it appears that the highest mortality from pneumonia was 
at the period 80 years and over, wherein it was 131.7 per 10,000 
living of that age. The next highest death rate (74.6 per 10,000) 
was at the period 70-80 years, and the next (45.2) at the earliest 
period of life, 0-5 years. The death rates of the four periods of life 
50-60, 60-70, 70-80 and all over 80, from this cause, increase at very 
nearly a geometric ratio. 



Dysentery. 

The whole number of deaths from dyseuter}'- in 1893 was 231, and 
the death rate 0.95 per 10,000, as compared with 0.81 in 1892. 
Compare whole period. 

Sex. — For the single year 1893 the deaths of females were con- 
siderably greater in number than those of males, being 134 of the 
former to 97 of the latter. But for the thirty-three-year period 
ending with 1893 the death rates of males and females were nearly 
equal, the mean annual death rate of males being 2.88 per 10,000 
and those of females 2.82, or in the ratio of 102 males to each 100 
females in equal numbers living. 

Seasons of the Year. — The deaths from this cause in the six win- 
ter and spring months of 1893, as well as in the same months of the 
thirty-three-} car period, were comparatively small. Upon a mean 
monthly standard of 100 the deaths from this cause in these six 
months did not exceed 18.1, while the highest mortality, according 
to the same standard, was in the months of August and September 
(402.4 and 324.6). 



Ixxxvi STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

Age. — The highest death rate from this cause for the whole 
series of thirty-three years was at the okl-age period, over 80 years, 
in which it was 25.9 per 10,000, and the next highest was 13. () per 
10,000 and at the other extreme of life (0-5 years). The mean 
annual death rate of each of the age periods from 10 to 40 years was 
less than one per 10,000 living, and that of the next period (40-50) 
was but little more than one per 10,000. 



Whooping-cough, Cancer, Kidney Diseases, Heart Diseases and 

Brain Diseases. 

The figures for these causes of death embrace only the absolute 
numbers for each of the twenty years 1874-93, together w^ith the 
gross death rates and percentages of the total mortality. The 
subject of whooping-cough will be treated more in detail at a later 
part of the general report of the Board. 

Whooping-cough. — The deaths from this cause in 1893 were 274 
and the death rate 1.1, as compared with 1.0 in 1892 and an annual 
mean of 1.4 for the twenty-year period (1874-93). 

Cancer. — The deaths from cancer in 1893 were 1,533 and the 
death rate was 6.3 per 10,000, as compared with 5.9 in 1892. The 
mean annual death rate of the twenty-year period from this cause 
was 5.3 per 10,000. The maximum death rate was that of 1893, 
6.3, and the minimum was 3.5 in 1875. The death rate from this 
cause has increased with considerable uniformity from 3.6 in 1874 
to 6.3 in 1893. For the tw^enty years ending with 1893 the deaths 
of females from this cause have constituted more than 70 per cent. 
of the total mortality from cancer. 

Kidney Diseases. — The number of deaths from kidney diseases 
in 1893 was 1,685 and the death rate 6.9 per 10,000 of the popula- 
tion, as compared with a death rate of 6.5 in 1892 and a mean 
annual death rate for the twenty-year period 1874-93 of 5.0. 
The maxinmm death rate from this cause was 6.9 in the last year of 
the twenty-year period, and the minimum (2.9) Avas in the first and 
third years, 1874 and 1876. 

The deaths at dillerent ages from kidney diseases show that the 
relative mortality is fairly uniform for the first ages of life up to 30 
years of age, except the [)cri()d 5 to 10 years, which is less than 
half that of either of the other early periods of life. After 30 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. Ixxxvii 

years it increases rapidly up to the close of life, being, for the 
period 80 years and over, more than fifty-fold as great as at age 
5-10. 

Heart Diseases. — The numl)er of deaths from this group of 
causes in 1893 was 3,511 and the death rate was 14.4 per 10,000 of 
the population, as compared with a death rate of 15.7 from the 
same causes in 1892 and a mean annual death rate of 11.8 for the 
twenty-year period. The maximum death rate of the period was 
15.7 in 1892 and the minimum was 7.9 in 1874 and 1877. 

The deaths from heart diseases were for the census years 1850-90 
from three to four times as great in the period 0-5 years as for 
either of the following periods up to 30 years, and then increased 
rapidly uj) to the close of life. 

Brain Diseases. — Under this title are grouped the deaths regis- 
tered as from apoplexy, paralysis, cephalitis, insanity, softening of 
the brain and the general term brain disease. 

The number of deaths from this group of causes for 1893 was 
5,144 and the death rate was 21.1 per 10,000 of the estimated popu- 
lation, as compared with a death rate from the same causes of 21.2 
in 1892 and a mean annual death rate of 18.7 for the twenty-year 
period. The maximum death rate from the same causes was 21.2 
in 1892 and the minimum was 14.8 in 1877. 

Erysi2)elas. — The deaths from erysipelas in 1893 were 251, or 1 
per 10,000 of the population. The deaths from puerperal fever 
were 40, or less than .2 *per 10,000 of the population. The deaths 
from other incidents of childbiith were 235, or .9 per 10,000 of the 
population. 

Certain Infectious and Communicable Diseases not Ordinarihj very 
Destructive to Large Numbers of People, including Certain Dis- 
eases caused by Infection from the Lower Animals. 

Malarial Fevers. — The number of deaths registered as due to 
ague and remittent fever was 86, of which number 48 were males 
and 38 were females. The greatest number in any month (12) 
occurred in ^lay and the least (4) in January. jSine were under 5 
years and 53 were between 20 and 70 years. 

The deaths from these causes for the ten years ending with 1893 
were as follows : — 



Ixxxviii 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Years. 


Deaths from 
JIalarial 
Fever. 


Years. 


Deal lis from 
Malarial 
Fever. 


1884, 

1885, 

1886, 

1887, 

1888 


31 
66 
32 
46 
64 


1889 

1890 

1891, 

1892 

1893 


77 

60 
62 
81 
86 



The fatality from this disease does not appear to be very great, 
considering the unusually large number of cases which are known, 
by the investigations of the Board, to have existed in eastern Massa- 
chusetts during the past ten years. 

Syphilis. — The deaths from this cause registered in 1893 were 
48, of which 25, or more than half, occurred in Suffolk County. Of 
this number, 34, or more than 70 per cent., were probably congeni- 
tal, being those of infants, mostly under 1 year of age. 

Hi/drophohia, Glanders and Anthrax. — There were only two 
deaths from hydrophobia in 181'3. 

The deaths for the past ten years from this cause were as fol- 
lows : — 



1884, 
1885, 
1886. 

1887, 
1888, 



1889, 
1890, 
1891, 
1892, 
1893, 



14 

17 

9 

1 

2 



There was one death from glanders and one from anthrax or 
malignant pustule in 1893. 

Trichinosis. — No deaths from trichinosis were reported in 1893. 
Five deaths from this cause are known to have occurred in the pre- 
vious year, but no reference to them is to be found in the Registra- 
tion Report of that year. 

The following table is introduced for the purpose of affording 
an opportunity of comparing the stati.stics of Massachusetts with 
those of two large nations having thorough systems of registra- 
tion : — 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



Ixxxix 



Table 32.— MorlalUy from Different Causes in Massachusetts (1S02 and 1S93), 
and in England and the German Empire {1892). 

[ExpreBBed as a ratio per 10,000 of the living population.] 





Massachusetts. 


England. 
1892. 


German 


Causes of Death. 


1892. 


1893. 


189S. 


Measles, 


.4 


1.1 


4.63 


3.10 


Small-pox, 


.01 


.04 


.15 


.02 


Scarlet-fever, 


2.8 


3.3 


1.90 


2.21 


Diphtheria and croup, .... 


6.1 


5.7 


2.98 


11.83 


Whooping-cough, 


1.0 


1.1 


4.55 


3.98 


T3-phoitl fever, 


3.5 


3.1 


1.37 


1.75 


Phthisis, pulmonary, .... 


24.2 


22.7 


14.68 


23.50 


Other forms of tubercular disease, 


7.1 


7.6 


4.26 


1.70 


Pneumonia, 


21.2 


22.6 


12.51 


14.82 


Cancer, 


5.9 


6.3 


6.90 


6.10 


Puerperal fever, 


.3 


.2 


.80 


.69 


Other accidents of childbirth. 


.9 


1.0 


.97 


.87 


Old age, 


8.0 


7.6 


9.44 


23.30 


Accident or negligence, 


7.7 


8.0 


5.53 


3.78 


Suicide, 


1.2 


1.2 


.88 


2.05 


Hydrophobia,* 


- 


- 


- 


- 



* Ratios inappreciable : 1 death in Massachusetts in 1892, 2 in 1893, 6 in England in 1892, 
and 4 in Germany. 

Deaths at Early Ages, from Certain Causes. 

In the summarie.s of the vital statistics of Massachusetts which 
have been hitherto presented, the deaths and death rates of chiklren 
liave only been stated for the first ten years of life in two groups of 
five years each, 0-5 and 5-10. It is desirable to present a finer 
division for the first years of life, by single years, a practice which 
is now followed in nearly all countries having registration. 



xc 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



The causes of death selected for presentation in the following 
table are the principal infectious diseases of infancy and childhood, 
together with dysentery, pneumonia and bronchitis, which present 
their highest death rates at the two extremes of infancy and old age. 

The figures for the group 5-10 years are added for the purpose 
of comparison. 

In the preparation of this table the figures employed are those 
of the seven j^ears 1887-93. These were selected for the reason 
that the division by single years for the first five years was intro- 
duced into the Registration Report in 1887, and for this period the 
mid-year 1890 was a census year, and may be very conveniently 
employed as a basis for calculating the mean death rates. The cor- 
rected figures, in which the omissions and faults of distribution of 
the census are adjusted, are employed in preparing this table. 



Table 33. — Morlality from Certain Diseases of Children, by Ages. — Seven Years 

(1887-93). 



Age Pebiods. 






5 


D. 
P 
O 
Wt 

O 


5. 
o 


£•5 

■g s 


c 
ll 


c 

00 


C 
o 

Q 

s 


5 

a 
o 

P3 


0-1, 


429 


214 


415 


442 


1,132 


257 


14,785 


298 


4,120 


3,619 


1-2, 


517 


445 


1,036 


626 


408 


114 


2,160 


149 


1,981 


1,158 


2-3, 


192 


516 


1,215 


601 


160 


82 


264 


47 


855 


363 


3-4, .. . 


98 


462 


1,169 


418 


92 


59 


76 


38 


454 


197 


4-5, .. . 


67 


373 


1,004 


282 


44 


34 


42 


21 


342 


93 


0-5, 


1,303 


2,010 


4,839 


2,3G9 


1,836 


546 


17,327 


553 


7,752 


5,430 


5-10, . 


122 


831 


2,506 


478 


52 


109 


7 


57 


691 


166 



Average Annual Morlality at Each Age Period, cnmpa7'ed with the Population 
living at Each Period, expressed as a Ratio per 10,000 of such Living Popula- 
tion (1887-93). 



0-1, 


12.8 


6.4 


12.4 


13.2 


33.7 


7.6 


440.0 


8.9 


122.0 


107.7 


1-2, 


16.1 


13.9 


32.3 


19.5 


12.7 


3.6 


67.3 


4.6 


61.7 


30.1 


2-3, 


6.1 


16.4 


38.7 


19.2 


5.1 


2.6 


8.4 


1.5 


27.3 


11.6 


3-4, 


3.2 


15.0 


37.8 


13.6 


3.0 


1.9 


2.5 


1.2 


14.7 


6.4 


4-5, 


2.2 


12.2 


32.9 


9.2 


1.4 


1.1 


1.4 


.7 


11.2 


3.0 


0-5, 


8.2 


12.7 


30.5 


14.9 


11.0 


3.4 


109.3 


3.6 


48.9 


34.3 


6-10, . 


.9 


6.1 


18.3 


3.5 


.4 


.8 


.0 


.4 


5.0 


1.2 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. xci 

By this table it appears that the death rate from measles, 16.1 per 
10,000 of those living at the same year of life, is highest in the 
second year 1-2, that of the first year being a little less, while there 
is a rapid fall in the death rate from 16. 1 in the second year to 2.2 
in the fifth. 

In scarlet-fever the highest mortality is not reached till the third 
year of life, when it is nearly three times as great as that of the first 
year. That of the fifth year (12.2) is also nearly double that of the 
first year. 

In dijjhthei-ia the highest death rates are found in the third and 
fourth years of life, in which they are nearly equal, and more than 
three times as great as that of the first year, while the second and 
fifth years are nearly equal and intermediate between the first and 
third. 

In croup the death rates of the second and third years are nearly 
equal, and about 50 per cent, higher, than that of the first year, 
which is also nearly the same as that of the fourth year of life. 

In ichooping-cough the death rate of the first year of life is far 
greater than that of either of the succeeding years, the death rate 
rapidly diminishing from 33.7 per 10,000 living in the first year to 
1.4 in the fifth year of life, and only .4 in the period 5-10 years. 

In cerebrospinal meningitis the mortality diminishes steadily from 
7.6 in the first year to 1.1 in the fifth and .8 in the period 5-10 
years. 

In cholera infantum the intensity of the disease is mostly ex- 
pended upon the first year of life, the death rate of the second year 
being less than one-sixth as great as that of the first, while those of 
the third, fourth and fifth years become comparatively insignificant. 
The 7 deaths registered in the period 5-10 years cannot be ex- 
pressed by a single decimal figure, and may bo accounted for by 
possible errors. 

In dijsentery the death rate decreases rapidly from 8.9 in the first 
year to .7 in the fifth. 

In pneumo7iia, as well as in bronchitis, the death rates are high 
in the first year of infimcy, being respectively 122.6 and 107.7 for 
the two diseases, and diraniishing from these high rates to 11.2 and 
3.0 respectively in the fifth year. In each of these causes of death 
the death rates also increased rapidly in the last age periods of 
extreme old age, that of pneumonia being shown in Table 27. 



xcii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

TJie Vital SLatistics of the Urban Population. 

The population of the cities and large towns of Massachusetts has 
increased with much greater rapidity than that of the rural districts, 
and demands increasing attention in any general presentation of the 
vital statistics of the State. In the fifty years of registration in 
Massachusetts the population of towns and cities having more than 
10,000 inhabitants in each has increased from 24 per cent, of the 
total population of the State to more than 61 per cent. 

In the forty-ninth Registration Report (1890) a table was intro- 
duced in which the marriage, birth and death rates of the 28 cities 
were presented. In the present summary a similar table is pre- 
sented, amplified and made to include the statistics of all towns 
having over 10,000 inhabitants in each (37 in number) for the 
period of three years, 1891, 1892 and 1893, and also the deaths and 
death rates from seven principal infectious and other causes of 
death. The marriage, birth and death rates are estimated from a 
mean estimated population for 1892, as a mid-year mean of the 
triennial period 1891-93. The statistics are also presented for the 
urban district as a whole, for the rural district as a whole, for 
the State as a whole, and also for each of four groups of cities, 
arranged according to their populations. 

This table illustrates clearly the effect of density of population 
upon mortality rates, as demonstrated by Dr. Farr. The density 
of population in this table is measured in terms of the number of 
acres to each inhabitant, and is necessarily approximate, since the 
area is quoted from the report of the tax commissioner, which in- 
cludes assessed acres only, excluding the area of public lands, high- 
ways, etc. By this estimate the density of the State for the period 
in question was 1.9 acres to each inhabitant. That of the district 
groups was as follows : — 

Density of Population, Massachusetts, 1891-93. 

Acres to 
Each Inhabitant. 

The State 1.9 

Cities and towns composing the urban districts, ... .2 

Towns composing the rural districts, 6.3 

Group I., the city of Boston, ....... .04 

Group II., cities having* from 50,000 to 100,000 popuhiliou in 

each .13 

Group III., cities having from 2.0,000 to 50,000 in each, . . .29 

Group IV., cities having from 10,000 to 25,000 ia each, . . .61 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT— No. 34. 



XCIU 



For convenience of comparison, a standard of 1,000 for the State 
is here adopted, and the condensed table is as follows : — 

Table Si. — Beath Rales from Certain Diseases; the Stale=i 1,000. 





c 
a 








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The State, .... 


1.9 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


1,000 


Urban districts, 


.2 


1,088 


1,104 


1,036 


1,064 


1,044 


1,053 


1,110 


1,083 


1,173 


1,158 


Rurai districts, 


5.3 


823 


790 


927 


870 


912 


893 


778 


845 


646 


681 


Group I., urban district, 


.04 


1,183 


1,126 


1,163 


1,345 


1,287 


887 


1,629 


1,179 


1,658 


991 


Group ir., " " 


.13 


1,091 


1,117 


1,067 


1,005 


984 


1,142 


832 


1,238 


881 


1,655 


Group HI., " " 


.29 


1,068 


1,094 


971 


912 


959 


1,157 


974 


976 


1,074 


1,068 


Group IV., " " 


.61 


936 


1,064 


867 


905 


833 


1,030 


806 


857 


888 


856 



This table shows very clearly the effect of density of population in 
modifying the general death rate. The mortality increases coinci- 
dently with the density. The same effect is shown in the columns 
for different diseases, except that here the peculiar characteristics of 
each disease show their further modifying influence in increasing or 
diminishing and in some instances entirely outweighing the eftect 
of density. 

In groups II. and III. of the urban districts the typhoid death 
rate was highest, since the two cities of Lowell and Lawrence, 
having during the greater part of this period polluted water sup- 
plies, are included. 

The high mortality of Boston (District I.) from diphtheria and 
from scarlet-fever and its low death rate from cholera infantum are 
notable. 

The death rate of Lowell and Fall Kiver from cholera infantum 
raised the figures of District II. excessively. 



XCIV 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 





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PUBLIC DOCUMEXT — No. 34. 



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xcvi 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



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1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



XCVll 



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c«c4e4e4G4C4C4c<»)eQc>cocQC9coo3co raco 'V '«<«'n>'9 



xcviii STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

Medical Examiners^ Returns. 

The returns of the medical examiners comprise the deaths which 
were investigated by those officers during the year 1893, this class 
of deaths being those which were of a violent, sudden, suspicious or 
doubtful character, and were therefore referred to the medical ex- 
aminers for their official action. 

The whole number of deaths of this class which were investigated 
during the year was 2,221. Of this number, 76 were reported as 
deaths from homicide, 290 by suicide, 976 from accident or negli- 
gence and 879 from natural or unknown causes, including alcohol- 
ism. Of the whole number, 1,678 were males, 530 were females, 
the sex of 13 was unknown. The number of autopsies conducted 
was 269. 

Comparative Vital Statistics. 

The question may be asked, " How does the death rate of Massa- 
chusetts compare with that of other States and countries ? " and in 
the last annual report, page xliii, a brief reference was made to the 
subject of the methods adopted for arriving at a just comparison of 
mortality statistics, in the following language : — 

The crude death rate obtained by estimating the ratio of the number of 
deaths to the living population has been employed for many years as an 
index of the sanitary condition of a community, and for comparing its san- 
itary condition with that of other communities. While this method may be 
trusted in the comparison of the death rates of a nation, a State, county, 
city or town at different periods of time (since the age and sex distribution 
of communities remains fairly constant when comparisons are made for brief 
l)eriods or successive years), it cannot be trusted for the comparison of dif- 
ferent towns, cities, States and countries with each other, when the age and 
sex distribution differs widely, as, for example, in our own State, in the 
case of Barnstable and Bristol counties, or Barnstable and Suffolk. 

In support of this statement Dr. Farr says: " Independently of other 
causes of variation, the mortality of different populations will differ accord- 
ing as they consist of numbers in various proportions at the ages at whicli 
the mortality is high or low." 

"It is not too much to say that death rates calculated on the gross 
population are practically worthless as evidence of the sanitary conditions 
of communities less than entire nations." (Dr. E. F. Willoughby, Hand- 
book of Tublic Health and Demography.) 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. xcix 

For the purpose of facilitating the methods of correcting death rates 
according to age and sex distribution, Dr. Ogle, of the British Registration 
of Statistics oflice, and J. Korosi, Director of Statistics of Hungary, have 
proposed the employment of standards of population in which a normal or 
standard distribution of ages and sexes is presented. For this purpose 
Dr. Ogle combines the populations of seven principal European countries, 
including about one hundred and seventy million inhabitants, and presents 
a table in which the average distribution of these populations is given by 
sexes and age periods, the whole number of such periods being twelve. 
For the purpose of comparison with other countries, States, cities or smaller 
communities, this method has the disadvantage of requiring an amount of 
computation which becomes burdensome ; and, secondly, the age periods 
employed above 20 years do not correspond with those which have usually 
been adopted in Massachusetts and other American communities, and, while 
there are some advantages in adopting a distribution into the periods 25-35 > 
35-45, etc., instead of 20-30, 30-40, etc., the differences are so slight as 
not to make it advisable to change the existing methods. 

Korosi of Buda-Pesth suggests a method which is less cumbrous than the 
foregoing. He does not deem it essential for this purpose to adopt a sex 
distribution, but employs a distribution of ages Quly, and divides them into 
four periods, as follows : — 

All under one year. 
One to twenty years. 
Twenty to fifty years. 
All over fifty years. 

It is evident that, in order to form a just comparison of our death 
rate in Massachusetts upon an international basis, the age distribu- 
tion must necessarily be taken into account, since this age distri- 
bution differs materially from tint of other countries, in consequence 
of the marked effect of immigration upon the adult ages of the popu- 
lation. 

For the purpose of arriving at an accurate conclusion as to the 
comparative mortality rate of the population of Massachusetts, the 
following table is presented, in which the distribution of the popula- 
tion at each census from 18(>5 to 1800 is given, tojjether with the 
percentages to the total population for these four age periods : — 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Table 36. 





1863. 


1870. 


1875. 


Age Peuiods. 


Population. 


Per Cent. 


Population. 


Per Cent. 


Population. 


Per Cent. 


Under 1, . . . . 

1-20, 

20-50 

Over 50 


23,719 
497,478 
553,880 
190,653 


1.87 
39.31 
43.76 
15.06 


32,987 
554,253 
651,699 
218,371 


2.26 
38.04 
44.72 
14.98 


34,140 
621,022 
759,481 
226,967 


2.03 
37.83 

46.27 
13.82 


Unknown, .... 


1,265,730 
1,302 


100.00 


1,457,310 
41 


100.00 


1,641,610 
10,302 


100.00 





1880. 


1883. 


1890. 


Age Peeiods. 
















Population. 


Per Cent. 


Population. 


Per Cent. 


Population. 


Per Cent. 


Under 1, . . . . 


37,587 


2.11 


35,888 


1.85 


43,043 


1.93 


1-20 


681,788 


38.24 


726,749 


37.42 


763,134 


34.18 


20-50 


803,812 


45.08 


886,085 


45.63 


1,060,190 


47.49 


Over 50, .... 


259,898 


14.57 


293,275 


15.10 


366,075 


16.40 




1,783,086 


100.00 


1,941,997 


100.00 


2,232,442 


100.00 


Unknown, .... 





- 


144 


- 


6,501 


- 



Note. — In this table no correction is made for probable errors or deficiencies. 



The foregoing table shows that the age distribution of the popula- 
tion of the State has remained fairly constant for a quarter of a 
century, the variation being but slight. 

The foregoing age periods were adopted by M. Korosi after trials 
with different periods. They differ somewhat from those which 
have been in use, but he states that it " was found to be preferable 
to group the first year separately, and that there was no sensible 
change produced by placing the next nineteen years in one single 
group." 

These figures were not presented in the summary of last year, 
since the age distribution of the Massachusetts poi)ulation in the 
census year 1890 was not then accessible. 

The chief difference in this table as compared with the figures for 
foreign countries lies in the larger percentage of the third age 
period, 20-50, which is due to the large number of immigrants of 
this age. Observations extending over a period of more than a 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



ci 



half-century show that nearly GO per cent, of the immigrants during 
that time were between '20 and 50 years of age, while those under 
10 years of age constituted only 15 per cent. 

Korosi presents the population of Sweden as a standard for com- 
parison, — a country having wiiat may be termed a normal age dis- 
tribution with a constantly low death rate. 

With this standard in view the following table is presented, 
giving the age distribution of the living and the dead for Massa- 
chusetts for the two census years, 1885 and 1890, with mortality 
indices for the purpose of comparison : — 



Tahle 37. — Comparative Mortality of Massachusetts, 1SS5, 1S90. 



The Living, 
1885. 



The Dead, 
1885. 



Coefficient, 
Per 1,000. 



Per Cent, of 

Population, 

Sweden. 



Mortality 
Index. 



0-1 year, 
1-20 years, . 
20-50 years, 
50 and over, 



41,140* 
696,990* 
894,889 
323,130 



7,625 
7,547 
9,443 
13,346 



1S5.3 
10.8 
10.5 
41.3 



2.65 
39.81 
38.62 
IS. 92 



100.00 



4.01 
4.31 

4.07 

S.17 



21.46 



Ages. 


The Living, 
1890. 


The Dead, 
1890. 


Coefficient, 
Per 1,000. 


Per Cent, of 

I'opulatlon, 

Sweden. 


Mortality 
Index. 


0-1 year, 


48,000* 


9,625 


200.5 


2.65 


6.31 


1-20 years, 


780,859* 


7,585 


9.7 


39.81 


3.80 


20-50 years 


1,060,190 


10,879 


10.3 


38.62 


3.96 


50 and over, 


366,075 


15,290 


41.7 


18.92 


7.90 




- 


- 


- 


100.00 


21.03 



♦ The figures for these age periods 0-1 and 1-20 have been corrected in accordance with the prin- 
ciples explained on a previous page. 

"With these figures it now becomes possible to compare the mor- 
tality of Massachusetts with that of other countries having a dif- 
ferent age distribution, each of these being separately referred to 
the Swedish distribution. For this purpose the last census of those 
countries is adopted as the source of the figures given. 

The following list presents the comparative mortality* of fourteen 
countries, as compared with that of Massachusetts : — 

* Mortalitats Coefficient u. Mortalitats Index, Berechnung de sluternat. Sterbliclikeil3 
Indexes ftiv U Staateu, J. Korosi, Int. Statist. Bulletin G, 1892, p. 305. 



cu 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Table 38. 



COUJfTKIES. 








COMPABATIVB MORTALITY 
FlGCBKS. 


The Same rbdccep to 
A Standard of 100. 




(«) 


(?-) 


(c) 


Sweden, 










1881 


17.65 


100 


Korway, 










1876 


19.01 


108 


Denmark, . , 










1880 


20.50 


116 


Scotland, . 










1881 


20.54 


116 


Massachusetts, 










1885 


21.02 


119 


Belgium, . 










1881 


21.32 


121 


Massachusetts, 










1890 


21.46 


122 


Holland, 










1880 


22.89 


130 


France, 










1882 


22.92 


130 


Switzerland, 










1881 


23.03 


131 


Prussia, 










1881 


25.47 


144 


Wvirtemberg, 










1881 


27.01 


153 


Saxony, 










1881 


27.69 


167 


Italy, . 










1882 


27.82 


158 


Austria, 










1881 


30.52 


173 



The figures in column b may be taken as the death rate which 
would have been recorded in each country in the year named in 
column a, had the population of such country been identical, so far 
as age distribution is concerned, with that of Sweden. By this 
means the mortality of each country is made comparable with that 
of Sweden and of the other countries named in the list. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. ciii 

MsTRoroLiTAN Water Supply. 

In the last, annual report of the Board (page xlix) brief reference 
was made to the important duty which had been intrusted to the 
Board by the Legislature of 1893 of "considering and reporting 
upon the question of a water supply for the city of Boston and its 
suburbs within a radius of ten miles from the State House, and for 
such other cities and towns as in the opinion of the Board should be 
included in connection therewith." 

The Board entered at once upon the work of investigation, and 
after making the necessary surveys submitted its report to the Legis- 
lature on the first Wednesday in February, 1895. This report forms 
a document of 270 pages, and includes the general report of the 
Board upon the proposed metropolitan water supply, the report of 
the consulting engineer, the report of the chief engineer, together 
with several additional reports and statements of experts upon the 
following special subjects : Growth of population in the Boston 
metropolitan district ; Present and future consumption of water in 
the district, by Dexter Brackett, C. E. ; Improvement of the quality 
of the Sudbury River water by drainage of swamps, by D. Fitz- 
Gerald, C. E. ; The amount and character of organic matter in soils, 
by T. M. Drown, M. D. ; Water supply of different qualities for 
different purposes, by Dexter Brackett, C. E. ; Sanitary' examination 
of Nashua River water-shed. It is fully illustrated with maps and 
plans showing the proposed water-sheds and sources investigated 
by the Board, methods of distribution, dams, and plans of drainage. 

This general plan as reported by the State Board of Health was 
adopted by the Legislature of 1895 as the plan of water supply for 
the metropolitan district, and an act was passed providing for the 
appointment of a Metropolitan Water Board, to have the entire 
charge of carrying out the provisions of the act, with authority to 
expend $27,000,000 for this purpose. The estimated cost of the 
works proposed by the State Board of Health was $19,045,800. 
The additional amount authorized by the Legislature is mainly for 
the purpose of purchasing Boston's sources of water supply, aque- 
ducts and pumping stations, and for the completion of a reservoir 
already begun by the city. 

It has been thought advisable to reprint so much of this report as 
embraces the general report of the Board upon the subject in the 
present volume, and the same may be found on later pages. 



civ STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

Improvement of the Charles Eiver. 

By the provisions of chapter 475 of the Acts of 1893, the Board 
of Metropolitan Park Commissioners and the State Board of Health 
were constituted a "joint board, to investigate the sanitary condi- 
tion, and to prepare plans for the improvement of the beds, shores 
and waters of the Charles River, between Charles River bridge and 
the Waltbam line in Charles River, and for the removal of any 
nuisances therefrom." 

The joint board was authorized to employ engineers and experts 
in making the proper surveys and devising plans for this improve- 
ment. 

The report of this Board was made to the Legislature of 1804 in 
May of that year, the document relating to this subject being 
numbered as House Document, 775, 1894. It contains the reports 
of the joint board, the engineer and the landscape architects, 
together with several maps, plans and heliotype plates illustrating 
the proposed improvements, with several cuts illustrating similar 
improvements in other countries. The general report of this joint 
board is republished in the present volume on subsequent pages. 

The Legislature of 1894, after considering the subject, enacted 
the following law, providing for the taking of land upon the banks 
of the Charles River. The question of constructing a dam and 
lock in the tidal basin of Charles River, with special reference to 
their interference with tide water and their effect on the harbor of 
Boston, was referred to the Harbor and Land Commissioners, who 
were directed to report upon the subject. 

[Acts of 1894, Chapter 509.] 

An Act to authorize the Metropolitan Park Commission to expend 
A Sum of ]\Ioney in Addition to the Amounts heretofore author- 
ized for Open Spaces along or near the Charles River. 

Be it enacted^ etc. , as follows : 

Section 1. The metropolitan park coinmission, for the purpose of 
acquiring and making available, under chapter four hundred and seven of 
the acts of tlie year eighteen hundred and ninety-tiiree, open spaces for 
exercise and recreation along or near the Charles River, from the Essex 
street bridge, so called, at Cottage Farms, towards the source of the river^ 
may expend the sum of three hundred thousand dollars in addition to any 
and all sums hitherto authorized to be expended by them by said act and 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. cv 

by all acts in addition thereto or in amendment thereof ; and to meet the 
expenses incurred hereunder, the treasurer and receiver general shall issue 
a corresponding amount of scrip or certificates of indebtedness as an addi- 
tion to the metropolitan parks loan, and establish a sinking fund to provide 
for the same ; said scrip or certificates of indebtedness to be issued and 
said sinking fund to be established, assessed and collected in accordance 
with the provisions of sections nine, ten, eleven and twelve of chapter four 
hundred and ninety-three, as far as applicable hereto. 

Skction 2. Said act is hereby amended by striking out section eleven 
and inserting in place thereof the following : — Section 11. The metropol- 
itan park commission shall annually estimate and certify to the auditor the 
expenses of preservation and necessary care of said public open spaces for 
tlie ensuing year, which expenses shall be apportioned by the treasurer and 
receiver general in the manner provided in the following section, [-l^:*- 
proved Jane 22, 1894. 

Water Supply and Sewerage. 

The act of 1886 entitled, " An act to protect the purity of inland 
waters," has proved one of the most useful .laws in the history of 
State legislation. 

Under the provisions of this act the Board was given a general 
oversight over the inland waters of the State, and was required to 
examine these waters with reference to their use as sources of 
domestic water supply. It was also required to recommend meas- 
ures to prevent the pollution of such waters, and was authorized to 
conduct experiments to determine the best practicable methods of 
purification of drainage and sewage or disposal of the same. Quite 
as important was the requirement that the Board should give advice to 
cities and towns, corporations and individuals, relative to the introduc- 
tion of water supplies and systems of sewerage and sewage disposal. 

The amount and character of the work performed by the Board 
under this act may to some extent be understood by an examination 
of the reports of the Board from 1886 to the present year, including 
the special documents, vols. 1 and 2, published in 1890 and 1891. 
These reports of the Board have justly won a reputation which has 
entitled them to a phice as standard works upon the subject of water 
supply and sewage disposal. In this department of the work of the 
Board have been planned some of tlic most important and extensive 
engineering undertakings within the limits of the State, such as the 
metropolitan sewerage system and the metropolitan water supply ; 
the execution of both will involve the expenditure of $33,000,000. 



cvi STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

The operations of the Board during the year 1894 under the pro- 
visions of this act may be found in the first part of the following 
report, page 1. The topics presented in this part of the report are 
the advice of the Board to cities and towns, the examination of water 
supplies, the examination of rivers, summary of water supply statis- 
tics nnd records of rainfiill and flow of streams, the composition of 
the water of deep wells, the bacterial contents of ground waters and 
of deep wells, experiments upon the filtration of sewage and of water 
and physical and chemical properties of sands. 

Food and Drug Inspection. 

This department of the work of the Board has continued without 
interruption since the enactment of the food and drug acts in 1882. 

Many of the difficulties attending the earlier inspections under this 
department and the enforcement of the statutes have been overcome ; 
the amount of work done has gradually increased, while the cost of 
examination, per sample collected, has diminished. 

The inconvenience of examinations in several different laboratories, 
and at a distance from the office of the Board, has been greatly 
diminished by concentrating nearly all of the analytical work at the 
laboratory in the State House, and under the supervision of a single 
chief analyst. 

A full report of the work of the Board in this direction may be 
found under the head of Food and Drug Inspection. 

Statistical Summaries. 
The enactment of two new statutes, chapter 302 of the Acts of 
1895 and chapter 218 of the Acts of 1894, has increased to a con- 
siderable extent the statistical work required ,of the Board. All 
this material has been grouped together in the present report, 
together with the voluntary returns embraced under the title of 
weekly mortality reports, the whole being entitled the Statistical 
Summaries. These comprise the following topics : — 

1. Weekly mortality returns of cities and towns. (Voluntary.) 

2. Summary of four infectious diseases with ratios of fatality 
(abstracted from the annual reports of municipal boards of health). 

3. Summary of infectious disease notification (under provisions 
of chapter 302, Acts of 1893). 

4. Summary of returns of deaths by boards of health in places 
having over 5,000 inhabitants in each (under provisions of chapter 
218, Acts of 1894). 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. cvii 

Antitoxine in Diphtheria. 

Public hygiene is a life-saving department of work, and the opera- 
tions of a board of health which pertain to the management and 
control of infectious diseases should constitute one of the most im- 
portant functions not only of general but also of local health 
organizations. The saving of human lives, both individually and 
collectively, adds to the wealth and to the efficiency of the popula- 
tion, and such work deserves the highest praise and encouragement. 

In the eighteenth century two of the most destructive diseases 
were small-pox and consumption. The great discovery of Jenner 
has reduced the mortality from the former and rendered it compara- 
tively harmless, w^hile the destructiveness of the latter has been 
diminished nearly one-half in the past fifty years, in consequence of 
better knowledge of the ways of living, better food, ventilation and 
the dissemination of popular information upon the subject. 

Meanwhile, diphtheria has become, since its reappearance about 
the middle of the present century, an unusually destructive disease. 
Special attention has therefore been directed toward the means for 
diminishing the excessive mortality from this cause, and these efforts 
have been crowned with a promising measure of success. 

At the recent Congress of Hygiene, held at Budapesth in Hungary, 
Dr. Roux announced the result of his researches and the success of 
the treatment which had been adopted by him at the Hospital des 
Infants Malades in Paris. During the years 1890, 1891, 1892 and 
1893 the number treated for diphtheria at this hospital was 3,971, 
with an average mortality of 51.7 per cent. In the first six months 
of 1894 there were 448 admissions, with 109 deaths, — a mortality 
of 24.5 per cent. That this improvement was not due to the preva- 
lence of a mild type of the disease was shown by the fiiet that in 
another hospital in Paris, where 520 children were received in the 
diphtheria ward during the same months, and were not treated with 
antitoxine, the mortality was 60 per cent. These results were com- 
pared by German investigators in the same direction, and this 
preventive mode of treatment may be considered as established, so 
far as the question of securing a decided reduction in the death rate 
from diphtheria is concerned. 

With these facts in view, the State Board of Health entered upon 
the work of preparing antitoxine for distribution in the State during 
the fiiU of 1894, and for this purpose appointed Dr. J. L. Goodale 



cviii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

of Caaibridge temporaril}'' to supervise the work of preparation. 
Several horses were purchased, together with the necessary supply 
of smaller animals required for the purpose of testing and preparing 
the material produced. A laboratory was also established, for con- 
ducting the requisite processes. 

It is too early to publish a digest or summary of the work accom- 
plished in this direction. It is sufficient to say that the results thus 
far secured fully justify the continuance of the work thus begun, 
since a very considerable saving of life has undoubtedly been effected. 
A careful digest and summary will be prepared for publication in 
the next annual report, to embrace the results of the first year's 
work in this direction. 

Improvement of the Concord and Sudbury Meadow^s. 

Durino^ the leo^islative session of 1894 hearings were held in answer 
to petitions from inhabitants living upon the borders of the Concord 
and Sudbury rivers above the dam at Billerica, asking that legis- 
lation might be secured for the purpose of improving those rivers so 
that the level of the ground water in the meadows upon their borders 
might be lowered. As a result of these hearings an act was passed 
entitled " An act relative to the protection of the public health in 
the villages of the Concord and Sudbury rivers." 

The first section of this act, requiring the services of the State 
Board of Health, is as follows : — 

[Acts of 1894, Chapter 426.] 

An Act relative to the Protection of the Public Health in the 
Valleys of the Concord and Sudbury Rivers. 
Section 1. The state board of health is hereby authorized and directed 
to expend during the current year a sum not exceeding twenty thousand 
dollars, in dredging the bars in the Concord and Sudbury rivers above the 
dam at North Billerica and removing the weeds from said rivers, and in 
such other measures as shall, in the opinion of the board, tend to the 
restoration of the marshes along the said rivers to their original condition 
and to tlie abatement of malaria and other perils to the public health aris- 
ing from the present state of the same. [Approved May 24, 1894. 

At its first meeting, June 7, after the passage of the foregoing 
act, the Board voted to proceed at once with the necessary investi- 
gations preliminary to carrying out the Avork required by the act. 
It seemed necessary that a hearing should be granted to the residents 
included in the district specified, and a hearing was held by the Board 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. . cix 

July 26, 1894, at which the inhabitants of the district were repre- 
sented and the engineer of the Board outlined a plan of operations. 

On August 2, the Board received a letter from the secretary of the 
committee of the landowners upon the borders of these rivers, sig- 
nifying their approval of the work, and requesting the Board to 
carry out the plan outlined by the engineer of the Board. 

The Board then advertised for proposals for dredging the rivers. 
Considerable delay was occasioned by the failure of the successful 
bidder to obtain the necessary bonds for the performance of the 
work. Advertisements were again made, and the contract was 
finally awarded to the Eastern Dredging Company. 

Meanwhile, citizens of Concord living near the river requested 
that the channel of the river might be made wider through that 
region, offering also to pay for the extra expense of such widening. 
The Board will make a report upon this subject when the work is 
completed. 

Health of Towns. 

The last pages of the report are devoted. to a digest of the prin- 
cipal facts of importance collected from the annual reports of local 
boards of health for the year 1894. The table of infectious diseases, 
notifications and deaths from the same causes has been transferred 
this year from this part of the report to that portion which is entitled 
*' Statistical Summaries." 

Routine Work of the Board. 

The Board, in the jierformance of its duties under the provisions of 
the Public Statutes and of all succeedino; acts relatino; to the Board, 
has held meetings at least once each month during the year, and 
such meetings of its standing committees as were essential to the 
proper performance of its duties. The operations of the Board are 
presented in detail in the present volumes, under the ditlerent topics 
relating to its prescribed duties. 

Advice has been given very frequently at the office of the Board 
to local boards of health and to individuals requesting advice upon 
sanitary questions, and in instances where occasion required, visits 
have been made by the secretary, or by the engineers or other 
experts of the Board, to cities and towns, for the purpose of making 
investigations and inspection and giving advice. 

Two public hearings were held by the Board during the year : one 
on June 14, in answer to a petition for the action of the Board rela- 



ex STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

tive to the Butchers' Eendering Association ; and the other July 26, 
to the inhabitants of the district lying upon the borders of the Con- 
cord and Sudbury rivers. 

The statistics of mortality compiled from the weekly postal card 
returns from the registering authorities of cities and towns have been 
published weekly during the year in the form of a bulletin, which 
also contains, once in each month, a report of the work done in the 
line of food and drug inspection, together with the prosecutions 
made under the food and drug acts. In addition to these items there 
is also published in the same bulletin a weekly report of the number 
of cases of infectious diseases reported by the local boards to the 
State Board of Health. 

The following table presents certain statistical data relative to the 
routine work of the Board : — 

Statistical Table for the Year ending Sept. 30, 1894. 

AVhole number of samples of foods and drags examined during the year, 6,82-i 

Samples of milk examined (included in the foregoing), . . . . 3,501 

"Whole number examined since beginning of work in 1883, . . . 60,397 
Whole number of samples of milk examined since beginning of work 

in 1883, 30,577 

Number of prosecutions against offenders during the year, ... 90 

Number of convictions during the year, 77 

Amount of fines secured during the year, $2,625 00 

Force employed in general work of Board at central oflSce, State House : — 

Secretary, 1 

Clerks 2 

Messenger, . 1 

Total, 4 

Force employed at central office. State House, Boston, for food and drug 

inspection, chemists and assistants, 2 

At Amherst, 1 

— 3 
Inspectors, 8 

Total, 6 

Statistical Table for the Year 1894. 
Ai^plications for advice from cities, towns and others: — 

Relating to water supply, 40 

Relating to sewerage and drainage, 10 

Relating to pollution of streams, 3 

Total, 63 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. cxi 

Number of samples of water examined chemically and microscopically 

at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology'-, 2,006 

■ Number of samples of sewage and water examined chemically and bac- 

terially at the Lawrence Experiment Station, 2,534 

Number of samples of sand examined chemically and bacterially at the 

Lawrence Experiment Station, 420 

Number of samples of sand examined mechanically at the Lawrence 

Experiment Station, 234 

Additional samples examined bacterially at the Lawrence Experiment 

Station, 6,295 



Total number of samples examined, 11,489 

Force employed at central oflBce : — * 

Chief engineer, 1 

Assistant engineers 2 

Stenogra^jher and clerk, 1 

— 4 

At Massachusetts Institute of Technolog}' : — 

Chief chemist,t 1 

Assistant chemists, 5 

Chief biologist,! : . . . , 1 

Assistant biologist, 1 

— 8 

At Lawrence Experiment Station : — 

Chemists, 2 

Bacteriologists, 3 

Other assistants and laborers, 4 

— 9 

Total ordinary force, 21 

The numer of applications for advice under the provisions of chap- 
ter 275, Acts of 1888, received since July, 188(5, when the act relat- 
ing to water supply and sewerage first went into operation, is as 
follows : — 



1886, 
1887, 
1888, 
1889, 
1890, 
1891, 



8 I 1892 66 

22 I 1893 51 

28 
88 
23 



53 



1894, 53 

Total, 332 



• Not incUiding the force employed upon the metropolitan water supply investigations. 

t The chief chemist and biologist, although located at the Massachusetts Institute of Tech- 
nology, have the oversight of the chemical and biological work at the Lawrence Experiment 
Station. 



cxii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

Recommendations. 

The following recommendation was made to the Legislature at 
the beginning of the session of 1895. 

The Board recommends the continuance of its investigations now being 
carried on as authorized by the provisions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 
1888. For this purpose, and to make the necessary investigations in order 
to advise cities, towns, corporations and individuals in regard to the best 
methods of assuring the purity of intended or existing water supplies and 
the best method of disposing of sewage, and to carry out tlie other pro- 
visions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888, the Board estimates that the 
sum of 830,000 will be required. 

Expenditures. 

The work of the Board is conducted under the provisions of 
several statutes, and for its different departments of work these ap- 
propriations are annually made, one for the general work of the 
Board, one for the inspection of food and drugs and a third for the 
carrying out the provisions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888, relat- 
ing to the protection of the purity of inland waters. In addition to 
the foregoing, special appropriations have been made from time to 
time, as occasion has demanded, for the purpose of enabling the 
Board to conduct special lines of investigations. 

The appropriations for the different departments of work in 1894 
were as follows : — 

For the general work of the Board, $10,800 

For food and drug inspection, 11,500 

For carrying out the provisions of chapter 375, Acts of 1888, . 27,000 

In addition to the fore^oinf? regular lines of work the Board eon- 

O O o 

tinned its investigations upon the su])jcct of a general water supply 
for the metropolitan district, and was also authorized to expend 
$20,000 for carrying out the provisions of an act *' relative to the 
protection of the public health in the valleys of the Concord and 
Sudbury rivers" (see page cviii). 

The expenditures in 1894 under the foregoing appropriations were 
as follows : — 



1895.] 



PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. 



CXIU 



For the General Work of Board, Sept. 30, 1893, 
Salaries, . . . * . 

Printing, 

Travelling exi^enses, 
Special investigations, 

Postage, 

Books, subscriptions and binding. 

Express, 

Stationery, .... 
Telephone, .... 
Type- writer, .... 
Tj-pe-writer and library supplies. 
Office incidentals, . 
Messenger services, 
Telegrams, .... 
Drafting woodcuts, . 



Total, 



For Food and Drcg Inspection 
Salaries of analysts, 



Salaries of inspectors. 

Travelling expenses and purchjise of supplies, 

Apparatus and chemicals. 

Furniture and fittings at laboratory 

Legal services, 

Gas, 

Extra services, .... 

Milk cans, tags, washing windows and sundry small suiiplies, 



FOR Ye 



AR ENDIN 



TO Sept. 80, 1894. 
$4,982 98 
1,932 68 
474 62 
689 54 
243 54 
310 66 
282 37 
290 74 
200 05 
95 00 
78 01 
154 02 
322 57 
9 18 
55 50 



$10,021 46 



G Sept. 30, 1894. 
$4,500 00 
3,900 00 
1,660 00 



Total, 



Expenses under Chapter 375, of Acts of 1888 (Protection 
Inland Waters), for Calendar Year 1894. 
Salaries, including wages of laborers at Lawrence Experi- 
ment Station, 

Apparatus and materials, 

Rent of rooms at Massachusetts Institute of Tochnolog}-, 
Kent of Lawrence Experiment Station (thirteen mouths). 

Travelling expenses, 

Express charges 

Use of tools and office, Lawrence Experiment Station, 
Books, stationery and drawing materials, 
Maps, blue prints and plu)tograi)hs. 
Paid for collecting samples of water. 

Postage stamps, 

Messengers and telegi'ams, .... 
Printing, 

Total, 



205 


40 


1 


95 


6 00 


20 00 


48 00 


24 


29 


$10,364 64 


OF PURITr OP 


§23,153 


54 


1,332 


24 


750 


00 


162 


50 


417 


62 


658 


72 


360 07 


154 


20 


21 


44 


7 


13 


51 


85 


8 


44 


22 


25 


$27,000 


00 



CXIV 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. "95. 



Total Expenditures, Investigation of Metropolitan Water Sdpply 
(AcTS OF 1893, Chapter 459). 

Salaries of engineers, experts and assistants, 
Travelling expenses and subsistence of engineers. 
Laborers employed in making borings, . 
Boring apparatus, repairs and materials, 

Digging test pits, 

Printing, 

Stationery and drawing materials, . 
Instruments and repairs, .... 
Books, maps and map mounting, . 
Office fixtures and furniture, . 
Small supplies and miscellaneous expenses, 
Lesral services, . . . 



Total, 



$32,168 


53 


3,240 01 


3,545 


05 


1,821 


94 


254 30 


50 32 


371 


24 


149 


73 


201 


44 


43 


55 


227 


28 


426 


61 


$42,500 00* 



Improvement of Sudbury Meadows. 

Salaries of engineers and assistants. 

Travelling expenses and subsistence of engineers. 

Boat hire, 

Drawing material, stationery, etc., 

Labor, 

Lumber, 

Photographs, blue prints, etc.. 

Sundry incidentals, . 

Surveying instruments and repairs, 



$774 88 


113 04 


15 60 


4 68 


137 42 


7 84 


4 85 


13 67 


4 70 



Total, 



$1,076 58 



H. P. WALCOTT, 
H. F. MILLS, 

F. W. DRAPER, 

G. C. TOBEY, 
J. W. HULL, 
C. H. PORTER, 

State Board of Health. 



• This 8um includes the whole amount expended in the two years 1893 and 1894. 



BEPOPvT 



State Board of Health 



METROPOLITAN WATER SUPPLY. 



EEPORT OF THE STATE BOAIiD OF HEALTH 



METROPOLITAN WATER SUPPLY. 



To the Uonorable the Senate and Ho7ise of Representatives of the Commomveallh in 

General Court assembled. 

The State Board of Health, acting under the authority of chapter 
459 of the Acts of 1H93, has investigated and considered the question 
of a water supply for the city of Boston and its suburbs within a 
radius of ten miles from the State House, and for such other cities 
and towns as, in its opinion, should be added thereto ; and has also 
made the additional investigations set forth in the second section 
of the same act, and now desires to submit the following report : — 

The act under which the Board has conducted this inquiry appar- 
ently provides for the same general treatment of the question of water 
supply as was adopted by the General Court of 1887 for the creation 
of a sewerage system for a somewhat smaller district. Substantially 
all the arguments that were urged by this Board for the metro- 
politan sewerage system, which, built in accordance with our recom- 
mendations, is now nearly completed, may be used with even greater 
force in aid of any well-devised plan for giving to a still larger 
district a sufGcient supply of the best water attainable. 

F. P. Stearns, C.E., chief engineer of the Board, has prepared the 
very full and accurate statement of the ]iresent and future resources 
of water available for this metropolitan district, together with all 
necessary details as to the structures at the great reservoir, the aque- 
duct leading from it, the new pipe lines and ]iuniping stations, within 
the district; and, in addition to the information already in posses- 
sion of the Board, has been able to state the results of many new 
inquiries undertaken for the purposes of this report. The tinancial 



cxviii STATE BOAED OF IIEALTH. [Jan. 

aspects of the problem are also treated by him in an instructive 
manner. 

J. P. Davis, C.E., who has been for a series of years entirely 
familiar "with all the great municipal works for water and sewerage 
of the metropolitan district, has made a careful examination of the 
work of our engineer, and finds it to be well considered and trust- 
worthy. Mr. Davis was for many years city engineer of Boston, 
and in this capacity designed and had charge of the construction of 
the works for taking water from the Sudbury River. He has also 
been consulting engineer to the Aqueduct Commission of the city 
of 'New York, and was one of the experts consulted as to the pro- 
posed Quaker Bridge Dam. 

Dexter Brackett, C.E., has embodied in two appendices the re- 
sults of observations and studies to which he has devoted many 
years. 

Another appendix, numbered 3, contains a description by Des- 
mond FitzGerald, C.E., of plans for the draining of swamps, which 
are now under consideration for the improvement of the Sudbury 
water-shed. 

Dr. Drown's paper upon the influence exercised by organic matter 
in the soil of reservoirs upon the water stored therein has so much 
that bears upon the recommendations of this report that we again 
publish it in Appendix 4. 

All the special information that may be found necessary to explain 
or support the compressed conclusions of our own report will be 
supplied by the valuable reports of the eminent authorities above 
enumerated. 

The most familiar experience of this part of the world, at least in 
the matter of its water supplies, has been the failure of sources 
originally supposed to be abundant to properly meet the wants of 
their respective communities for any considerable length of time. 
The plans of the city of Boston, beginning with its first scheme for 
a general water supply in the year 1825, have proved no exception 
to this rule, and yet this city has had the services of the ablest men 
of their day. 

The reason for this constant disappointment is easily discovered. 
The quantity of water which the householder of to-day demands for 
the conveniences as well as for the necessities of his daily life has 
increased beyond all expectation. If this enlarged quantity can be 
secured without undue delay and without such injury as may easily 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCU:\rEXT — Xo. 34. cxix 

be made whole, it is evidently for the general welfare that such 
provision should be made ; for it seems to us reasonable to claim 
that no small share in the improved and still improving state of the 
public health may be traced to the measures now adopted for the 
protection of the purity of waters and to the greater cleanliness of 
person, clothing and all surroundings which inevitably result from a 
practically unlimited freedom in the use of water. It is essential, 
then, to determine, if possible, the amount of water needed at the 
present day, with such forecast as to future requirements as can l)e 
safely made. 

It is, of course, true that a comparatively small amount of pure 
water would meet all the demands for drinking and cooking, and that 
a water of inferior quality would answer for other domestic purposes 
as well as for all municipal requirements and the demands of manu- 
factures ; but no satisfactory arrangement has as yet been made by 
which two kinds of water can be economically and safely distributed 
through the streets and Imildings of cities and towns. 

It was discovered by this Board, some years since, that no incon- 
siderable portion of the cases of typhoid fever found in certain manu- 
facturing towns in this State was the result of the careless drinking 
of a dangerous water, Avliich is used in the mills for mechanical 
purposes only, is understood to be dangerous and is distinctly so 
marked ; but this inferior water was still used by the operatives, 
because it was sometimes cooler, was tasteless, and generally more 
accessible. 

The Board has hoped that it might be possible to devise some plan 
by which the very limited amount of quite pure water really needed 
in our houses might 1)e secured and distributed ; but no satisfiictory 
method has as yet suggested itself, nor with the present outlook for 
an abundant supply of very good water does such a plan seem to be 
an urgent need either on grounds of health or economy. 

The average daily consumption of water in the metropolitan dis- 
trict for the year 1894 was 79,040,000 gallons, the average daily 
capacity of the sources now in existence for the supply of this dis- 
trict was only 83,700,000 gallons ; that is to say, the average daily 
supply is only 4,054,000 gallons in excess of the actual needs. 
Though some of the sources of supply to the district are capable of 
yielding larger quantities of water than are at present furnished (as 
will be shown in detail in the accompanying report of our engineer), 
we are satisfied that even a very thorough development of all these 



cxx STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

sources will barely carry the district safely througli a year of unusual 
drouo-lit, should such a season occur before the date at which the 
works, hereafter to be described, can be put in condition to in- 
crease the supply ; and this would be true even though the cities or 
towns which might find themselves possessed of a surplus supply 
could transfer it to their neighbor in want. 

The population of this metropolitan district was, by the United 
States census of 1890, 844,814. Estimates which have been care- 
fully made, and with a due regard to the diminution in rate of in- 
crease by reason of the depression in business, place the population 
for the year 1895 at 984,301. The water works of the city of 
Boston now supply nearly 75 per cent, of all the water used in the 
metropolitan district. The daily average consumption of those cities 
and towns receiving water from the Boston works was 99 gallons in 
1893, and the average for the entire district now under consideration 
was, for the same year, 83 gallons. It seems to be generally true 
that the nearer we approach the centres of population the greater 
becomes the use of water ; and, with the inevitable growth of Boston 
and its suburbs, it does not appear to us wise to calculate upon a 
requirement per inhabitant of less than 100 gallons for the long 
period of 3'ears for which we seek a supply. 

We have not deemed it necessary or advisable to busy ourselves 
with the insoluble problem of the probable future increase of popu- 
lation in and about Boston. We have assumed that the growth will 
go on as it has gone on during the last quarter of a century ; and for 
a population determined by such principles we have made provision. 
While every effort has been made to reconcile the views of the 
local authorities with our own as to their respective requirements 
both in regard to quantity and quality of water needed and their 
capacity to meet such demands, the Board has in several cases ar- 
rived at results quite ditlercnt from those held l)y these authorities. 
It is assumed that no portion of this large and intimately associated 
community will accept for any length of time a water inferior to that 
enjoyed by their neighbors, cither in healthful qualities or attractive 
appearance and odor ; and it will not be profitable as a numicipal 
investment to offer the stranger seeking a new homo anything so 
essential to his health and comfoi-t as water is, that shall be decidedly 
poorer than the article distributed on the other side of the town's 
borders. 

It has, therefore, been assumed by us that the various communities 
under consideration will take, sooner or later, the better water, pro- 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. cxxi 

vided that the cost of taking it is not in excess or greatly in excess 
of that of an existing and inferior supply. 

It will also be found to be true, we think, that a very large amount 
of the best water can be provided for the district at a price per head 
far below that at which any municipality within the district, with 
the exception probably of Brookline, Newton and Waltham, can sup- 
ply a water of anything like an equal quality. Moreover, in our 
opinion, the most favored locality in this region has no prospect of 
obtaining beyond the next twenty or twenty-five years any source 
of supply that can be favorably compared, either on grounds of 
health or economy, with the source to be later described. It is by 
no means certain that Waltham, even with its present abundant and 
good supply, can continue to depend through a series of years upon 
water filtered uninterruptedly in ever-increasing quantities from a 
river more or less polluted. 

Of the communities composing the metropolitan district, those 
using 80 per cent, of the full amount of water Avill need the metro- 
politan supply nearly as soon as it can be furnished. It is probably 
j^ossible for those using 10 per cent, of the full amount to extend 
their works so that they may give them a supply for twenty or 
twenty-five years, and the remaining 10 per cent, will need the 
metropolitan supply within a shorter time. 

The workj of distribution have been so designed that the first cost 
will be increased as little as practicable, and that they may be in 
condition to sujjply these communities when they shall need the 
water, by additions to the works first constructed ; but some expense 
nnist uccessui-ily be incurred at first, on account of the prospective 
use by these communities. 

For the ])urp()sc of determining which cities and towns should be 
included in the district to be formed, a careful review has been 
undertaken of all the facts within our reach which have a bearing 
upon this question, — facts which will be found duly stated in the 
subjoined report of the engineer, Mr. Stearns ; and we accordingly 
recommend that the cities of Boston, Cambridge, Chelsea, Everett, 
Lynn, Maiden, Medford, Newton, Quincy, Somerville, Waltham 
and Wol)urn, and the towns of Arlington, Belmont, Brookline, Ilydc 
Park, Lexington, Melrose, Milton, Nahant, Revere, Saugus, Stone- 
ham, Swampscott, Wakefield, Watertown, Winchester and Winthrop, 
twenty-eight cities and towns, containing, in 1800, 848,012 inhabi- 
tants, constitute the metropolitan water district. 



cxxii STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

Inasmuch as the cities of Cambridge, Lynn, Newton, Waltham 
and Woburn, and the towns of Brookline, Lexington, Nahant, 
Saugus, Swampscott and Winchester, together containing, in 1890, 
210,252 inhabitants, believe that they have a sufficient supply for 
some years to come, we do not recommend that they be provided 
with water from the metropolitan supply until they formally express 
their wish for it. These municipalities contained about one-fourth 
of all the people living in the proposed district in the year 1890. 
We have no hesitation in recording our own belief that the period 
at which this supply will be demanded by them is much nearer than 
they now anticipate ; but their participation in the scheme is not 
essential to the success of the undertaking, nor will their absence 
render the immediate procuring of a new water supply any the less 
necessary. 

After a thorough revision of all the sources of water which have 
been suggested or which we could discover, we selected three which 
seemed woi-thy of critical examination, — Lake Winnipiseogee in 
New Hampshire, the Merrimack River above Lowell and the Nashua 
River above Clinton. 

Lake Winnipiseogee has for many years been held to be the ideal 
of all that was needed in the way of a perfect source of pure water, 
and it is capable of furnishing an abundant and excellent supply. 
The clear depths of its waters and the apparent freedom from pollu- 
tion along its shores, unlike many of the artificial reservoirs hitherto 
constructed, have created so strong a popular belief in its necessary 
superiority to anything artificial that it may not be out of place to 
direct attention for a moment to some of the defects to be found 
even licrc. The [)ermancnt population on the territory draining to 
the lake is not large, — 35 persons per square mile ; but the attrac- 
tive shores have become the favorite summer camping-ground of 
thousands, and the amount of the most serious forms of pollution 
directly entering the water of the lake must be large and ever-grow- 
ing. Even though the State of New Hampshire might allow a cer- 
tain amount of water to l)e taken from this lake foi- domestic water 
supi)ly within her own limits, it is not probable that she would con- 
sent to the withdrawal of amounts of water so large as to injure her 
own manufacturing industries, or to give to the people of another 
State any authority to interfere by police regulations with the un- 
hampered enjoyment by her own citizens of her beautiful pleasure- 
grounds. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCU:VIENT — Xo. 34. cxxiii 

The expense, however, of constructinir a conduit over the shortest 
and best route which it has been possible to discover, and for dis- 
tributing this water through the district, amounts to $84,000,000. 
This kirge sum does not inchide the cost of the damages inliicted by 
the diversion of water and charges incident thereto ; and we are con- 
fident that the water thus obtained wouhl have no greater vahie than 
supplies which can be obtained at much smaller cost within the limits 
of this State and protected by our own laws. 

Examinations have also been made with the view of taking the 
water of the Merrimack Eiver above Lowell, subjecting it to etKcient 
filtration and bringing it down into the metropolitan district. The 
quantity of water that could be obtained in this way and for this pur- 
pose is unlimited ; and, if there were no way of obtaining a better 
su[)i)ly of water and one which was above suspicion, it would be 
practicable to introduce water from that source at a cost somewhat 
less than from any other source considered. 

The estimated cost of filtering and conveving this water to the 
metropolitan district is $17,500,000; but in the opinion of the 
Board it will be l)etter to pay 10 per cent, more for a supjily from a 
source that has not been polluted. The experiments carried on by 
this Board for a succession of years at an experiment station in 
Lawrence under the immediate direction of H. F. Mills, C.E., a 
member of this Board, and the filter constructed in connection with 
the water works of that city, have shown that waters as polluted as 
those of the. ]\lcrrimack can be effectually filtered and rendered safe 
for domestic use ; but it is also true that filtering areas require 
continuous care on the part of well-trained attendants, and that, in 
a few instances at least, inefficient administration or inherent defects 
of constru<ti()n have allowed disease germs to pass through filters 
which were assumed, by good authority, to be a sufficient protec- 
tion . 

We are the more easily led to reject the filtered waters of the 
polluted Merrimack because w'e have found an entirely satisfactory 
water in the South Branch of the Nashua River above the town of 
Clinton. "VVe find that the conduit of the Boston water works was 
built of much larger capacity llian was needed for the conveyance 
of the amount of water to be derived from the Sudbury River, being 
capable of taking 50,000,000 gallons a day more tlian is at jiresent 
supplied to it. The territory from which an additional supply for 
this district may be sought is thus moved out to the westerly end 



cxxiv STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

of this conduit, or to the westerly end of the valley and reservoir 
connected with this conduit. 

The first source of considerable size found to the west of this 
point is the above-named South Branch of the Nashua, which, at the 
town of Clinton, has a water-shed of 118.23 square miles, consisting 
of a sparsely settled district containing but 69 persons to the square 
mile. The southerly and easterly slopes of Wachusett Mountain 
which bound this territory to the north and west are not well 
adapted to agi'iculture, and offer few inducements to the establish- 
ment of manufactures. In this section the rate of increase of popu- 
lation has been very slight, and the distance froQi centres of 
population is such that no more rapid rate of growth can be expected 
in the future. 

In this river, a short distance above the Lancaster Mills in Clin- 
ton, a dam can be built which will raise the water 107 feet above 
the surface of the existing mill-pond, and flowing to the average 
depth of 46 feet an area of 6| square miles, with its high- water mark 
385 feet above the level of high tide in Boston harbor. This reser- 
voir will have a capacity of 63,000,000,000 gallons, and the terri- 
tory drahiing into it will supply, in a series of very dry 3^ears, 
111,000,000 gallons of water daily, which, Avith the 62,000,000 
gallons obtainable from the Sudbury and Cochituate water-sheds, 
will make the total capacity of the combined sources 173,000,000 
gallons, which is dou])le the capacity of all the sources now utilized 
by the metropolitan district. 

The reservoir can be connected with the new Reservoir No. 5 now 
constructing by the city of Boston in the Sudbury Kiver system. 
The connection would be made by an aqueduct a little less than i) 
miles long, and an open channel about 3 miles long following the 
course of an existing brook. This aqueduct is designed to be built 
low enough to take water from the level of the present mill-pond in 
Clinton ; so that, should it become necessary to increase the supply 
to the metropolitan district ])oforc the dam and reservoir are com- 
pleted, the ordinary flow of the river could bo brought down into 
the Sudbury system as soon as the aqueduct is built. 

The very great merit of the plan now submitted is to be found in 
the fact that this extension of the chain of the metropolitan water 
supplies to the valley of the Nashua will settle forever the future 
water policy of the district, for a comparatively inexpensive conduit 
can be constructed through to the valley of the Ware River, and 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 84. cxxv 

beyond the Ware River lies the valley of the Swift ; and, in a future 
so far distant that we do not venture to give a date to it, are portions 
of the Westtield and Deeriield rivers, capable, when united, of fur- 
nishing a supply of the best water for a municipality larger than any 
now found in the world. 

The expense of this great scheme is comparatively moderate, 
because the water-sheds in question are sparsely settled, lie among 
the higher regions of the State, and are not likely to become the seat 
of manufacturing industries. Moreover, all these streams can be 
brought down by their own natural flow from appropriate reservoirs 
to the existing distributing basins in the metropolitan district. 

The water in the South Branch of the Xashua River is at ]:)resent 
of good quality, and, with the small population upon its drainage 
area, it will not be difficult to protect it from impurities in the 
future ; but, in the opinion of the Board, the large reservoir to be 
constructed will serve as a means of very much improving the quality 
of the water; its area and depth are so great that it will contain, at 
nearly all stages at which it is proposed to hold the water, a full 
year's supply when double the quantity now used in the metropolitan 
district is drawn from it and the Sudbury and Cochituate areas. 
During the long period through which water remains in this reservoir 
a bleaching and purifving process will go on, which will probably 
cause the death of all the disease germs which may be turned into it 
from contril)uting streams, and the water thus become more agreea- 
ble to the sight and taste, and be, in fact, more wholesome tlian the 
present water from any of its contrilxiting streams. In order that 
this may be the case, the Board has thought best to increase the 
dei)tli of the reservoir by raising the dam, and to remove from its 
area the vegetable matter and soil which may cover it, and thus 
expend about $4,000,000 in rendering the water of the best quality 
practicable. 

So many advantages are offered by larger storage reservoirs, as 
compared with the smaller ]>asins, which local geographical peculiar- 
ities have compelled the metropolitan district to build hitherto, that 
it has seemed advisable to us to urge the completest possible prepa^ 
r:ition of this new reservoir. 

After this new water has l)een brought into the Sudbury system, 
it will pass down into Chestnut Hill Reservoir, where it will for the 
first time require to l)e pumped to an elevation of 30 feet, sufficient 
to give an additional head to the Boston low-service system and to 



cxxvi STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

carry over to Spot Pond the supply needed for the northerly portion 
of the metropolitan district. In our estimates of cost a sum of money 
has been set aside for the improvement of Spot Pond, principally 
for removing its shallow flowage, and we believe it will then be a 
valuable distributing reservoir and restored to its normal height. 

It is estimated that no other conduit will be required in addition 
to the present one from Sudbury River to Chestnut Hill Reservoir 
for ten or more years ; but before the end of this period it will be 
necessary to build an additional conduit, extending from Reservoir 
No. 5 of the Boston water works to a point in the town of Weston 
not far from the Charles River, at such a height that the water may 
be conveyed in pipes to Spot Pond, and be distributed through the 
low-service system in the metropolitan district by gravity. This 
aqueduct will be 13^ miles long, and is designed to convey 
250,000,000 gallons of water per day. 

Spot Pond is selected for a general distributing reservoir in order 
that the low-service district may have a pressure 30 or 40 feet 
greater than would be supplied by Chestnut Hill Reservoir ; this 
increased pressure is rendered necessary in order to include large 
areas in the district which would be inadequately served by the 
lower reservoir and by the custom of constructing very high 
buildings upon the low-lying territory. 

The method of distributing the water over the metropolitan district 
is given in detail in the report of the chief engineer ; it is designed to 
supply to each community within the district a sufficient quantity of 
water for its use at a pressure sufficient for all requirements within 
its territory, and it will be feasible to supply all the highest portions 
of the district more efficiently than at present from a much smaller 
number of stations and at a much diminished charge for annual 
maintenance. 

In considering the plans for the proposed reservoir above the 
Lancaster Mills, we have been impressed by the very serious changes 
which will ]>e produced in the towns of Boylston and West Boylston. 
It docs not api)ear to us to be a very important objection to our plan 
that certain mill sites will be 80 feet beneath the surface of the basin, 
nor that the homes of many industrious people dependent upon these 
mills for their living will ])e also sul)merged, because all these can be 
paid for, and an equivalent will bo given, — damages for which we 
have caused careful estimates to be made. But we have not deemed 
it to be within our province to decide upon a plan for making good 



1895.] rUiiLlC DOCUMENT — .\o. 34. cxxvii 

the many other losses that must of necessity fall upon these sorely 
diminished townships, — the burden of a town debt for which much 
of the available security has been taken away, the loss of a near mar- 
ket for the farmer upon the outskirts of the town, and the many 
other losses which will naturally suggest themselves. AVe can only 
state that we recognize the existence of these losses, that we believe 
some form of compensation should be granted, and that the benefit 
to the metropolitan district by reason of a pure water supply in 
abundant quantity will be so great that this district, which contains 
more than half the taxable property of the State, can afford to pay 
for all the injury inflicted ; at the same time we nmst leave the sug- 
gestion, even, of the nature of the remedy, to the wisdom of your 
honorable body. 

The total assessed valuation of West Boylston for 1894: was . . §9.") 1,6 10 

Assessed value of property to be taken, 557,730 

The total assessed valuation of Boylston for 1894 was .... 429,435 

Assessed value of property to be taken, 165,200 

In preparing the estimates for the cost of the great work here 
sketched out, we have brought to our assistance the best expert aid, 
and believe that the works can be constructed within the estimates 
which have been liberally made with the usual allowance for contin- 
gencies. 

It may also be of interest to you to know that, of the whole water- 
shed of the Nashua River above the city of Xashua in New Ilninp- 
shire, at which [)lace the Nashua enters the Merrimack, the proposed 
reservoir cuts off 22 per cent. ; but, with the provision which is in- 
serted in the draft of an act herewith submitted for allowing a stated 
quantity of water to be discharged into the mill-pond below the 
resorvoir dam, the deprivation of water will not be so extensive as 
the proportion of reservoir water-shed to the whole water-shed of the 
Nashua would indicate. 

The cstiuuites of cost have been made by Mr. Stearns, the chief 
engineer of the Board. They have been made from carefully pre- 
pared designs, and are intended to be sufficient to include the full 
cost of the completed work. 

The cost of the works necessary to supply all the communities of 
the metropolitan district for the next ten years with the main part 
of the works of suflicient capacity for a long future is estimated as 
follows : — 



cxxriii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jmi. 

EeserToir on Nashua River, including the cost of land, buildings and 
water rights taken, the relocation of roads and railroads, the re- 
moval of all soil from the site of the reservoir, the construction of 
dams and dikes and all incidental expenses, .... $9,105,000 

Improvement of the water-shed of the Nashua River and of the Stony 
Brook branch of the Sudbury River by the diversion and purifica- 
tion of sewage and drainage of swamps, 513,000 

Aqueduct from the Nashua River to the Sudburj'^ water-shed and open 

channel from the end of the aqueduct to Reservoir No. 5, . . 2,265,000 

Additional forty-eight-inch pipe from Dam No. 3 to Dam No. 1 and 

across the Rosemary valley, 78,800 

Pumping stations reservoirs and pipe systems for elevating and dis- 
tributing water to all of the cities and towns in the metropolitan 
district, including the improvement of Spot Pond, . . . 5,584,000 

Damages for the diversion of water from the Nashua River and inci- 
dental damages not included above, 1,500,000 



Total first cost of proposed works for supplying water to all of 
the cities and towns in the metropolitan district, . . . $19,0-45,800 

The estimates of damages for the diversion of water from the 
Nashua Eiver are believed by the Board to be ample to cover all 
reasonable demands, and are made large enough so that it is prob- 
able that some of the more important can be settled within the esti- 
mate without litigation. 

It is not proposed in the driest year to lower the water in the 
reservoir more than sixty feet, and there will always be a great fall 
between the surface of the water in the reservoir and in the aqueduct 
leading from it. It is estimated that this fall may be utilized to fur- 
nish 1,000 horse-power by day and 500 horse-power by night for 
the first fifteen years, and nearly as much for the following years. 

The estimated first cost of the proposed worlo for supplying water 
to all of the cities and towns in the metropolitan district is, as 
al)OV(; stated $19,045,800 

Within the next ten years, if the water is used by all of the cities 
and towns, there will be required an additional expenditui'e for an 
a<|ucdii(t from Reservoir No. 5 to Weston, and for main pipes and 
an a(juediiet therefrom to the existing distributing system and to 
Spot I'ond of 4,982,000 

In the second ten years a further expenditure will be necessary for 
addilional pipes from \\'eston and for improving a portion of tho 
SudlMU-y River water-shed, not included in the first estimate, of . 1,300,000 

Total expenditure lor fidl development of Nashua River source, 
and for a supply of 17.'5,(M)I),000 gallons of water per day dis- 
tributed to all of the cities and towns in the metropolitan 
district, $25,327,800 

Aft(!r those twenty years, should the growth of the district be as esti- 
mated, additions will have to be made by adding certain trilmtaries of 
the Assabet River, or by extending the works to the valley of the Ware 
River, cither of which can be done at a comparatively small cost. 



1S95.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. cxxix 

The annual cost for interest, sinking fund and maintenance of the 
■works for supplying the whole district when the works are first 
completed is estimated to be ninety-three cents per inhabitant, and 
the cost will decrease with the growth of population. 

In conclusion, we desire to again call your attention to our pro- 
found conviction of the need of prom})t action in entering upon 
works of construction which cannot for years be completed, and of 
which the absolute necessity will at an early day be forced upon this 
conmumity ; and we are confident that we have pointed out an eco- 
nomical as Avell as practicable means of securing one of the most 
essential conditions for healthy human life. 

H. P. WALCOTT, 
J. W. HASTINGS, 
H. F. MILLS, 

F. W. DRAPER, 

G. C. TOBEY, 
J. W. HULL, 
C. H. PORTER, 

State Board of Health. 



REPORT OF THE JOINT BOARD 



UPON THE 



BIPROVEMENT OF CHARLES RIVER. 



[cxxxi] 



REPORT OF THE JOINT BOARD 



UPON THE 



IMPROVEMENT OF CHAELES EIVEE. 



To the Honorable the Senate and House of Rejiresentatives of the Commonwealth 
in General Court assembled. 

The undersigned, members of the joint board, consisting of the 
Board of Metropolitan Park Commissioners and the State Board of 
Health, to whom was referred, by chapter 475 of the Acts of 1893, 
the investigation of the sanitary condition,' and the preparation of 
plans for the improvement of the beds, shores and waters of the 
Charles River, between Charles River bridge and the Waltham line 
on Charles River, and for the removal of any nuisance therefrom, 
respectfully submit the following report : — 

The two boards named in the act met for organization August 10, 
1893. H. P. Walcott was elected chairman of the joint board and 
H. S. Carruth, secretary. At a later date F.P.Stearns, C.E., was 
appointed engineer to the board, and iSIessrs. Olmsted, Olmsted and 
Eliot were asked to consider the subject of the improvement of the 
river, to sulimit a report thereon and to prepare a plan of the im- 
])rovements recommended. Mr. Eliot had been a member ot the 
Charles River Improvement Commission appointed under authority 
of chapter 390 of the Acts of 1891, had acquired complete familiarity 
with the actual condition of the river, and had made, in a public 
document, valuable suggestions for its improvement. Dr. Rol)ert 
W. Greenleaf of Boston was asked to make a sanitary survey of the 
district designated in the act. 

The members of the board have personally examined the river and 
its banks at many times and under various conditions. They have 
carefully considered the reports made to them by the experts em- 
ployed, and have reached the following conclusions. 



cxxxiv STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

The position of the Charles River, in its rehition to the metropol- 
itan district, has necessarily a very great influence upon the health 
and comfort of the people living in its vicinity. So long as the 
stream was comparatively unpolluted its banks were occupied at 
eligible sites by dwellings of the better sort. The increase of pollu- 
tion and the consequent nuisance occasioned by it have driven from 
the banks those who could afibrd to establish new homes in more 
attractive regions, and the places of these have been taken by a pop- 
ulation less sensitive because they cannot afibrd to avoid ofiensive 
surroundings, or by manufactories that seek the stream for commer- 
cial advantage or to be at a distance from neighbors likely to com- 
plain of ofiensive processes incident to the business carried on. Even 
in those portions of the river where the vast quantities of salt water 
brought in by the tide so far diminish the degree of pollution that 
ofiensive odors are not observed except at low tide and in conse- 
quence of local causes, and where some of the finest residences of 
the Back Bay district of the city of Boston are to be found, — even 
here the river has ceased to be a welcome neighbor except so far as 
the views to the distant hills to the north and west are enhanced by 
the water in the not too near foreground, a foreground consisting of 
a poorly kept alleyway behind a line of unsightly sheds and stables 
situated at the rear of the lots on the north side of Beacon Street, a 
rude stone wall, upon which grow tufts of seaweed and unsightly 
grasses, holding as sponges do the fioating putrescible materials that 
come in contact with them, and at the base of the wall, at low 
tide, a muddy expanse of many acres, marred by rubbish of every 
description. 

So many of the great cities of the world have made use of the 
banks of rivers and basins as sites for their finest public and private 
buildings and ornamental grounds that wo cannot escape from the 
conviction that the disinclination to so use the Charles River within 
the limits under consideration rests either upon nuisances already in 
existence or the apprehension of danger to health. The river runs 
through the very centre of the metropolis and upon its shores should 
naturally be placed its most attractive structures, its monuments and 
its finest dwellings. It does not seem appropriate that this terri- 
tory, so favored by position, lying at the very heart of our great city 
and upon the borders of a stream not necessarily offensive, should 
be condemned to its present ignoble and noxious uses. If any 
streams or any low lands are to be so used in the vicinity of Boston 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. cxxxv 

it would be well that they should be as far as possible from the 
centre. An enumeration of the people who are actually resident 
upon the territory which lies within a distance of two miles upon 
either bank of the river, throughout the district now under consider- 
ation, shows a population of not less than 500,000. Here in the 
future will probably be found, as now, the bulk of the metropolitan 
population. 

The banks of the river and the exposed flats have become from 
year to year more offensive until, on certain portions of the river, 
the people living near the stream have been exposed to the disagree- 
able and probably injurious emanations therefrom. So far reaching 
had this nuisance become that during the summer of 1892 a very 
large portion of the territory of Old Cambridge was subject to its 
influence, and a petition was addressed to the State Board of Health 
signed by hundreds of householders, and by nearly all the practising 
physicians of that portion of the city, pra^'ing that some relief might 
be given from a condition of things believed to be positively injuri- 
ous to health, and known to be so ofi*ensive that windows had to be 
closed during the period of low tide in the river. 

The medical profession believes that the gases arising from decom- 
posing organic materials are injurious to health ; it has not been 
proved, however, that these gases do produce some one distinct 
disease, but rather that the continued breathing of them lowers the 
vital resistance and predisposes the person exposed to them to dis- 
eases of various kinds and all degrees of severity. But even if th^ 
physicians are in error in believing such emanations to be a danger 
to health, it is quite certain that the owners of lands or houses on 
the borders of such foul smelling streams sutt'er a pecuniary loss in 
the diminished value of their property, a loss from which they 
should be protected if it be practicable to do so. 

In recent years it has been thought that the steady progress of 
malaria in the valley of the Charles has had a very close connection 
with the increasing pollution of the stream ; the careful examination 
into this subject by Dr. Greenleaf does not show, however, that the 
cases of malarial fever have been in such near connection with the 
river as to make it probable that the contaminations (if its waters have 
had any direct inlluenco upon the spread of the disease. Dr. Green- 
leaf, in the course of a houso-to-house survey of tlie district adjoining 
the river, did, indeed, discover cases of malarial fever, but a satis- 
factory explanation of their occurrence was almost invariably found. 



cxxxvi STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

either in local conditions not dependent upon the state of the river, 
or else by exposure of the affected individuals in localities known to 
have become malarial in recent years. His observations lead to the 
same conclusions in this inquiry that other competent authorities 
have drawn in all parts of the world, that the most important condi- 
tion to be souo^ht for defence ag^ainst the malarial infection is a thor- 
ough drainage of the soil, together with a maintenance of the water 
contained therein at an unchanged level. 

Two plans occur to us for the relief of the conditions thus briefly 
sketched, assuming in both cases that the Metropolitan Sewerage 
System, now nearly completed, will remove the more serious forms 
of pollution : — 

First. To dredge all flats now exposed, and to continue the 
embankment constructed in the substantial and attractive form used 
by the city of Boston at the Charlesbank, ultimately carrying this 
construction through the whole length of the estuary and upon both 
banks. 

Second. To maintain the water in the river through a greater or 
less length in its course at a permanent high level by the construc- 
tion of a dam. 

The objections to the first plan are these : While the river would 
rise and fall against a vertical wall, thus exposing the smallest pos- 
sible surface at the banks, even this surface would soon become 
defaced by growths more or less offensive, as has already happened 
to the recently constructed walls in the Charles River basin. The 
embankment would be many miles in length, would entail very 
extensive fillings of low lands in order to render such lands available 
for any public use or profitable private occupation, and the general 
effect would not be pleasing to the eye, excei)t when the water is at 
or near high tide, and lastly, the difiiculties of the construction of 
walls on account of poor foundation and their great expense would 
preclude for the present at least the building of them. 

Having a due regard to the imperative need of some measure of 
relief in this valley, it docs not seem safe to longer delay the adop- 
tion of a suffjci(!nt remedy, and we therefore recommend the second 
plan, the erection of a dam high enough to keep even extreme tides 
out of the basin and the maintenance of the water at a permanent 
level, in accordance with the plan of our engineer, F. P. Stearns, 
C.E., herewith presented. 

The place selected for the dam is about 600 feet above Craigie's 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. cxxxvii 

bridge, where the river is not more than 1,100 feet wide. Tlie 
details of this structure have been so thoroughly considered that we 
confidently believe that it will answer the purposes for which it is 
designed, the maintenance of a nearly permanent level at all times, 
and no greater interference with commerce than would be produced 
by the operation of a drawbridge, — indeed, not so much, should 
the drawbridge happen to lie on the line of a railroad. Pro- 
vision has been made for a lock in the dam capable of receiving 
the largest vessels used upon the river ; and it is obvious that com- 
merce directed to the upper portions of the stream would gain much 
from the power to ascend the river independently of the rise and fall 
of the tide. Vessels which might have occasion to be moored at the 
wharves on the river above the dam would find in this new condition 
of things the great advantage of floating at all times. How great 
this gain would be can be understood when it is stated that the river 
bed is practically exposed at the United States Arsenal at Water- 
town at low tide. 

Estimates have been made for a dam to be 100 feet in width, and 
there would thus be provided a foundation for another roadway into 
the city of Boston from East Cambridge and the country beyond of 
permanent character, a means of approach to the city likely to be much 
needed when the time comes for the reconstruction of Craigie's bridge. 

The landscape architect would also be able to connect this structure 
with the public lands on both banks of the river by such additional 
fillings and rounding of the corners as would materially increase the 
area of these grounds and add new features of attraction. 

We cannot convince ourselves that the harbor will l)e noticeablv 
injured by the loss of the large quantities of water discharged by the 
outgoing tide. The opinions of the experts who have from time to 
time examined the harbor have in recent years been considerably 
modified, possibly in view of the unimpaired value of the harbor, 
notwithstanding the great decrease in the water areas of the Charles 
River and other basins. If the river below the site of the dam is 
only to serve the purpose of conveying the waters of the Charles and 
Miller's rivers to the sea, such diminution of its area as has already 
taken place will be of little consequence, for a smaller channel than 
the present would be sufficient to carry all that the Charles River 
alone could ever empty into it. 

The more certain formation of ice on the basin created by the 
dam ought not, in the absence of any considerable amount of winter 



cxxxviii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

commerce on the Charles, to be anything but favorable to the use of 
this stretch of several miles of river for skating, one of the best of 
winter exercises and sports. The probable more ready freezing of 
the channel of Boston Harbor below the dam would be an incon- 
venience if the constant movement of tugs and ferry boats were not 
quite certain to break up the ice almost as soon as formed. 

The fear is often expressed that such basins as this may become, 
by reason of an insufficient current and the accumulation of organic 
matter in them, sources of nuisance and a menace to the public 
health. The statistics contained in the engineer's report show that 
there will be a very considerable movement of this sheet of water, 
and with the improvement in the quality likely to follow the opera- 
tion of the new metropolitan sewer but little danger of such con- 
tamination of the water or such accumulation of filth on the bottom 
of the basin as could produce offensive smells or conditions dangerous 
to health. But should the unexpected, nevertheless, happen, the 
openings in the dam would easily allow of the admission of such 
quantities of salt water as would keep the basin in a perfectly satis- 
factory condition by establishing in it a very considerable circulation 
at each tide. We are fortunately, however, not without examples of 
basins quite similar to this, situated also in the midst of large popu- 
lations, and in the most conspicuous example, the world-renowned 
Alster Basin, the water park of the city of Hamburg, there is no 
means of introducing any water beyond that flowing in the compara- 
tively insignificant Alster. This basin is very shallow and has a 
muddy bottom, but is surrounded by some of the best private houses 
of this flourishing and wealthy port, and the water surface of the 
basin and its shores constitute the most frequented places of resort 
in the city. During the terrible cholera epidemic of 1892, when 
Hamburg suffered, as few European cities ever have suH'ered, from 
this pestilence, the wards in which lie the Alster Basins showed the 
lowest doatli rates in the city. We do not intend to say that cholera 
spreads only where there is filth, but it is true that the conditions 
among which it finds its widest extension are those of unsanitary 
surroundings. 

There is no question probably in the mind of any sanitary observer 
that a river of moderately pure water flowing at a constant level be- 
tween clean banks is miu!h to be i)referred to a similar stream which 
is subject to a rise and fall of many feet twice in the twenty-four 
hours. Streams of the hitter description constantly deposit upon 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. cxxxix 

the banks the material iloating on the surface, material that occa- 
sions little offence while surrounded and saturated with water, but 
rapidly decays when exposed to the sun and air uj)on the shores of 
the river. 

Whatever care may be taken of the Charles River in the time to 
come, if it remain an estuary, there is no doubt in our minds that 
the banks, sloping as now to the stream, will be more or less a 
nuisance; dwellings will, so far as possible, not be erected in its 
neighborhood, or, if they are built here, will be of the sort which 
are compelled to seek undesirable, consequently cheap, land. A 
population will be established here which will resist most obstinately 
and naturally the destruction of their homes, and one more, and per- 
haps the greatest, opportunity to permanently improve the incom- 
paral>le situation of Boston and its sul^urbs will have passed away. 

In order to protect the low-lying portions of the territory within 
the valley of this portion of the Charles River, it has seemed advis- 
able to us to make the permanent level in this basin somewhat lower 
than that of ordinary high tides. The level which seems most 
advantageous is that of two feet and six inches below such tides. 
It is well known that exceptionally high tides have done much injury 
throughout the estuary of the river, both by iiooding and by inter- 
ference with sewers, and we may reasonably expect that still more 
will l)e occasioned on account of the increased occupation of these 
low lands whenever we again have such tides as that which occurred 
at the time of the destruction of the Minot's Ledge light-house in 
1851, or, indeed, tides of much lower height. The forlorn marshes 
that now border upon the river would become, without the expendi- 
ture on them of a dollar, fertile meadows, scarcely needing treatment 
to become attractive places for recreation ; and capable, with treat- 
ment, of becoming scenes of great beauty, as the designs of the 
landscape architects so clearly show. Some solicitude has, in recent 
years, been manifested in regard to the preservation of the piles upon 
which are placed the foundations of so many valuable buildings in the 
Back Bay district of Boston. The maintenance of a basin at a con- 
stant level considerably above that at which, by city ordinance, these 
piles are cut off will prol)ably increase the security of such substruct- 
ures. We believe that the amount of organic or i)utrcscible material 
at present deposited on the banks and bed of the river need not pre- 
sent any serious obstacle to the carrying out of this plan. The 
completion of the whole design will be a matter of years, the addi- 



cxI STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

tion ot" the most serious kind of pollution, sewage, will cease, 
probably, in the course of a year, the narrowing of the stream in the 
present basin is rapidly going on, with consequent dimunition of 
deposit, and whatever remains after this will be profitably removed 
to the banks of the stream for such fillings as may be necessary to 
prepare the river for its new functions. 

Whatever plan is adopted for the future treatment of the river, it 
seems to us essential that all the lands indicated on the plan pre- 
sented by the landscape architects should be at once acquired. The 
mere fact that it was public property would alone, we think, improve 
the value of all the adjoining lands to such an extent as to make the 
purchase a wise business transaction. 

The lowering of the grade of the water in the proposed basin below 
high tide would help the city of Cambridge to an easier solution of a 
question which will sooner or later require the expenditure of large 
sums of money. The freight line of the Boston & Albany Railroad 
to East Boston now crosses all the main roads leading from Cam- 
bridge to Boston. A separation of grades, when this becomes 
necessary, will be very expensive ; depressing the railroad tracks to 
such an extent as to allow the streets to remain unchanged is impos- 
sible ; the present grade of the railroad crossing on Main Street, 
Cambridgeport, is about six feet above ordinary high tide. When 
the water level in this basin is reduced by two feet and a half it is 
clear that a lowering of the tracks can then be made, which will very 
materially reduce the cost of elevating the half dozen or more much 
travelled avenues now crossing the railroad at grade. 

AVe now call your attention to the plan proposed by the landscape 
architects (page 36 of this report). Your board has not thought it 
advisable, at the present time, to recommend any additional taking 
of land on the Cambridge side of the river below West Boston bridge. 
(Jiimbridge has recently acquired an extensive water front between 
West Boston and Craigic's i)ridges for park purposes, but the remain- 
ing portions of this frontage are occupied for commercial uses, and 
have quite recently been im))rovcd by the expenditure of large sums 
of money. The consequent enhancement of value leads us not to 
approve of this recommendation of our landscape architects, the 
more especially as the stri)) of land taken by the (;ity of Cambridge 
does not appear to have Ixsen acquired with the intention of making 
it a portion of a continuous parkway. 

By chapter 435 of the Acts of 1893 permission has already been 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — No. 34. cxii 

given to the city of Boston to construct on her side of the Charles 
River, beginning at West Boston bridge and ending at the Back Bay 
Fens, an embankment of a width not to exceed, in the rear of Beacon 
Street, one hundred feet, but subject to the condition that the filling 
thus made "shall not l)e used for building purposes, or for any 
other purpose than for ornamental grounds and a parkway." 

The description in this act of the line to be followed in making 
the filling of the first section of the proposed embankment, that from 
West Boston bridge to the rear of Beacon Street, provides a broader 
margin than seems to us necessary on this side of the basin. We 
propose that so much of the act as relates to the filling on the east- 
erly side of the basin and in continuation of the Charlesbank be so 
amended that the filling authorized shall not exceed 150 feet until 
the intersection with a line perpendicular to the harbor line at the 
southerly line of Mt. Vernon Street ; thence continuing southerly 
and westerly on a curved line to the embankment in the rear of 
Beacon Street, to be hereafter described. 

It may fairly be inferred from a careful examination of Plates 
VIII. and IX. that the owners of estates on the north side of Beacon 
Street west of Otter Street have no very great interest in the appear- 
ance of their houses and outbuildings as seen from the basin or 
the bridges crossing it. Whether this new basin will be attractive 
enough to induce the owners of these properties to so far change 
the external appearances of their houses as to make them worthy 
adjuncts to the superb location offered to them is a question which 
we find it diflScult to answer. And yet upon the answer to this ques- 
tion really depends the solution of one of the most serious problems 
in connection with the improvement of the basin. We believe that 
this water park, if formed in accordance with the plans submitted, 
deserves surroundings of a character equally dignified and attractive 
with itself. 

Two views of the problem present themselves to us : — 

First. To advise the filling, to the north of the passageway in 
vonv of noacon Street, of a wider strip than that of 100 foet now 
authorized by chapter 435 of the acts of 1893, but not to exceed 
150 feet; in the expectation that gradually the lioiHMl-for improve- 
ment in the abutting estates will be eftcoted. 

Second. To recommend the construction of a wider embankment 
than that provided for by existing legislation, in order that a portion 
of the land so filled may be prepared for building sites. 



cxlii STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Jan. 

After due deliberation we have concluded to present a plan for 
your consideration in accordance with the second view above stated. 

It does not seem probable to us that the houses now standing on 
Beacon Street below Otter Street are likely to be adapted to the 
surroundings of the new basin ; the large suras of money already 
spent upon their Beacon Street fronts w^ould seem to preclude the 
change ; moreover, these fronts to the south have always commanded 
higher prices than similar lots on the opposite side of the street, and 
the preference will undoubtedly be maintained. But it does seem 
to us essential that the houses situated on the borders of the basin 
should also front upon it, not only for the adornment of the basin, 
Init also for the benefit that would accrue to it from the better polic- 
ing and care which all public grounds receive when the neighboring 
householders walk through them habitually, or constantly have them 
under view. The back alley which now runs along the border of 
Charles River in the rear of Beacon Street would undoubtedly be 
well kept and inviting, where it is now neglected and repulsive, if 
the owners of the adjacent properties ever themselves made use of it. 

The sale of the land prepared for building sites, if carried on as 
successfully as such transactions have hitherto been by the Common- 
wealth, would yield a large sum of money to be devoted to the 
repayment of the expenses of improvements herein recommended. 

We, therefore, propose that, instead of a strip of ornamental 
ground in the rear of Beacon Street of a width not to exceed 100 
feet, provision be made by which the Board of Harl)or and Land 
Commissioners may be authorized to cause to be filled a space to the 
north of the present wall in the rear of Beacon Street not to ex- 
ceed 300 feet in distance therefrom and extending in a line parallel 
therewith to the westerly line of the Back Bny Fens. One hundred 
and twenty feet in width of this, immediately to the north of the 
existing alleyway, to be filled to a grade proper for house lots, so 
much thereof as may be needed for streets and public open spaces 
to be reserved and the remainder to be sold. The money received 
therefor to constitute a fund, from which shall be defrayed the cost 
of building the dam, making the necessary fillings, and of such 
other expenses as may result from carrying out the plan of improve- 
ments herewith submitted. The remaining strip of 180 feet in 
breadth to be prepared in accordance with designs to be furnished 
by the Board of Park Commissioners, and to be used only for park- 
ways and ornamental grounds. 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUxMENT — No. 34. cxliii 

It will he noticed that wc recommend a somewhat wider strip in 
the rear of Beacon Street between the building line and the water 
than is designated on the plan of the landscape architects. We do 
so for the purpose of having a wider belt of trees and shrubs than 
has been thought by them to be necessary. Though the rapidly 
approaching use of the opposite Cambridge shore for buildiu"- pur- 
poses will have a tendency to break the force of strong winds from the 
northwest, it is desirable to have a plantation, if only of shrubs and 
small trees, to still further diminish their force. The shore line of the 
basin above the Back Bay Kens and up to the Cottage Farm bridge 
on the Boston side of the river should also, in our opinion, be moved 
to the north. Whether the additional territory so gained should be 
used partly for new building sites or for purely ornamental grounds 
has been a subject of some difterence of opinion between your com- 
mission and the landscape architects. The latter advise the creation 
of new building lots in addition to the ornamental grounds. AVe 
think that it is not advisable to narrow the stream at this point fur- 
ther than may be necessary for procuring the ornamental grounds 
alone. Our recommendation is that the hairbor line be removed to 
the north a distance of 150 feet, from the Back Bay Fens to the new 
bridge drawn upon the plan, and above this bridge gradually narrow- 
ing till it reaches a width of 50 feet at the Cottage Farm bridge ; 
that this new territory be connected with the filling in the rear of 
Beacon Street by appropriate curves, and be prepared for park uses 
by the Harbor and Land Commissioners in accordance with plans 
prepared by the Park Commissioners. 

With the exceptions thus noted we are in cordial agreement with 
the recommendations of the landscape architects, whose advice we 
have sought, and therefore urge the prompt acquisition of all the 
lands indicated upon their plan, l)y means of legislation similar to 
that already employed by the Metropolitan Park Commissioners 
under authority of chapter 407 of Acts of 1893. 

Wc are aware that some of the changes which have been jidvised 
by us may meet with much opposition from those who have interests 
in the houses on the northern side of Beacon Street below Otter 
Street. We have, therefore, endeavored to ascertain whether this 
situation had a value that could be measured by the valuations on 
the books of the assessors of the city. A result of the comparison 
of relative values on three of the priiu-ipai residential streets of the 
Back Bay is here given. 



cxliv 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Jan. 



Assessed Value of Land on Back Bay Streets^ exchiding Corner Lots. 



Name of Street. 





«5 fe - 

i M M 


m 


^ 


$6 58 


$8 36 


4 45 


4 75 


5 00 


5 75 


6 03 


8 03 


4 05 


4 40 


4 48 


5 50 



« 



Arlington St. to Bei'keley St., 
Arlington St. to Berkeley St., 
Arlington St. to Berkeley St., 
Dartmouth St. to Exeter St., 
Dartmouth St. to Exeter St , 
Dartmouth St. to Exeter St., 



Commonwealth Ave., 
Marlborough St., 
Beacon St., . 
CommouAvealth Ave., 
Marlborough St., 
Beacon St., . 



130 
107 
116 
133 
110 
120 



It appears from this table that the difference in values, excluding 
corner lots, between the two sides of these three streets, respec- 
tively, while somewhat greater on Beacon Street than on Marlborough 
Street, is much less on Beacon Street than on Commonwealth Avenue. 
The Beacon Street lots are deeper than those on Commonwealth 
Avenue, and, perhaps, have a somewhat smaller value per square 
foot on this account than they would otherwise have, notwithstand- 
in£r the fact that the owners of houses on the north side of Beacon 
Street are enabled to have stables on their own lots. When we 
consider the hardships that may appear to be inflicted upon owners 
of property on the water side of Beacon Street, who will lose the 
views over the river and the direct action of the breezes from over 
the water surfaces, we have also to remember the many thousands 
who will enjoy this breathing place and the attractive shores during 
the four months or more when the houses on Beacon Street are 
deserted by their owners. 

What the value of the land to be created by this improvement 
would bo wc do not venture to estimate ; oj)inions of those familiar 
with such matters vary widely ; one or two persons have even 
asserted that the land would have no value above the cost of the 
lining; but, injisniuc-h as the city of Boston already has undci" con- 
sideration the making of an embankment, as provided for by cliai)tor 
435 of the Acts of 189.3, we have only to estimate the expense of 
filling a strip 120 feet wide. This admits of accurate calculation, 
and could i)e done for less than fifty cents a square foot. Whether 
tli(j new latid would have a greater values than this is a question 
wiii<-h all would answer, we think, in the affirmative. 

'I'hc lowest value of the new land, estimated by those who have 
attached any value to it, is suflicient to cover all the expenses of the 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. cxlv 

clam and the makinir of the land. If some of the higher estimates 
were taken it might safely be assumed that all the land which is 
included in the taking recommended for metropolitan park purposes 
could he procured without inflicting any burden upon the metropolitan 
district. 

Mayor Mathews, in an inaugural address delivered in the year 
1801, before the city council of Boston, used the following words : — 

We have in this basin the opportunity foi* making the finest water park 
in any city in the couutiy ; an opportunity which should be grasped before 
it is too late. 

The eventual solution of this whole problem should, I think, be an imita- 
tion of the phiu adopted by the city of Hamburg, under similar circum- 
stances. We should dam up the stream at the narrowest point between 
Charlestown and Boston, and lay out a series of parks and boulevards 
along the basin thus created. 

We have incorporated in this report copies of photographs show- 
ing various aspects of the Alster Basin in Hamburg. They tell their 
story so etfectively that minute description is hardly needed. Ham- 
burg lies on the east bank of the Elbe, at a distance of seventy miles 
from the German Ocean, and is the most important commercial city 
of the German Empire. The population of the city and suburbs 
exceeds 600,000. The climate is harsh and fully as much exposed 
to cold and disagreeable winds as Boston is. The thermometer does 
not indicate so low degrees of temperature, but the diflerence be- 
tween the two cities in this regard is not very great. In former 
times the Alster was a small stream flowing through the centre of the 
city and entering the Elbe at right angles to the hitter's course. At 
the entrance of the Alster into the Elbe an estuary was formed which 
sheltered the small vessels engaged in the commerce of those days. 

With the growth of the city larger and more convenient docks 
were formed on the Elbe ; and the formation of the Alster Basin 
was begun at a point about a mile distant from the entrance of the 
Alster into the Elbe ; dams across the stream were constructed with 
suitable contrivances for the passage of mastless vessels. 

Constant improvements have been going on in this water park, 
some the results of the needs of a growing city and some from eflbrts 
to increase the attractions of the basin and its borders. There are 
two basins, an upper and a lower, separated by the bridge shown in 
Plate No. HI. 



cxlvi STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. . [Jan. 

The views Xos. I. and H. present scenes upon the lower basin. 
About this are ranged some of the finest of the private houses, the 
principal hotels, and such shops as are usually found in the better 
quarters of a city. 

Plate IV. is a view across a portion of the upper basin, looking 
into the city and towards the bridge which separates the two basins. 

It will be noticed that the lower water park is treated in a formal 
way with walls, straight lines of street, and rows of trees ; in the 
upper basin walls are replaced by beaches ; the shore lines no longer 
run parallel to the streets, and the trees and shrubbery are grouped 
in effective masses. At points more distant from the city and on the 
upper reaches of the river, very little attempt has been made to im- 
prove the naturally pleasing variation of banks but slightly elevated 
above the stream and verdant meadows interspersed with trees, 
shrubbery and gardens. 

We desire to call attention to the evidences of appreciation of all 
those charms shown by the life everywhere manifest, — the little 
steamer makes its rounds from one point to another on the water 
park ; row-boats are plenty, and when some much-frequented place 
of resort on the stream is reached, as shown in Plate V., the popular 
enjoyment of it all should convince this community that much labor 
and expense could be profitably invested in procuring for the metro- 
politan district the opportunity for the same innocent enjoyments. 
We have a framework for such scenes far superior to that possessed 
by Hamburg, and the expense of preparation is not excessive. 

That all this out-door life is not peculiar to the German nation is 
well shown by the illustration Plate VI. (from report of Metropoli- 
tan Park Commissioners, 1893), of boating on the Thames. Nothing 
of all this has hitherto been possible in the estuary of the Charles, 
although some suggestion of the possibilities in this direction may 
be obtained from the rapidly growing use of the comparatively in- 
accessible fresh-water basin farther up the stream extending from 
Waltham to Riverside. The repulsive appearance of the shores of 
the estuary at the lower stages of tide, the foul odors along its banks 
and flats, and the diflSculties experienced in passing under the low 
bridges at high tide, have combined to make boating and the use of 
the stream by small steamboats unattractive and, in a measure, 
dangerous. 

In conclusion, your board feels that no treatment ot the Charles 
River can be entirely satisfactory which does not regard the condition 



1895.] PUBLIC DOCUMENT — Xo. 34. cxlvii 

of the river above and in "\\'altliam. At the boundary of that city, 
by the terms of the act under which we are directed to make our 
investigation and report, our hibors end. 

"We have not thought that it was necessary to submit herewith the 
drafts of such legislation as might seem to be required for carrying 
out our recommendations. We are aware that the very serious 
changes proposed require the co-operation of the United States, the 
State and various municipalities. But the questions only difier in 
degree from some which have already been satisfactorily determined 
by existing commissions whose organizations are sufficiently com- 
plete to enable them to promptly undertake the execution of so 
much of these plans as it may seem wise to the Commonwealth to 
enter upon. 

HENRY P. WALCOTT, 

Chairman. 

PHILIP A. CHASE, 
WILLIAM B. DE LAS CASAS, 
ABRAHAM L. RICHARDS, 

Board of Metrojiolitan Park Commissioners. 

HIRAM F. MILLS, 
FRANK W. DRAPER, 
JOSEPH W. HASTINGS, 
GERARD C. TOBEY, 
JAMES W. HULL, 
CHARLES H. PORTER, 

Slate Board of Health. 
Boston, Mass., April 27, 1804. 



WATER SUPPLY 



AND 



SEWERAGE. 



ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWXS. 



WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE/ 



[Report required by the provisions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 
1888, entitled "An Act to protect the purity of inland waters, 
and to reqviire consultation with the State Board of Health 
regarding the establishment of systems of water supply, drain- 
age and se'werage."] 

The following report contains the substance of the replies 
made ))y the Board to those cities, towns, corporations and 
individuals which have applied to the Board for its advice 
relative to systoms of water supply, drainage and sewerage, 
under the provisions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888. It 
also includes a summary of the work done by the Board in 
connection with the examination of water supplies and rivers, 
and the jnirificatlon of sewage. 

The chemical and microscopical analyses of the water 
supplies and rivers of the iState have been continued during 
the year 1894 , 2,000 samples having been examined. The 
number of examinations of waters proposed for new supplies 
of cities and towns is constantly on the increase, the anal^'scs 
of this character being more numerous during the past year 
than ever before. Following is a classified list of the waters 
examined during the year : — 

From o]icn and covered reservoirs for the storage of ground waters, . 29 

From ffroiinil-watcr supplies, 384 

Special investigations of regular water supplies affected br tastes, odors, 

etc , . . . \ 23 

From ponds and storage reservoirs and their inlets, .... 7">3 

From streams and miscellaneous sources, fi.'J 

Total from rcguhir water supjilics, \,'2')i 

In connection witli investigations ot new sources of water supply, . . .S."i8 

AVith reference to pollution of streams 107 

With reference to sewage i)urilicati()n at Framingham, Marlborough, 

fianlner. Mcdiield and Amherst 1.V2 

In ciiniioction with a study of deep wells in Boston and vicinity, . . M 

In cunncctidu with the study of epidemics 7 

Miscellaneous, 7S 



Total, 2,006 

• The first pastes of this report were contnlned in n report mnde to the LeelKlntnro Jnn. 
10, 1895 (Sciiiile Pocuincnt, No. ■!<!). A portion of ihe report then ina<1e, reliilin^ to llie 
worlv done ot the T.nwrence Experiment Stnti^'n.in not reproduced, licontise n more oonii'leio 
account of the work done at this place will be found in a subsequeut part of this volume. 



4 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The microscopical analyses of the "waters have added to 
our information of the organisms occurring in surface waters, 
and work has also been continued on the connection between 
the taste and odors of waters and the organisms which they 
contain. 

In previous reports of the Board repeated mention has 
been made of the occurrence of iron in many ground waters 
in excess of the amount which can be held in solution after 
the water has been exposed to the air. Owing to the pro- 
longed period of low rainfall, these occurrences of excessive 
amounts of iron in ground waters have been more frequent, 
and some surface waters, also, have l^een found to contain 
an unusual amount of iron. Iron-containing ground waters 
have, in some localities in this country, been successfully 
treated by aeration and filtration, and the iron by this means 
nearly or completely removed. Such methods are, however, 
only practicable where the iron exists as carljonate. When 
the iron is in the form of sulphate or where the water con- 
tains much organic matter, the complete removal of the iron, 
without chemical treatment, has been found to be a matter 
of much greater difficulty. 

During the past year there have been analyzed waters from 
many deep wells in Boston and vicinity. These wells vary 
from one hundred to over six hundred feet in depth, and are 
mostly private property, the water being used in many indus- 
trial operations. The water from these wells is generally 
characterized l)y the })re-<ence of much mineral matter, and, as 
a rule, by liltlo organic matter. Many of these waters show 
the iiillu(!ncc of surface drainage and of high sewage pollu- 
tion. The i)urification has been in most cases, however, very 
nearly com[)lctc, as far as organic contamination is concerned. 
Many of them show direct contamination with sea water ])y 
their high contents of salt. In addition to the usual sanitary 
examination of these deep well Avators, the principal mineral 
ingr(;di('iitH have also Ik-ou determined. Those very com- 
plete analyses are of great interest, not only from a sanitary 
point of view, but also from the stand-i)<)iiit of tli(! industrial 
uses of these waters, and further of tllcir relations to the 
geological strata in which they occur. 



Xo. 34.] AD\aCE TO CITIES AXD TO^A^'S. 5 

The analyses of the sewage and effluents from the various 
sewage fields throughout the State have been conthiued dur- 
ing the past year, and additional information obtained as to 
the continued efficiency of these fields. 

During the present year it is intended to make an extended 
study of the nature of the coloring matter in surfiice waters 
by means of an instrument which enables us to analyze the 
color. It is hoped that, apart from the scientific results of 
this examination, we ma}'' obtain valuable information as to 
the relation ])etween the colors of waters and the character 
of the orii-anisms which this ori2:anic coloring: matter can 
support. 



ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOAYXS. 

Under the provisions of chapter 375 of the Acts of 1888, 
entitled "An Act to protect the purity of inland waters, 
and to require consultation with the State Board of Health 
regarding the establishment of systems of water supply, 
drainage and sewerage," the Board is required "from time 
to time to consult with and advise the authorities of cities 
and towns, or with corporations, firms or individuah either 
already having or intending to introduce s>/stems of water 
supfilt/, drainage or seiverage, as to the most appropriate 
source of supphj, the best jyracticable method of assuring the 
puridj thereof or of disposing of their drainage or sewage, 
having regard to the present and p>rospective needs and in- 
terests of other cities, towns, corporations, firms or individuals 
which may he affected thereby. It shall also from time to 
time consult with and advise persons or cori)orations engaged 
or intending to engage in any nianutiu-turing or other busi- 
ness, drainage or sewage from which may tend to cause the 
pollution of any inland water, as to the best practicable 
method of preventing such pollution by the interception, 
disposal or purification of such drainage or sewage : provided, 
that no person shall be compelled to bear the expense of 
such consultation or advice, or of experiments made for the 
purposes of this act. All such authorit-ies, corporations. 



6 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

firms and individuals are hereby required to give notice to 
said Board of their intentions in the premises, and to submit 
for its advice outlines of their ])roposed plans or schemes in 
relation to loater sujjply and disposed of drainage and sewage; 
and all petitions to the Legislature for authority to introduce 
a system of water supply, drainage or sewerage shall be 
accompanied by a copy of the recommendation and advice of 
the said Board thereon.^' 

During the year 1894 the Board has given its advice to 
the follo\\'ing cities, towns, corporations and individuals who 
have applied for such advice under the provisions of the 
general act of 1888, or under special acts relating to water 
supply and sewerage. 

Replies "were made during the year to applications made 
from the following sources for advice relative to water sup- 
ply : Arlington, Barre, Belchertown, Blackstone, Brockton, 
Brookfield, Dudley, Gloucester, Greenfield, Hingham and 
Hull, Holyoke, Hyde Park school committee (two replies), 
Hyde Park Water Company, Ipswich, Longmeadow, Mil- 
ford, Milton, Monson, New Bedford, Xewburyport (city), 
Xewburyport A^"ater Company, North Attleborough, Norton, 
Quincy, Swampscott, Wareham (Onset Bay Water Com- 
pany), Watertown, Westborough Lunatic Hospital, West- 
port (Water Supply of Horse Neck Beach) and Winchendon 
(four replies). 

Replies relating to sewerage and sewage disposal w^ere 
made, in answer to applications fi-om the following sources: 
Andov^er, Concord, Haverhill, Hudson, ISlilton, Nantucket, 
North Andover and Palmer. 

Replies were also made during the year relative to the 
subject of pollution of streams and water supplies, to certain 
authorities and other parties in the following towns: To H. 
B. Cottle, Esq., of Brookfield, in regard to the discharge of 
sewage by the town of Si)enccr into the (^uaboag Riv(!r ; to 
the selectmen of Deerlic.'ld relative to the pollution of the 
Green River by the town of Greenfield ; to the water board 
(jf llockport relative to the pollution of Cai)e Pond by a glue 
factory on its water-shed ; and to citizens of Worcester rela- 
tive to the protection of one of the reservoirs from pollution. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWXS. 7 

Water Supply. 

The foUowinix is the substance of the action of the Board 
in reply to applications for advice relating to water supply : — 

ArlixCtTOX. An application was received from the com- 
mittee on water supply of Arlington, April 27, L'im, stating 
that the committee had continued their investigations, as 
previously suggested by the Board, and at the same time 
asking the advice of the Board relative to the same. The 
Board replied as follows : — 

Mat 25, 1S94. 

The State Board of Health received from you an application 
dated April 26, 1894, stating that since the reply made by this 
Board to you ou Feb. 10, 1893, you had continued your investiga- 
tions, and that you now asked if, in view of the additional infor- 
mation which you had obtained, the Board had any additional 
advice to give you. Your application was accompanied by two 
printed reports of your committee to the town of Arlington, one 
dated Feb. 21, 1893, and the other Feb, 26, 1894. The first of 
these reports contains the reply of the Board above referred to, 
and the other the results of subsequent investigations. 

By tests of the ground at various points within tlie water-shed 
from whicli the present supply of the town is derived, you have 
found no place likely to furnish as good a supply of water as the 
source tested last year, on the border of the Great Meadows near 
the East Lexington railroad station. At this place you have 
driven a few additional wells, and have made tests to determine 
the capacity of the source by connecting the wells together and 
pumping from them from Dec. 1 to Dec. 29, 1893, at an average 
rate of about 500,000 gallons per day. During this test you sent 
three samples of water to this Board for analysis. The samples 
were collocted on Dec. 14, 10 and 27, 1893. The analyses gave 
substantially the same indications as those made a year before, and, 
like them, they showed a perceptible deterioration in the quality 
of the water during the progress of the test. Tiie quality of the 
water at the time of the test was sucli that it would l)e satisfactory 
for all water supply purposes, but there is reason to tliiuk that it 
will deteriorate if a largo quantity of water is pumix^d from this 
source. 

The tests of this year show more definitely than those of last 
year that quite a large quantity of water can be obtained from 



8 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

this source, but tliey do not give additional information of such a 
character as to cause the Board to change its views, as expressed in 
its previous reply, as to the limitations of this source in a dry year. 
The conditions under which you now apply for the advice of the 
Board are somewhat different from those of last year. You then 
had in view the construction of permanent works, and you now 
indicate that it is proposed to put in works of a temporary char- 
acter for pumping water from these wells until a metropolitan 
water supply is available. Having in view the temporary char- 
acter of the proposed works and the unfavorable results of inves- 
tigations for obtaining a better water supply at some other point, 
the Board thinks that you cannot do better than to adopt this 
source. It is the general experience that the amount of water to 
be supplied for the first few years after the constructiou of works 
is comparatively small, and it is probable that this source will 
furnish all of the water needed for a temporary supply ; moreover, 
the smaller the amount of water pumped, the less likelihood there is 
of deterioration in the quality of the water. It may be well to 
add that in referring to the possible deterioration in the quality of 
this water the Board has had in view the possibility that it might 
become unsuitable for laundry uses and unpalatable, rather than 
that it might become unwholesome. 

Barre. George A. Brown, and others, afterward incor- 
porated as the Barre Water Company, applied to the Board 
April 7, 1894, for its advice rehitive to taking the water of 
certain springs in that town as a public water supply. The 
Board replied as follows : — 

April 27, 1894. 

It is understood that you liave had surveys made, which indi- 
cate that it will be feasible to collect the water which flows from a 
drainage area of two hundred and seven acres at a sufTicient eleva- 
tion above the town to supply water to it by gravity, but that the 
method of developing this source has not yet been fully decided 
upon. 

Samples of water collected April 12, 1894, from the streams 
which flow from this territory, have been analyzed, and were found 
to be very soft and of very good quality for the purposes of a 
public water supply. The quality of the water to be obtained from 
this source for the supply of the town would depend to a consider- 
able extent upon the method of taking the water. If it should be 
obtained from the ground by means of a collecting well and col- 
lecting ditches or pipes, aud conveyed to the consumers without 



No. 34.] x\DYICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 9 

being exposed to the light, it would be much better than if stored 
in a reservoir. 

"With regard to the quantity of water, it is not feasible to tell 
with certainty from the present information whether a sufficient 
supply can be obtained from this source or not ; but the prospects 
are favorable, aud the Board would, tlierefore, advise further 
investigation of tliis territory in order to determine if a sufficient 
supply can be obtained from the ground. If a ground-water sup- 
ply should be obtained and should prove insufficient in the future, 
it might be supplemented by the construction of a storage reser- 
voir above the place where the ground-water supply is taken. 
When you have more definite plans to present, the Board will 
advise you further in this matter, if you so desire. 

Belchertowx. An application was received Feb. 7, 
1894, from the water committee of Belchertown, for the 
advice of the Board relative to the propriety of takins;" the 
water of Jahish Brook and of Chaml>ray Brook in Belcher- 
town as sources of water supply for the town. The Board 
replied as follows : — 

March 1, 1S94. 

The Board has caused these brooks to be examined and their 
waters to be analyzed. The analyses of samples of water collected 
on Feb. 19, 1894, show that the waters of both sources were very 
soft, and free from any excessive amount of organic matter. The 
waters had a somewhat high color, probably owing to previous con- 
tact with vegetable matter in swampy places ; but the color is not 
higher than that of many other waters used for water supply pur- 
poses in the State. There was not very much difference between 
the two waters, but in several respects tlie water of Chambray 
Brook was somewhat better than that of Jabish Brook. 

The quality of the water of these sources would vary somewhat 
from time to time throughout the year, and might become worse if 
the water should be stored in storage reservoirs from which the 
soil and vegetable matter has not been removed ; so that, before 
choosing eitlier one or the other on account of the quality of the 
water, it would be desirable to have the results of further analyses 
and to know the character of reservoirs to be built above the pro- 
posed points of taking. 

With regard to the quantity of water to be obtained from these 
sources, it may be said tliat Jabish Brook at the proposed point of 
taking would, with only a very small reservoir, furnish all the 
water tlnit Bolchortowu would require, unless the flow of the stream 
in summer should be controlled by some large reservou- built by 



10 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the city of Springfield ; in which case, if the gates were closed, 
there might not be a sufficient quantity of water. 

Chambray Brook above the point where its water can be taken 
to Belchertown by gravity can be made to furnish a sufficient 
quantity of water for Belchertown by building a reservoir to store 
some of the surplus water in the spring of the year for use during 
the dry portions of the year. 

"With the present information the Board cannot advise definitely 
as to which of the two sources is the better one for the water 
supply of Belchertown ; but it is obvious that, if they are found 
upon further investigation to be of nearly equal merit, having due 
regard to quality, quantity and cost, the supply should be taken 
from Chambray Brook, so as not to interfere with the water supply 
of the city of Springfield, which is now taken from Jabish Brook. 

Blackstone. Francis N. Thayer and other citizens of 
Blackstone, who afterward obtained a charter as the Black- 
stone Water Co., applied to the Board Dec. 9, 1893, for its 
advice relative to taking the waters of Ironstone Pond and 
Emerson Brook, with their tri])utaries, in the town of Ux- 
bridge, and also certain lands in the town of Blackstone for 
the purpose of driving wells in the same for a public water 
supply for the town of Blackstone, including the village of 
JSlillville. The Board replied to this application as follows : — 

March 9, 1894. 

The Board has caused examinations to be made of the proposed 
sources of supply, as far as has been found practicable in winter. 

Ironstone Pond, the first of the sources named, was found to be 
an old millpond, formed by a dam built across Ironstone Brook. 
It is said to have an area of about 24.3 acres and an average depth 
of about 5.43 feet. Immediately above this pond is a reservoir 
which is said to have an area of fiO.5 acres and an average depth 
of 4.2 feet. The water-shed, which is partly in the State of Rhode 
Island, is quite large, and with a moderate amount of storage will 
furnish all the water required for Blackstone for a long time in the 
future. Analyses of samples of water from this soui-ce showed 
that the water at the time the samples were collected was of fairly 
good quality for the purposes of a pu])lic water supply. It is not 
feasible to tell, however, from examinations made at this season of 
the year, what tlie quality of water stored in such shallow reser- 
voirs will be in the hot weather of summer ; and the Board cannot 
at the present time advise that this is a suitable source of water 
supply for the town of Blackstone. 



Xo. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOAVXS. 11 

Emerson Brook, at the point where it is high enough to supply 
water to the town by gravitj', is a stream of sufficient size to pro- 
vide, with ouly a small amount of storage, enough water to supply 
the present population of Blackstone ; and, if storage reservoirs 
can be built upon it which will contain in the neighborhood of one 
hundred million gallons, it will supply the town for a long time in 
the -future. Analyses of samples of water from this source showed 
that the water at the time the samples were collected was not very 
different from that of Ironstone Pond. The analyses indicated, 
however, both by the slightly higher color and the more noticeable 
vegetable odor, that the water of this brook was somewhat more 
affected by contact with vegetable matter in swamps and shallow 
reservoirs than the water of Ironstone Pond. There are some 
small and very shallow reservoirs upon this water-shed, and in this 
case, as in the other, it is difficult to predict at the present time 
whether or not the water will be of suitable quality for domestic 
use in the hotter portions of the year. If the required storage of 
the water could be effected by the construction of a storage reser- 
voir of cousiderable depth, which had been properly prepared for 
the recei)tion of water by the removal of soil and vegetable matter 
from its bottom and sides, and the present shallow reservoirs and 
swamps could be drained, a better water could be obtained from 
this source. 

"With regard to the other source mentioned by you, namely, a 
ground-water source within the limits of the town of Blackstone, 
it is not practicable at this season of the year and in the time within 
which you desire a reply to make a sutficient examination to ascer- 
tain whether there is a place within the town from which it is prob- 
able that a ground-water supply could be obtained. If a source 
could be found, nway from the thickl}' settled portion of the town 
and not adjacent to the Blackstone River, from which a sufficient 
quantity of ground water could be obtained, it is probable that the 
quality of the water would be very much better than that of water 
from eitlier of the other sources mentioned. 

As already indicated, the Board cannot advise you definitely at 
the present time as to the most appropriate source of supply for 
the town ; but will advise further, if you so request, later in the 
5'car, when analyses can be made of the water in the summer, and 
when you have more definite information to present as to the feasi- 
bility of obtaining a water supply from the ground, or as to the 
character of storage reservoirs which can be constructed. 

Brocktox. An application was received from tlie city 
engineer of Brockton May 1, 18i.'4, relative to increasing 



12 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the water supply of the city and providing for certain dis- 
tricts requiring a high-pressure service, and also suggesting 
the future possibility of a district supply embracing other 
contiguous towns. The Board replied as follows : — 

Sept. 20, 1894. 

The State Board of Health has considered your application dated 
May 1, 1894, and the amendment thereto dated July 20. la this 
appUcation you state that you have been directed to report plans 
for supplying Brockton Heights and Gary Hill with water, and that 
these localities have so great an elevation that they cannot be sup- 
plied with water from the present service. 

You also suggest that, as the present source of supply may prove 
inadequate in the near future, owing to the growth of the city, and 
the probable increase in tlie consumption of water due to tlie con- 
struction of the sewerage system now under way, it may be wise 
for your recommendations to be in line with or a part of a con- 
templated water supply for Brockton and towns in its vicinity. As 
possible sources of additional supply, you refer to the construction 
of a new storage reservoir below the present one, as a source within 
the city, and to Silver Lake as being apparently the best source 
beyond the city. 

Upon comparing the consumption of water in Brockton with the 
capacity of the present source in a dry year, it is found that the 
ultimate capacity is more than twice the present average daily con- 
sumption, which shows that there is no immediate need of a new 
supply on account of the quantity of water. It is, however, the 
general experience that the amount of water consumed increases 
much more rapidly than the population; and the facilities offered 
by the new sewerage system for removing the waste water are 
likely to lead to the more liberal use of water in the future, so that 
it is not improbable tiiat the present source may prove inadequate 
before many years. 

Increasing the supply of the city by the construction of a reser- 
voir below tiie present one does not seem advisable, on account of 
the large cost of a properly prepared reservoir at this place in pro- 
portion to the additi(jnal quantity of water to Ije obtained, and 
because the water, being derived mainly from the water-shed now 
used, would not be of the best quality ; moreover, the reservoir is 
not so far from the settled portions of Brockton but that its waters 
are liable to be polluted in the future, unless considci'able expense 
is incurred to prevent the occupation of the land di*ainiug toward 
the reservoir. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 13 

Silver Lake seems likely to be the best future source of supply 
for Brockton, on account of the more ample quantity of water 
which it will furnish, the superior character of the water for water 
supply purposes, and the better opportunities for supplementing 
the supply when the amount of water which this lake will furnish 
is exhausted. As the town of Whitman needs a better supply than 
it now has, and has already obtained the right to take water from 
Silver Lake, there is no doubt that it would be for the pecuniary 
advantage of both Whitman and Brockton to construct w^orks 
jointly, rather than to construct independent works. In regard to 
other towns near Brockton, the advantages of joint action are not 
obvious, although further investigation may show that it is desir- 
able in some instances. 

Tlie question of a high-service supply has been considered with 
reference to the possibility of taking the future supply from various 
sources which have been suggested ; and it has been found that 
the source of supply would not have any considerable influence 
upon the design of a system of high-service works controlled wholly 
by the city of Brockton, because the best plan in any case appears 
to be to maintain the present pressure in the greater part of the 
city, and to add a higher service for Brockton Heights and Gary 
Hill, to be supplied by pumps located at the present pumping 
station. 

BiiooKFiELD. The town of Brookfield requested the 
opinion of the Board Sept. 15, 1891, relative to the quality 
of the water of Qualioag River as a temporary water supply 
for the town, stating that the public supply had failed, and 
that recourse had been had to this stream. The Board 
replied as follows : — 

Sept. 25, 1894. 

The State Board of Health has received from you a communica- 
tion dated Sept. L5, 1894, in which you state that it is 5^our inten- 
tion to use, temporarily, the water of Quaboag River for the water 
supply of the town of BrookSeld. 

From the information already in the possession of the Board 
witli regard to the amount of sewage and other polluting matter 
which enters the Quaboag River or its tributaries, the Board is of 
the opinion that this water is not of suitable quality for a domes- 
tic water supply, and that if for fire protection and otlier purposes 
than drinking you find it necessary to pump this water into the 
pipes, you should notify each water taker that it is dangerous to 
drink the water. 



14 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Dudley. An application was received April 2, 1894, 
from D. W. Crosby of Webster, for the advice of the Board 
relative to extending the water pipes of the Webster water 
supply into a village of Dudley which lies in close })roximity 
to the town of Webster. The Board replied as follows : — 

April 5, 189i. 

The State Board of Health received from you on April 2, 1894, 
an application for advice relative to a proposed water supply for 
portions of the town of Dudley, iu which you state that you pro- 
pose to ask the Legislature to grant the town of Webster, Mass., 
permission to lay water pipes in a part of Dudley known as Merino 
Village, to furnish a supply of water for domestic and other pur- 
poses to the citizens of Dudley who may desire the same. 

The Board has on two occasions advised the authorities of the 
town of Webster with regard to proposed sources of water supply, 
and in the communications to Webster, copies of which are given 
below (see twenty-second annual report of the Board, page 13, and 
twenty-fifth annual report, page 63), 30U will find the opinion of 
the Board with regard to the quality of the water if taken directly 
from Lake Chaubunagungamaug or from the ground near it (the 
present source of water supply of Webster) ; also its opinion as to 
the propriety of taking water from this source for the supply of 
portions of the town of Dudley. 

The Board does not think it within its province to advise as to 
the agency by which the water should be supplied. 

Gloucestek. An application was received from the city 
of Gloucester March 28, 1894, for the advice of the Board 
relative to taking a new water supply from the Chebacco 
lakes in the town of Essex. The Board replied as follows : — 

AntiL 27, 1894. 

The State Board of Health received on March 23, 1894, an 
application made by you in behalf of the city of Gloucester for 
the advice of the Board with regard to a proposed water supply 
for the city. In this application you state that the " proposed 
source of supply is the group of lakes in tiic town of Ess(!X known 
as the Ciieljacco ponds," and th;it it is proposed to take th(! sup[)ly 
from Chebacco Lake, :it a point near the north-westerly end. 

The Board has cuusod oxaniinritions to 1)0 made of the Chebacco 
ponds and of the .sources in West (Jioucc^stor from which water is 
now taken for supplying the city of Gloucester. It has also 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 15 

examined into the opportunities for developing the present sources 
of supply and other sources near them. 

The Board Ihids that the present sources have sufficient capacity 
in a dry year to supply the quantity of water now used by the 
city ; but the population now supplied is much less than the total 
population, and the amount of water cousumed is increasing from 
year to year, so that it will be necessary before long either to 
develop the sources now used or to obtain a further supply from 
other sources. If the present sources and those in their vicinity 
should be fully developed they would furnish fully double the 
quantity of water now used, and make a further supply unneces- 
sary at the present time. 

The water supplied from the present reservoirs of the Glouces- 
ter "Water Compauy is practically free from pollution by sewage, 
and in other respects it is a fairly satisfactory water for the pur- 
poses of a public water supply, and is somewhat better at tb.e 
present time than the water in Chebacco Lake. It could undoubt- 
edly be improved, however, by the removal of stumps, soil and 
vegetable matter from the bottom and sides of the reservoirs. 
The water from other sources near the. present ones in "West 
Gloucester has not been analyzed, but from an examination of 
these sources it seems probable that they will furnish as good 
water as the sources now supplying the cit}'. 

Chebacco Lake will furnish a somewhat larger quantity of water 
than could be obtained from all of the available sources in West 
Gloucester if they were fully developed, and is probably the most 
available source of water supply for Gloucester, independent of 
the present works. As already indicated, the water is not quite as 
good as that now supplied to the city, and it is doubtful if it 
would prove a satisfactory water for water-supply puri)oses unless 
improved in some way, which cannot be determined with the infor- 
mation now available. 

The Chebacco ponds are located in the towns of Essex, Hamil- 
ton and "Wenham, and are only a short distance from Mancliester, 
and mi\y prove the most available source of water suppW or addi- 
tional water supply for these towns ; moreover, it is not improba- 
ble that they may prove the most available source from which to 
take an additional water supplj^ for Salem and Beverly, when the 
capacity of the sources from which these places are now author- 
ized to take water has been reached. Under these circumstances, 
the Board is of the opinion that the Chebacco ponds are not at 
present the most appropriate source of supply for the city of 
Gloucester; and if rights in tliese ponds are granted to Gloucester, 
they shoukl be limited by proper reservations for other places. 



16 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Greenfield. The water commissioners of Fire District 
Xo. 1 of Greenfield applied to the Board March 1, 1894, for 
its advice relative to increasing the water supply of the dis- 
trict by building a larger reservoir in the same water-shed 
now used by the district, or by taking an additional supply 
from Workman Brook in Colrain. The Board replied as 
follows : — 

April 2, 1894. 

The present source of supply is Glen Brook above the Glen, in 
the town of Leyden, where the drainage area of the brook is 5.36 
square miles. This source has been developed by the construction 
of a dam at the Glen, which creates a storage reservoir containing 
about 16,000,000 gallons of water. 

Judging the capacity of this source from the area of its water- 
shed and the size of the present storage reservoir, the works should 
be able to supply more than enough water for the population now 
supplied ; and it may be that by moderate restrictions upon the 
waste of water or by stopping the leakage at the dam, if it is feasi- 
ble to do so, the need of an additional supply may be avoided for 
the present. 

If the present conditions of consumption of water and leakage 
at the dam are continued, it is obvious from the experience of last 
summer, when the reservoir was nearly emptied, that a further 
supply is required ; and one of the plans suggested by you is to 
increase the storage capacity upon the water-shed from which the 
supply is now taken, by building a reservoir which will hold about 
To, 000, 000 gallons, upon the east branch of Glen Brook, about 
one and three-quarters miles up stream from the present dam. 
The construction of a reservoir of this kind would undoubtedly 
increase the capacit}' of the present source to such an extent that 
it would furnish a sullicient quantity of water for the towns now 
supplied from it for a long time in the future. 

A water as good as that now flowing in these brooks Avill 
deteriorate by storage in a reservoir in which the water stands 
without being renewed as long as it would in the proposed reser- 
voir, so that it will be less palatable than the water supplied from 
the present reservoir ; and it will deteriorate very much more if 
the soil and vcgctaljle matter are not removed from the bottom and 
sides of the reservoir before it is filled than if they are removed. 

Owing to the location of the proposed reservoir upon a branch 
brook where the water will not be renewed frequently, the water 
will not be in quite as good condition as if the reservoir were 
located upon the main stream ; but there is a compensating advan- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 17 

tage ia this location, that, since the main brook and existing 
reservoir will furnish the required amount of water under nearly 
all circumstances, it will not be necessary to take any large pro- 
portion of tiie water from the new reservoir, except on rare occa- 
sions during periods of extreme drought. 

The water of Workman Brook has been analyzed, and, judging 
from the analysis and the character of the drainage area, it would 
be as good as the water from Glen Brook. "Workman Brook, 
however, has a water-shed only about one-sixth as large as that of 
Glen Brook, and will not furnish any very large addition to the 
present water supply. 

From present information it would not seem advisable to take 
an additional water supply from Workman Brook, because of the 
large expense when compared with the quantity of water to be 
obtained. It is possible, however, that further investigations may 
show that this is a desirable source to adopt, and it does not seem 
to be required for the water supply of any other community. 

The Board recommends that you investigate more thoroughly the 
relative cost and merit of the plans which you have suggested for 
increasing the supply, and that you should also include in the 
investigation two other plans, one of which is to increase the 
storage capacity of the present reservoir on Glen Brook by con- 
structing a higher dam at or just below the present dam at the 
Glen, and the other relates to taking an additional supply from 
Fisk Brook, which the fire district was authorized to take by 
chapter 217 of the acts of 1883. The analysis of a sample of 
water from Fisk Brook shows that it has the same general charac- 
ter as the water of Workman and Glen brooks, except that it is 
somewhat harder. 

This reply is made at the present time because you desire it for 
use during the session of the present Legislature ; and, as the 
investigations which you have thus far made have not been sufli- 
ciently oxtended to furnish definite information as to the relative 
merits of different sources, it is necessarily of a general nature. 
When you have further information to present the Board will 
advise you further in this matter. 

IIiNoiiAM and Hull. An apiilication was received ]\[ay 
14, 18114, from the llinirham Water Company, for the advice 
of the Board relative to taking an additional water supply 
for Ilingham and Hull from Accord Brook and Cushing's 
Pond in Ilingham, at the same time calling attention to the 
existence of a bad taste and odor in tlie water of Accord 
Pond. The Board replied as follows : — 



18 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Ji-LT 26, 1S94. 

The sources from which you now supply these towns are Accord 
Pond, which has an area of 98 acres and is 133 feet above mean 
high tide, and Fulling Mill Pond, which has an area of about 14 
acres and is only 30 feet above high tide. Accord Pond supplies 
water by gravity, while from Fulling Mill Pond the water has to 
be pumped. 

You state that it is proposed to take water from Accord Brook 
at a point about 500 feet above South Pleasant Street and about 
3,900 feet east from Fulling Mill Pond, where the brook is about 
62 feet above high water in this pond. You also state that Ciish- 
ing's Pond is at about the same level as Fulling Mill Pond, and 
that it contains perhaps 30 acres. 

In order to ascertain the quality of the water, these sources have 
been examined and samples of water have been collected from 
them and analyzed. The waters from both of them have the same 
general characteristics, in that they are comparatively free from 
contamination by sewage, since the water-sheds are both sparsely 
populated, and they both have a deep brownish color and contain 
a large amount of vegetable matter acquired from the swamps upon 
the water-shed. Owing to the swampy character of the waters, 
the Board is of opinion that they will not be of suitable quality for 
domestic use unless they are efllciently purified. 

There are two ways of improving such waters, which are worthy 
of consideration in the present case. One is to drain the swamps 
so that the water will not stand upon them, nor come in contact 
with the mud and vegetable matter as it passes througli them. It 
seems doubtful in the present case if it would be feasible to 
improve the character of the water in this way to a sufficient extent 
to render it satisfactory for water supply purposes. Tiie other 
method of purification is by filtration. Owing to tlie very dark 
color of the waters, it does not seem probable that filtration 
through artificial sand filters would prove satisfactory, because the 
cost of filters large enough to permit the very slow filtration of the 
water which would be necessary to remove the color would be pro- 
hibitory. 

The i)lan which seems likely to give the most satisfactory results 
is one in which the sandy or gravelly laud near FuUiug IMill Poud or 
Accord Pond would be utilized as a natural filter bed, by prepar- 
ing its surface so that the water could be distributed over it. If 
the material is sufficiently porous, the water will soak into the 
ground and find its way gradually by percolation underground into 
these ponds or their tributaries. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 19 

The Board advises, as the first investigation in this line, that you 
should ascertain whether there is not high porous land near Fulling 
Mill Pond or the brook which feeds it where filter beds of the char- 
acter above referred to can be economically constructed, and to 
which the water of Accord Brook may be conveyed by gravity 
through a pipe. It is, of course, necessary that these beds should 
be so located that the water after being filtered into the ground 
will find its way into the pond ; and it may be necessary to con- 
struct ditches or otlier works for collecting the water after it is 
filtered and conveying it to the pond in such a way that it will not 
deteriorate by flowing through any rank vegetation. 

The quantity of water which can be purified by filtration through 
natural beds in this way will vary with the local conditions ; but 
our information leads us to believe that under ordinary conditions 
an average of 300.000 gallons per acre per day could be ellicicntly 
purified, provided there is an intermission in the operation of the 
filters as often as once in twenty-four hours. 

It is desirable in any case that Fulling Mill Pond should he 
improved by the removal of all mud from its bottom ; but if the 
plan above suggested should be carried out, it is even more desira- 
ble that this should be done, so that the filtered water would be 
less likely to deteriorate by being stored in it. 

Accord Pond is shown by the records not to have filled within 
the last three years, and it is obvious that more water must be 
obtained from some other source. As an additional supply cannot 
be obtained by gravity, it will be necessary in the future to pump 
a greater proportion of the water used. It may be found that if 
Fulling Mill Pond is cleaned out, as suggested, so that its water 
will be of suitable quality for use at all seasons of the year, and 
the supply to this pond is increased by the method of filtration 
above described, it will be feasible, by pumping during a greater 
portion of the year, to fill Accord Pond every spring, and to avoid 
for a time the necessity for constructing a storage reservoir upon 
Accord Brook, or the taking of water from Cushing's Pond. 

In addition to your request for advice with regard to an addi- 
tional supi)ly of water, you have called the attention of the Board 
to a disagreeable taste and odor in the water of Accord Pond in 
June of this year, and to the occurrence of a similar trouble in 
previous years, and have asked that the matter be investigated, 
with a view to ascertaining the cause of the trouble and the best 
means for preventing its recurrence. Investigations made this 
3^ear show that the taste and odor were due principally to the 
presence of a minute vegetable organism called anaba'na^ which 
was found in great abundance either distributed through the water 
of the pond or floating upon the surface as a green scum. This 



20 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

organism is seldom found in unpolluted natural ponds which have 
not been raised, but is frequently found in artificial reservoirs 
which have been filled with water without removing the soil and 
vegetable matter from their bottom and sides. It seems probable 
that the flowage of laud from which the soil and vegetable matter 
were not removed, by the raising of the dam at Accord Pond, has 
caused or helped to cause the growth of these organisms, and that 
the removal of this organic matter to the extent that it may be 
removed when the pond is drawn to a low level would lessen the 
frequency of occurrence and the amount of this growth, if it did 
not entirely prevent it. 

The improvement of a swamp adjacent to the pond, so that the 
water will not stand in it nor come in contact with the mud and 
vegetable matter as it passes through it, would, by improving the 
quality of the water entering the pond, have a favorable effect 
upon the quality of the water in the pond. 

HoLYOKE. An application was received Jan. 18, 1894, 
from the "water commissioners of Holyoke, for the advice of 
the Board relative to taking Munn Brook in the town of 
Granville as an additional water supply for the city of Hol- 
yoke. Further investigation of this source had already been 
made, as suggested by the Board in reply to a previous appli- 
cation. The Board sent the following reply : — 

Feb. 1, 1894. 

On Oct. 5, 1893, the Board, in reply to a former application 
from you, gave certain advice with regard to Munn Brook as a 
source of additional water supply for your city, and also referred 
to other sources which it thought should be more thoroughly investi- 
gated before making a final decision as to the source to be adopted. 
The results of the investigations which have since been made by 
your engineers, taken in connection with the examinations made by 
the engineers of the Board, lead the Board to conclude that Munn 
Brook is the most appropriate source from which to take an addi- 
tional water supply for your city. 

The investigations which you have made with regard to storage 
reservoirs upon the Munn Brook water-shed seem to show tliat it 
is feasible to utilize at least as much of the flow from this water- 
shed as can be carried to Holyoke through a twenty-four inch pipe ; 
and this source, connected witli your present sui)ply by a twenty- 
four inch pipe, will furnish fully 9,000,000 gallons of water per 
day. 

The question of the size of the connecting pipe, whether it should 
be twenty or twenty-four inches in diameter, has been again con- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 21 

sklered in the light of the information furnished by the report sub- 
mitted by you. The estimates show that, if Holj'oke should 
continue to grow with the same numerical increase in each five 
years as during the twenty years from 1870 to 181)0, and the con- 
sumption of water per inhabitant should not increase to above 
ninety gallons, it would be a little cheaper to lay a twenty-inch 
pipe in the beginning, and supplement it in the future by another 
pipe when necessary ; but if the city should grow as rapidly as 
Worcester, Lowell and Fall River grew after they had attained 
the present size of Holyoke, or if the consumption per inhabitant 
should increase, it would be much cheaper to lay a twenty-four- 
inch pipe in the beginning. These considerations have led your 
engineer to advise the adoption of a twenty-four-inch pipe in the 
beginning, and seem to warrant this advice. There are several 
other points in favor of a larger pipe, even before its full capacity 
is required to prevent a shortage in the water supply, the most 
important of which is that it would insure the filling of the present 
ponds every spring, while the smaller pipe would not, and would 
make it unnecessary to draw the ponds and reservoir to a very low 
level, with a consequent deterioration in the quality of the water. 

The Board would again call attention to the following paragraphs 
in its last reply : — 

"The Board has caused an examination of the water-shed of 
Munn Brook to be made, also an analysis of a sample of water col- 
lected from the brook near the proposed point of taking. 

" These examinations indicate that the water is soft, and natu- 
rally of very good quality ; but it is at present polluted at a few 
points by the discharge of sewage into it. 

" This pollution should be stopped before the water is taken for 
use, and as an additional precaution it is desirable that the water 
should be diverted into Ashley Pond, rather than be allowed to run 
directly from the stream through the pipes into the city." 

Hyde Park. The school committee of Hyde Park 
requested the Board, Sept. 25, 1894, to make an examina- 
tion of the water supplied l\y the Hyde Park "Water Corn- 
pan}'. The Board replied as follows : — 

Oct. 5, 1804. 
In response to your request, dated Sept. 25, 1894, the State 
Board of Health has caused samples of water to be collected for 
analysis from faucets in various parts of Hyde Park, supplied 
from the Hyde Park Water Company's works, and the results of 
the analyses are enclosed herewith. 



22 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

It is difficult to judge from an analysis of the water furnished by 
this company whether it is safe for drinking or not, owing to the 
fact that the company has under its control wells which furnish 
water of varying quality. It is probable that the water from 
nearly all of the wells of the company is to a large extent filtered 
river water, and as the river is a polluted stream, the safety of the 
water for drinking purposes depends upon the efficiency of the 
filtration. 

Some of the wells, notably the starch factory well, referred to 
iu a reply to your committee dated Sept. 1, 1892, and a portion of 
the wells in a group driven in 1893, which are referred to in a 
reply to the Hyde Park Water Company dated June 14, 1893, 
were found to furnish water which was not regarded as safe for 
drinking. 

In reply to an inquiry from this office, the water company has 
stated that no water is now taken from these wells ; but the Board 
has not made any recent examinations in sufficient detail to enable 
it to state that all of the remaining wells now furnish good water. 
The analyses of the samples of water collected from the faucets in 
town show that the water is not perfectly purified ; but it is not 
feasible to tell from them whether the result is due to a slight 
deterioration in the efficiency of the purification of the whole of 
the water, or whether it is caused by the mingling of imperfectly 
purified water from a few of the wells with that from other wells 
which furnish a thoroughly purified water. In the former case, 
notwithstanding the slight deterioration in the efficiency of the 
purification, the water would be regarded as suitable for drinking 
purposes, while in the latter it might not be so regarded. 

A copy of both of the replies of the Board above referred to is 
enclosed herewith. (See twenty-fourth annual report of the Board, 
page 10, and twenty-fifth annual report, page 200.) 

The school committee again applied to the Board Oct. 30, 
181)4, asking whether, in itn judgment, the Avater thus fur- 
nished by the water comimny was a safe supply " for the 
school children of Hyde Park for drinking purposes." The 
Board replied as follows : — 

Di:c. G, 1891. 

'J'he state Board of Health received from you a letter dated 
Oct. 30, 1894, stating that you had received the communication of 
the Board, dated October .5, in answer to your request for tests of 
the water supplied l)y the .Myde Tark Water Coiii])aiiy, and that 
the school committee had instructed you to inquiie whuther, iu the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 23 

judgment of the Board, it was safe to supply the school children 
of Hyde Park, for drinking purposes, with the water furnished by 
this water company. 

The reply of October 5 contained as definite a statement of the 
conditions affecting the purity of the Hyde Park water as it was 
feasible to make. As you have probably learned already from this 
reply some of the wells under the control of the Hyde Park AVater 
Company, which it is understood have not been used, furnish 
water of unsuitable quality for drinlving, and the Board has no 
certain knowledge that all of the other wells furnish water of good 
quality ; in fact, the analyses show that the water supply to the 
town is not perfectly purified at some seasons of the year, and the 
water must be regarded with suspicion. 

The Board does not believe that, from the information now iu 
its possession, it would be justified in giving an opinion that the 
water furnished by the Hyde Park "Water Company is unwhole- 
some ; but there is an uncertainty as to the wholesomeness of the 
water during a portion if not the whole of the year, which leaves 
no question that it would be better to supply the school children 
with a water of known purity. 

Hyde Park Water Compaxy. An application was re- 
ceived from the Hyde Park Water Company July 10, 1894, 
for the advice of the Board relative to the quality of " three 
six-inch driven wells located and to be located on land be- 
longing to the company near the New York & New England 
Railroad in Hyde Park." The Board replied as follows : — 

Dec. 7, 1894. 

Samples sent in by you from one of these wells on June 14 and 
from another on June 30 had previously been analyzed with satis- 
factory results. 

A visit was made to your works by one of the engineers of the 
Board on July 13, when water was being drawn regularly from 
these wells by the pump in the pumping station. The analysis of 
a sample of water collected at this time showed a slight deteriora- 
tion in the qualitj' of the water, and a sample collected in a similar 
manner a week later showed a still further slight deterioration. 

In view of this chauge iu the character of the water, the results 
of the analyses were sent you on July 27, accompanied by a com- 
munication calling attention to the change in the character of the 
water, and stating that the Board would defer making a formal 
reply to your application until it could make furthei examinations, 



24 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

with a view to determining the character of the water after pump- 
ing had been continued for a longer time. 

Six more analyses were made, from June 30 to September 4 in- 
clusive, the water generallj' coming from either two or three of the 
first group of three wells. At different times during the month of 
September samples were sent in from each of three additional 
wells located about the same distance from the railroad as the first 
three, and a short distance further from your pumping station. In 
October and November, after all six wells had been connected, 
additional samples were analyzed. The changes in the mineral 
constituents of the water taken from these wells correspond nearly 
enough with the changes in the mineral constituents of the water 
of the Neponset River to show clearly that a considerable portion 
of the water from these wells comes from the river ; and, as the 
river is a highly polluted stream, the purification should be very 
thorough. The later analyses, both from the first three and from 
all six of the wells, while they show a large degree of purification 
resulting from the filtration of the river water through the ground,' 
do not show a sufficiently thorough purification to make the water 
safe for drinking purposes. The water is not at all times rendered 
wholly free from turbidity, sediment, color or odor, and the amount 
of organic matter left in the water is larger than it should be in a 
water filtered from a polluted source. The character of the water 
from these wells may vary somewhat with the season of the year, 
being better in the wet than in the dry season ; but it is probable 
that with a continued draft upon the wells the water will grow 
worse rather than better in the future. 

In view of all these results, the Board is of the opinion that the 
six wells examined cannot be depended upon to furnish a water of 
satisfactory quality for drinking purposes ; and it recommends that 
you obtain some new source of water supply, unless you can obtain 
good water from the ground in the vicinity of your present pump- 
ing station, at a greater distance from the river than the wells 
driven by you this year and last. 

Ipswich. The committee on water supply of the town of 
Ipswich applied to the Board Dec. 28, 1893, for its advice 
relative to taking Dow's Brook in r[)swich as a public water 
supply ; this source to l>e supplcincntcd when necessary with 
water from Bull Brook. The Board replied as follows : — 

Feb. 1, 1894. 

The State Board of Health received from you an application 
dated Dec. 28, 1893, accompanied l)y a report of your engineer, 
Mr. Tercy M. Blake, relative to a proposed water supply for the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 25 

town, to be taken from Dow's Brook within said town. The 
report of your engineer also contained the results of his investi- 
gations of other possible sources of supply in the town. 

The Board has already considered plans for a water supply to 
be taken from Dow's Brook, submitted by a water committee of 
your town on Nov. 30, 1889 ; but the plans then submitted in- 
cluded a storage reservoir having somewhat less depth and smaller 
capacity than the one now proposed. 

The water of Dow's Brook is of good quality. The reservoir 
in which it is to be stored is on the whole somewhat shallow, and 
in order to render the water less liable to deteriorate by storage 
and become affected by the disagreeable tastes and odors to which 
stored waters are sometimes subject, it should be thoroughly cleaned 
by the removal of all vegetable matter from its bottom and sides. 
Care should also be taken to prevent any pollution of the water 
by the farmhouses upon the water-shed. 

The quantity of water which this source by itself will furnish 
with the storage now proposed, provided the dam is made water- 
tight, will be sufficient to meet the requirements of the town after 
water has been thoroughly introduced until there has been some 
increase in the population ; and it is stated by your engineer that 
Bull Brook, also known as Egypt River, at a point not more than 
seven hundred feet from the site of the proposed dam, flows at a 
higher elevation than the water will stand in the proposed reser- 
voir, so that additional water can be diverted into it from this 
brook when necessary. 

The water of Bull Brook comes from a swampy region, and 
would not be of satisfactory quality for a public water supply if it 
was furnished directly to the consumers ; but it is not a polluted 
water, or one that need be regarded as injurious to the health of 
those drinking it ; and if a small proportion of it should be turned 
into the proposed storage reservoir in dry years, when there might 
otherwise be a shortage of water, the mingled waters when sup- 
plied to the town would not be of objectionable quality. 

The Board concludes that the present plan for taking a water 
supply from Dow's Brook, supplemented by Bull Brook when 
necessary, is the best plan which has yet been submitted to it for 
the water supply of the town of Ipswich, and it believes this plan 
to be a suitable one for adoption by the town. 

LoNGMEADOw. The water board of LongiUGadow api)lied 
to the Board Oct. 12, 1804, for its advice relative to taking 
the water of Cooley Brook in that town as a source of water 
supply. The Board replied as follows : — 



26 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

Nov. 21, 1894. 

The State Board of Health has considered your application 
dated Oct. 12, ISO-i, with regard to a proposed water supplj^ for 
the town of Longmeadow, to be taken from Cooley Brook at a 
point above any source of pollution. Your application contains 
the following statements : — 

" For several months past frequent measurements of the flow 
of the stream have been made, and the results show a flow of 8,750 
gallons per hour, or 210,000 gallons per day. It is proposed to 
construct a receiving reservoir of either masonry or selected tim- 
ber, which will contain 100,000 gallons. The stand-pipe will hold 
110,000 gallons." 

The Board has caused an examination of the water-shed of 
Cooley Brook to be made, also an analysis of a sample of water 
collected from the brook near the proposed point of taking, and 
finds that the water at the present time is of satisfactory quality 
for all the purposes of a public water supply. 

It is better that the receiving reservoir should be constructed of 
masonry rather than of wood, because experience in other places 
has shown that wood in similar situations produces conditions 
wliicli arc favorable to the growth of organisms, and a consequent 
deterioration in the quality of the water stored in contact with it. 
It is desirable that the reservoir should be covered in such a way 
as to exclude the light. 

Tlie measurements of the flow of the brook, made by you during 
tlie past season, taken in connection with tlie area of the water- 
shed apparently tributary to it, as observed by one of the engineers 
of the Board, indicate tliat water sulTicieut for at least twice the 
present population of the town can be obtained from this source. 

MiLFORD. An application was received fVoni the Milford 
AVuter Company Ai)ril 20, 1804, for the advice of the Board 
rehitive to increasing its water su[)])ly l)y taking the water 
of a small pond situated near the present puni})iiig station 
of the company. The Board rei)lied as follows : — 

May 15, 1804. 

The State Board of Health has considered your ai)plication dated 
April 20, 1894, with regard to a proposed additional wiitcr supply 
to be taken from a small pond near the pumping station, from 
which water can Ijc brought to the pumping station by gravity, 
and also for general advice us to the best plan of increasing the 
8iipi)ly. 

An examination of the small i)ond referred to has l)eon made liy 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 27 

an engineer of the Board, and a sample of water from it has been 
analyzed. The pond has a very small water-shed, and would fur- 
nish so small a quantity of water daily that the supply from it 
would scarcely be appreciable. Moreover, tlie supply taken from 
the pond would not be wholly additional, because a part or the 
whole of the water which it would furnish now finds its way into 
the wells by filtration through the ground. It has been suggested 
by those connected with the works, that, as a pipe leading from 
this pond would supply water by gravity to the pumps, such a con- 
nection might have a special value in case of accident to the suc- 
tion pipe or other similar emergency ; but this is a point which can 
be determined better by you than by this Board. The quality of 
the water of the pond is such that it might be used for water 
supply purposes, though it is not nearly as good as the ground 
water obtained from your wells. 

"With regard to the second request, for general advice as to the 
best plan of increasing the supply, the Board advises that you 
make investigations with reference to increasing the supply of 
water to your wells by filtering the river water intermittently 
through the gravelly upland in their vicinity, in the same general 
manner that sewage is now filtered at Franiingham. If the water 
should be applied evenly and intermittently to porous land having 
its surface six feet or more above the level of the ground water, in 
comparatively small quantities (say not exceeding 300,000 gallons 
per acre per day), it would be feasible to purify it so that it would 
be nearly, if not quite, as good as the water you now obtain from 
the wells wlieu no water is admitted from the river. It seems 
probable that land suitable for this purpose may be found eitlier 
west of the wells, between the railroad and the small pond con- 
cerning which you have asked advice, or north of the wells, between 
the railroad and the river. 

Should 3'ou make these investigations and have additional infor- 
mation to present, the Board will advise you further in this matter. 

!MiLTOx. The Milton AVater Company applied to the 

Board April 23, 1804, for its advice rehitive to taking water 

for a public water supply from tiie ground in the vicinity 

of Pine Tree Brook at a point cast of Ilarland Street ; this 

source to he supplemented by water taken from this brook 

near Ilarland Street in that town. The Board replied as 

follows : — 

Jvsv. S, 1894. 

The State Board of Health has considered your application dated 
April 23, 1894, with regard to a new water supply for tlie town of 
Milton, to be taken from the valley of Pine Tree Brook within the 



28 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

limits of the town, above Canton Avenue. As a part of your 
application you make ti)e following statement : — 

"It is proposed to obtain a s.upply of ground water from the 
meadow land on the east side of Harland Street, through which laud 
the Pine Tree Brook flows ; such ground water to be supplemented 
by water taken from the brook at a point near and just above the 
old dam sites on Harland Street. The brook water may be accu- 
mulated in a small settling basin and conducted thence by gravity 
to the pumping station of the company. If necessary, sand nitra- 
tion of the brook water can be adopted. The water-shed above 
the point of taking is not less than four squate miles, and includes 
a portion of the domain taken for metropolitan park purposes." 

The application was also accomi)anied by the report and plan 
made by your engineer, showing the tests which had been made to 
determine whether a supply of ground water could be obtained, and 
the general method of obtaining the supply. 

The Board has caused a careful examination to be made by one 
of its engineers of the locality and of the plan and report sub- 
mitted, and has caused analj-ses to be made of water from Pine 
Tree Brook and from test wells near the point where it is proposed 
to locate the permanent well. The analyses and an examination 
of the surroundings show that water of excellent qualit}' can be 
obtained from the ground at the site of the proposed well. The 
quantity of water to be obtained from an underground source is, 
necessarily, somewhat indeterminate ; but it is probable that a well 
or wells at the proposed location will supply as much water as will 
be required for the town for a few years, and, possibly, a nuich 
larger quantity. 

The quality of the brook water is such, in its natural state, that 
it would not be wholly satisfactory for a public water supply ; 
and, in view of the danger of pollution by the present population 
and the population which is likely to locate upon a water-shed so 
near Boston, the Board is of opinion that the water ouglit not to 
be taken directly from this brook. It may be feasible to increase 
the quantity of water supplied by the well or wells by turning some 
of the brook water intermittently and in comparatively small quan- 
tities upon the ground at a considerable distance from the wells, 
but in such locations that it will filter through the ground into the 
wells. Witii this method of filtration properly conducted, it is 
probable that the brook water might be purified to such an extent 
that it would be of satisfactory quality until there is a considera- 
ble addition to the population upon the water-shed. 

In order to prevent the pollution of the ground water, no sew- 
age or other polluting waste should be turned into or u[ion the 



Xo. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 29 

ground in the vicinity of the well ; and if there should be any 
large increase in population upon any part of the territory which 
contributes to the supply of the well, it would be necessary, in 
order to prevent the deterioration of the water, to provide a sys- 
tem of sewerage for conveying away the polluting wastes. 

The Board calls your attention to the fact that it is now making 
investigations with a view to obtaining a water supply for Boston 
and its suburbs within ten miles of the State House, and that it 
expects to make its report to the Legislature at the beginning of 
next year. It will obviously require a few years, after the ques- 
tion is favorablj' acted upon by the Legislature, before the metro- 
politan supply will be available ; and, even if Milton should desire 
to co-operate with other cities and towns in the metropolitan dis- 
trict in obtaining this supply, it may still be necessary to provide 
at least a temporary independent supply, in order to prevent a 
deficiency in the next few years. 

If the proposed ground-water supply for Milton should prove 
deficient in quantity, or if the population should increase to such 
an extent as to make the water unsuitable in quality, it is very 
doubtful if it would be practicable to obtain from any other source 
a suitable independent supply for the town. 

The Board, therefore, advises that the first works for obtaining 
a new supply should be built with reference to taking a supply from 
the ground only. It can be determined much better in the future, 
after the capacity of the ground has been tested by actual trial 
and after the report has been made upon the metropolitan water 
supply, whether or not it is desirable to attempt to obtain a per- 
manent supply for the whole town from the proposed source. 

ISIoxsox. The committee on water supply of Monsoii 
applied to the Board March 8, 189-4, for its advice relative 
to taking a public water supply from the Avater-shed of 
Conant Brook in that town. The Board replied as follows : — 

M.VRCK 30, 1S94. 

The State Board of Health has considered your application with 
regard to a proposed water supply for the town of Monson. It is 
understood that 5'ou intend to take the supply from some point 
within the water-slied of Conant Brook, and that it will probablj' 
be taken from a large collecting well situated near a branch of 
Conant Brook known as Ingalls Brock. 

The Board has caused this territory to be examined by one of 
its engineers, and has made analyses of samples of water from 
Conant Brook just below Ingalls Brook, from the two principal 



30 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

branches of Ingalls Brook and from a test well near this brook. 
These analyses show that the water from all of these brooks is 
very soft, and of very good quality for a surface water, and that 
the water would be suitable for all the purposes of public water 
supply. The surface water, however, is not nearly as good as the 
sample from the test well, which is practically a spring water of 
excellent quality, and is also very soft. 

There is no doubt whatever but that a sufficient quantity of water 
for the supply of the town can be obtained from this water-shed ; 
and the results obtained from test wells, taken in connection with 
the results of an examination of the surrounding territory, make 
it probable that a sufficient supply can be obtained from the ground 
in this vicinity to warrant the adoption of the proposed plan for 
taking water from the ground. If this supply should prove insuffi- 
cient, it will be possible at any time to supplement it by taking 
water from the brooks. 

The Board would therefore advise that the Conant Brook water- 
shed is a suitable source from which to obtain a supply of water 
for the town, and would also advise taking the water from the 
ground, as is now proposed. 

Xew Bedford. The water board of New Bedford applied 
to the State Board of Health Jan. 12, 1894, for its advice 
relative to the propriety of taking an additional water supply 
from the great ponds in the town of Lakeville, to which the 
Board replied as follows : — 

Feb. 21, 1S9-1. 

The State Board of Health received from you on Jan. 12, 1804, 
an application asking its advice with regard to a proposed addi- 
tional water supply from the Lakeville ponds, said application 
being accompanied by the report of IMessrs. Rice & Evans, 
hydraulic engineers, indicating the proposed methods of taking the 
water, and by a copy of the draft of an act acr-oiiipanying the peti- 
tion of your board to the Legislature for authority to increase the 
water supply of New Bedford. 

The plan proijosed, as indicated by these various documents, is 
to take water from Little (^uittacas Pond, and to keep this pond 
supplied with water from the other Lakeville ponds by providing 
more ample water ways between Gre.at (^uittacas and Little (^uit- 
tacas ponds, and between Pocksha and Great Quittacas ponds. It 
is further proposed by the act that this water supply shall be taken 
from a reserve to be created by a dam at the outlet of Assawomp- 
sett Pond, or by a dam or dams at the outlet of Long Pond. 



Xo. 3-i.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 31 

The Board finds that the present consumption of water in New- 
Bedford has reached the limit of capacity of the present sources 
of water supply in very dry years, and an additional supply is now 
required. "With regard to tiie source that this supply should be 
taken from, there seems to be no question but that it should be 
taken from one or more of the Lakeville ponds. These ponds are 
very large and are fed from a large water-shed, so that there is no 
doubt that they can be made to furnish a sufficient quantity of 
water for a very long time in the future for all of the communities 
within a reasonable distance of them which they would naturally 
be expected to serve. The question with regard to the source of 
an additional water supply, therefore, narrows to the relative 
quality of water in the different ponds and the best method of 
obtaining the required quantity of water, having due regard to the 
quality and to the effect which the method of taking the water may 
have upon the various interests to be affected thereby. 

Little Quittacas Pond, one of the present sources of supply, 
contains the best water of any of the pouds under consideration, 
and although the other pouds will furnish a water that might be 
used for all the purposes of a public water supply, there is con- 
siderable difference in the quality of the water in them, and the 
water of all of them would be improved by passing through and 
mingling with the water of Little Quittacas Pond before being con- 
veyed to the city. 

The different ponds rank as follows in regard to the quality of 
their waters : Assawompsett Pond, Great Quittacas Pond, Long 
Pond. 

No examinations have been made of the water of Pocksha Pond, 
as it has been regarded as a part of Assawompsett Pond. 

It will be seen that Assawompsett Pond contains the best water 
for supplementing the supply from Little Quittacas Pond ; but the 
distance between these ponds is so great that the extra cost of 
taking water from Assawompsett Pond would not be warranted 
when a water as good as that in Great Quittacas Pond is close at 
hand. Of the two nearer sources. Great Quittacas Pond will fur- 
nish a much better water than Long Pond, and it has the further 
advantage that it can easily be connected with Little Quittacas at 
a point across the pond from the proposed pumping station, so that 
its water will have a better opportunity to be improved in its pas- 
sage through Little Quittacas Pond, both by mingling with the 
water of this pond and by bleaching. 

Under the provisions of the act which you have submitted it is 
proposed to obtain the required quantity of water from a reserve 
to be created by a dam at the outlet of Assawompsett Pond, or by 



32 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

a dam or dams at the outlet of Long Pond. Inquiry had been made 
of your superintendent for information bearing upon the question 
of tlie amount of water which such a reserve as is contemplated can 
suppl)' ; and, while he has furnished all the information which he 
has been able to obtain, it is insutlicieut as a basis for estimating 
at all definitely the amount of water to be obtained in this way. 
Further inquiry has been made in other directions by the engineers 
of the Board, and the quantity of water which such a reserve as is 
contemplated will supply has been carefully computed upon the 
basis of the information obtained, which, although meagre, is the 
best that is now available. The result of these computations has 
led the Board to the provisional conclusion that it will not be feasi- 
ble to obtain in dry years a sufficient water supply for the cities of 
Taunton and New Bedford for a reasonable time in the future from 
the contemplated reseiwe. 

The question of creating a reser^-e by raising one or all of the 
ponds should also be considered with reference to its effect upon 
the quality of the water. If all of the ponds should be raised suffi- 
ciently to overflow the very extensive swamps and cranberry bogs 
bordering upon them, it would materially injure the quality of the 
water in the ponds for water supply purposes. 

If the storage should be confined to Long Pond alone, and the 
quality of the water should deteriorate owing to the flowage of 
swamps and other lands, the quality of the water supplied to New 
Bedford would not be appreciably affected, because very little if 
any of the water of Long Pond would ever find its way through 
Assawompsett and Great Quittacas into Little Quittacas Pond ; 
l)ut any deterioration of the water of Long Pond would have an 
unfavorable effect upon the Taunton water supply, a portion of 
which is to be taken from Assawompsett Pond, not very far from 
where the water of Long Pond enters it. 

A resei've such as is contemplated, if found to be feasible, would 
prevent or diminish the injury to water powers dependent wholly 
or in part upon the water which flows from these ponds ; but it 
may be questioned wlicthor the injury to the property surroundhig 
the ponds by raising their level would not more than offset the 
damage that would result to the water powers by taking the water 
without creating a reserve. 

With the information now availaljle, the Board docs not tliink it 
advisable that you should obtain an act which will liuiit ycjiir tak- 
ing of the water of tliese ponds to a resei've such as is contem- 
plated, or which will make compulsory the erection of a dam to 
store a reser\'e of water equal to one year's supply for the cities of 
Taunton and New Bedford. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOAVNS. 33 

If the supply is not to be taken from a reserve, the question 
arises as to iiow it sluill be talvcu. The plan proposed by your 
engineers and referred to by you provides for more ample water 
ways between the ponds, by which all of the chain of ponds ex- 
tending from Assawompsctt to Little Quittacas can be put in 
free communication with one another. If these water ways should 
be kept open, the draft upon Little Quittacas for supi)lying New 
Bedford with water would cause all of the ponds to lower in sum- 
mer more than they otherwise would, and consequently the flow 
out of Assawompsctt Pond into the Nemasket River would be 
diminished. 

Another plan for taking water, which would cause less diminu- 
tion in the summer flow of the Nemasket River, is to supplement 
Little Quittacas by turning into it water from Great Quittacas Pond 
only, obtaining the required quantity of water in summer by low- 
ering the level of the pond. Estimates show that if this pond can 
be drawn down about six feet it will supply in the driest year, in 
connection with the sources now used, enough water to supply the 
city of New Bedford until its population reaches 100,000. A 
somewhat larger supply might be obtained almost wholly from this 
source if provision should be made for turning water from Pocksha 
Pond iuto Great Quittacas in the months of March and April, pro- 
vided Great Quittacas should not then be full. 

It is not probable that there would be much difference in the 
quality of the water obtained by either of the two plans just men- 
tioned, although the conditions are somewhat more f avoralile in the 
first one. The Board cannot advise definitely as to which of these 
two ])lans will be the better one to adopt, having due regard for 
the future ; because it is not fully informed as to whether it is fea- 
sible to draw Great Quittacas Pond down to the extent above indi- 
cated, or, if it can be done, whether any local interests will be 
seriously affected thereby. It is obvious, however, that this pond 
will furnish all of the water required for New Bedford for quite a 
long time in the future without very much lowering of its surface, 
even in the dry portion of the year ; and it may be that the right 
to take the waters of this pond is all that is desirable at the pres- 
ent time. 

The water now supplied to the city is drawn directly through a 
conduit from the Acushnct reservoir, aud, although the quality of 
the water is not such that it would be regarded as detrimental to 
the health of the citizens of New Bedford, it is, nevertheless, ou 
account of its contact with the swamps upon the water-shed and 
its storage in a shallow reservoir, a much poorer water than that 
in the Lakoville Ponds. It is, therefore, very desirable that pro- 



34 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

vision should be made for conveying tlie water of the ponds to 
New Bedford in such a way that it will not be necessary to mingle 
it with the water of this reservoir. 

Xewburyport. The mayor of Newbury port applied to 
the Board Dec. 21, 1893, for its opinion as to the probable 
efficiency of a filter constructed by the Newburyport "Water 
Company near its pumping station in supplying a " safe water 
for use in the public schools and generally throughout the 
city." To this application the Board replied as follows : — 

Feb. 17, 1894. 

The Board has caused an examination to be made, by one of its 
engineers, of the filter constructed by the Newburyport Water 
Company near its pumping station. 

The medium through which it is intended to filter the water is a 
layer of Plum Island sand about three feet in thickness, which 
would not in itself prevent the passage of disease germs. It is 
understood, however, that a coagulant is to be added to tiic water 
before filtration, as is the usual practice with the so-called mechani- 
cal filters, so as to render the filtration more effective. 

The Board has not had any opportunity to test the filter at New- 
buryport, as it is not yet in operation, but has made examinations 
of the water from several mechanical filters, and, judging from 
the results obtained, is of opinion that a filter like that at New- 
buryport cannot be depended upon to remove the disease germs 
from the Merrimack Kiver water so as to render it safe for drink- 
ing in the public schools or by the citizens of Newburyport. 

Newburyport Water Company. An application Avas 
received from the Newbuiyport AVater Company Juno 20, 
1894, for the advice of the Board relative to taking an 
additional water sup[)ly from wells upon the banks of the 
Artichoke Kiver in Newburyport. The Board njplicd as 
follows : — 

Jfi.Y 27, 1894. 

The locality near the river to which the attention of the Board 
has been particularly called is just north of the old Newbury 
road, where five tubuhir test wells have been driven. Samples of 
water have been collected from these wells and analyzed, and the 
analyses show that the water contains so much iron that it would 
not be suitable for laundry and some other purposes. 

Judging from the information furnished as to the results obtained 



Xo. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 35 

by means of the test wells, and from an examination of the wells 
and of the surrounding territory, it does not seem probable that 
enough water could be obtained from this source to furnish an ade- 
quate additional supply for the city. 

The Board therefore concludes that, owing both to the inferior 
quality and insullicient quantity of water which this source will 
furnish, it is not a suitable one from which to take an additional 
supply for the city of Newburyport. 

North Attleborough. An application was received 
from the water commissioners of North Attleborough Oct. 10, 
1894, for the advice of the Board relative to a proposed addi- 
tional water supply for the town, the sources proposed being 
the head-waters of Ten-mile Eiver, and driven wells to l)e 
located near the present pumping station. The Board re]ilied 
as follows : — 

Dec. 20, 1S94. 

The sources referred to are, first, the head waters of Ten-mile 
River in the southerly part of the town of Wrentham, at a point 
just above the Walpole and "Wrentham branch of the New York, 
New Haven & Hartford Railroad ; and, second, a supplementary 
supply of ground water to be obtained by driven wells in the pres- 
ent pumping station lot. 

In the report of your engineer are given the results of tests made 
by driving wells in the vicinity of the present pumping station, 
and measurements of the volume of Avater flowing in the Ten-mile 
River at various points above the pumping station. His report 
also indicates how a supply of water may be furnished to the 
inhabitants of the village of Plainville in the town of "Wrentham, 
from the works of the town of North Attleborough. 

The State Board of Health has caused an examination to be 
made, by one of its engineers, of the water-shed of the Ten-mile 
River, near and above the present pumping station, and of the 
material taken from j'our test wells near the pumping station at 
various depths below the surface of the ground. It has also caused 
analyses to be made of samples of water collected by your engi- 
neer from some of the test wells, and from the Ten-mile River 
above the point from which it is proposed to take an additional 
water Supply. 

These analyses show that the water taken from some of the 
test wells contains sullicient iron to make the water unsuitable for 
laundry and some other purposes, while the water from others is 
of good quality, and similar in character to that obtained from the 
well from which the supply of the town is now taken. 



36 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The analyses of samples taken from the river show that the 
water is naturally of excellent quality for a surface water ; but in 
the case of water taken from a running stream an analysis cannot 
show that the water is safe for drinking. This depends upon the 
absence of infectious matter such as might get into a stream if 
any sewage whatever were turned into it. The examination of the 
territory above the proposed point of taking water from the river 
indicated that no sewage now enters this stream ; and it is essen- 
tial, if water is taken directly from the river without filtration or 
storage in a large reservoir, that this freedom from pollution should 
continue in the future. 

The gaugings of the flow of the Ten-mile River near the point 
at which it is proposed to take the water, taken in connection with 
the size of the water-shed above this point, indicate that a suffi- 
cient quantity of water can be obtained from the river to warrant 
the construction of works for supplying water to the town of North 
Attleborough, or jointly to the town of North Attleborough and 
the village of Plainville. 

It is probable that a limited additional supply of water of satis- 
factory quality can be obtained from the ground in the vicinity of 
the present well by some suitable extension of the collecting works, 
taking care that they do not extend into the territory which fur- 
nishes the water containing an excess of iron. 

The Board, therefore, advises that the Ten-mile River at the 
point above indicated is a suitable source from which to obtain 
the next addition to the water supply of the town of North 
Attleborough. 

Norton. An application was received Dec. 6, 1894, from 
A. H. Sweet and other petitioners of the town of Norton for 
the advice of the Board relative to the })ropricty of taking 
a public water supply from certain sources within the town, 
or from the works of the adjoining; towns of Attleborough 
or Mansfield. The Board replied as follows : — 

Jan. 3, 1895. 

The State Board of Health received from you a coinimniication 
dated Dec. 3, 1804, in which you state that you rcpi'e.sent certain 
petitioners to tlie LcgishiUnc', who respcetfully request that a fire 
district, to be established in tlie town of Norton, be authorized to 
provide a water supply foi' itself and the inhabitants of said town 
for the extingiiishineut of fires and for domestic and other pur- 
poses ; and they further request that the fire district may be em- 
powered to take any source of water supply within the town of 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 37 

Norton, or to obtain a supply from the town of Attleborough. 
In your communication you also refer to the possibility of obtain- 
ing a supply of water from the present works of the Mansfield 
water supply district. 

Of the possible sources within the limits of the town, you meu- 
tiou driven wells near the factory of A. H. Sweet, wells or filter 
galleries near the AVadiug River, just above the main road from 
Norton Center to Attleborough, and wells or a filter gallery near 
the mill pond of G. H. Talbot. You also refer to the possibility 
of taking water directly from the Wading River at the point before 
indicated, and state that under any of these plans it is probable 
that a connection would be made with pumps located at G. H. 
Talbot's mill for taking a fire supply directly from his mill pond. 

Tests of the ground have been made at only one of the ground 
water sources mentioned, namely, that near the factory of A. II. 
Sweet. At this place two wells were driven, under the direction 
of your engineer, and samples of water collected from them by 
him have been analyzed by this Board, and the water was found 
to contain so large a quantity of iron that it would be unsuitable 
for laundry purposes, and in other respects an unsatisfactory water 
for the purjioses of a public water suppH'. 

With regard to the other ground-water sources, which in the 
absence of tests by driven wells could only be examined super- 
ficiall}', it may be stated that the conditions appeared to be more 
favorable for obtaining such a supply near the Wading River than 
near Talbot's mill pond. 

Samples of water from the Wading River at the point before 
indicated and from Talbot's mill pond on the Rumford River have 
been analj'zed, and the analyses of the two waters differ but little. 
Both have the brownish color which water acquires from contact 
with vegetable matter in swamps or very shallow ponds. The 
Wading River has a comparatively small population upon its water- 
shed, while the Rumford River receives the drainage of the town 
of Mansfield and a large part of the town of Foxborough. Neither 
of these streams would furnish a M-liolly satisfactory water supi)ly if 
the water were taken directly from them ; and the Board therefore 
advises you to make further investigations, with a view to obtain- 
ing a satisfactory ground-water supi)ly, unless you can arninge to 
obtain water from the present works of either Attleborough or 
Mansfield. The Board has made many analyses of the water now 
supplied to these places, and in both eases the water is of excel- 
lent quality, and the quantity is probably suflieient to enable these 
places to supply the inhabitants of Norton for many years. 

The Board will advise you further, if so requested, with regard 



38 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

to the sources from which the Norton fire district may obtain an 
inilepeudent supply, when you or the district have more definite 
information to present with regard to the possible sources. 

QuixcY. An application was received Nov. 3, 1894, from 
the city of Quincy, for the advice of the Board relative to a 
proposed increase of the water supply of the city by the con- 
struction of a new storao'e reservoir and the diversion of the 
water of Blue Hill liiver. The Board replied as follows : — 

Jan. 3, 1895. 

The State Board of Health received from you on Nov. 3, 1894, 
an application for its advice with regard to a proposed additional 
water supply for the city of Quincy. This application was accom- 
panied by a plan and report, outlining a proposed scheme for 
increasing the quantit}' of water supplied to the city by the con- 
struction of a new storage resen'oir near the existing one, and by 
diverting into the existing and proposed resen'oirs the waters of 
the Blue Hill River. 

The plan and report also provide for protecting and improving 
the quality of the present water supply by taking land adjacent to 
the brook which feeds the reservoir, thereby making it possible 
for the city to abolish piggeries, and to drain the swamps and 
meadows so that they will not impart color and taste to the water. 
In connection with the new reservoir it is proposed to lay a second 
main pipe to the existing pumping station. 

Tiie plans submitted are in the nature of outlines, which give 
the capacity of the proposed storage reservoir and the area of the 
water-shed feeding it, but do not give estimates of cost, nor tests 
of the ground where the dam of the proposed reservoir is to be 
built, to acrve as a basis for determining the feasibility of con- 
structing a tight and safe dam at this place. 

With a view to ascertaining wlu^ther an additional supply is 
needed at the present time, the capacity of the piesent sources in 
a very dry year, such as siiotild be used in estimating the safe 
capacity of a water supply, was estimated, as well as the probable 
consuinption of water for the next few years; and it was found 
that the consumption in 1895 would he likely to exceed the capacity 
of tiie present works in a vcm y (hy year. As the population of 
Quincy is increasing raj)i(lly and tlie consumption of water still 
more rapidly, there is no question that a further supply for the city 
fihould ))c provided at once ; but a fiU'Lher study was rctjuired, in 
ordci' to d{!cide whether the works for furnishing this sup[)ly should 
])(• of a permanent or temponiry ciiaiacter. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AKD TOWNS. 39 

As you are aware, the State Board of Health has been making 
investigations, for the past year and a half, for an additional water 
supply for the city of Boston and the suburban cities and towns 
within ten miles of the State House, and is to report the results of 
its investigations to the Legislature of 1895. The city of Quincy 
may, therefore, consider the question of obtaining its future water 
supply either from independent works to be constructed by the 
city or from the larger works to be provided for the supply of the 
metropolitan district ; and a decision as to whether the works to 
be built now for increasing the water supply of Quinc}" ought to be 
of a permanent or temporary nature, may depend upon whether 
it is for the interests of the city to obtain its water supply inde- 
pendently, or in connection with the other cities and towns in the 
metropolitan district. 

In order to determine this point as well as it is practicable to do 
so without more definite information than is now available, a plan 
was outlined for utilizing as fully as possible the present water- 
shed, the Avater-shed of the Blue Hill River and the small water-shed 
tributary to the proposed reservoir, and the quantity of water to 
be obtained by this plan and the approximate cost of works were 
estimated. 

It was found that by the construction of the proposed reservoir 
and the diversion into it and the existing reservoir of the waters 
of the Blue Hill River at a point below the outlet from Great Pond, 
the supply would be so increased as to meet, in the driest year, the 
requirements of the city until 1905. To prevent a deficiency after 
that year it would be necessary to construct a large reservoir toward 
the upper end of Blue Hill River, by building a dam across it not 
far above where the river is crossed by the Taunton turnpike. 

AVith regard to this reservoir, Percj' N. Blake, C.E., reported in 
1890 that it would cover an area of 400 acres, and have a capacity of 
1,400,000,000 gallons. By its addition the supply would be largely 
increased, so that it is estimated that it would meet the require- 
ments of the city until 1921. 

The construction of this reservoir would develop these sources 
to the highest practicable limit, and in order to obtain any further 
supply a new source must be found. It may be added that a gen- 
eral survey of the sources within a reasonable distance of C^uincy 
did not disclose any, not now used for water supply purposes by 
some other city or town, which would furnish any large quantity 
of good water. 

The quality of the water of the Blue Hill River is not very differ- 
ent from that furnished by the present sources ; but the water of 
both sources could be greatly improved by the drainage of the 



40 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Rib. Doc. 

swamps and the removal of the soil and vegetable matter from the 
bottom and sides of the storage reservoirs. 

The sources which the State Board of« Health now has in view 
for the water supply of the metropolitan district will furnish a large 
quantity of water, and can be supplemented from time to time at a 
reasonable cost by the addition of other sources, so that the supply 
will be ample for a very long time in the future. The quality of 
the water of the proposed sources, as it now flows in the streams, 
is very good ; and it is proposed to improve it by the drainage of 
swamps and the construction of very large, well-cleaned reservoirs, 
so that it will be better than any water which Quincy can obtain 
from independent works, even if Quincy should improve the quality 
of its water by the methods already indicated. 

There still remains to be considered the relative cost of these 
two methods of obtaining a water supply ; in the case of the met- 
ropolitan sj'stem the total cost is quite well known, although the 
method of apportioning the cost to the different cities and towns is 
not. In the case of the independent system of works no estimates 
of cost have been furnished by you, and the engineers of this 
Board have had to make the best estimates that they could, under 
the circumstances, of the various items of work required for the 
full development of tbis system. If it is assumed for the present 
purpose that the cost of the metropolitan supply will be divided in 
direct proportion to the number of inhabitants in the various cities 
and towns, it is found that the yearly cost to Quincy for obtaining 
its water from the metropolitan supply will not be more than two- 
thirds as much as for obtaining it from independent works. 

The opinion of the Board, therefore, based upon the information 
which is now availal)le, is that it is decidedly for the interests of 
the city of Quincy to become a part of the metropolitan water 
supply district, rather than to attempt to obtain a permanent sup- 
ply by independent action ; and the Board advises that you should 
proceed to olitain a supply of water for the next few years by 
means of works of a temporary character, rather than to Imild 
expensive permanent works, which will have little value in the 
future if you should obtain your supply from the metropolitan 
system. 

Two [jlans for temporarily increasing the supply are suggested : — 

The first proposes the utilization of the Avater which filters from 
the existing reservoir and is wasted, and the water which flows 
down the small brook upon wliich the proposed reservoir is located. 
These waters could be diverted into a small open basin, to be dug 
some distance below the dam, and pumped from this basin back 
into the reser\'oir, from the time in the early summer when the 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 41 

reservoir stops overflowing until the season is so far advanced that 
it becomes evident that there will be no shortage of water during 
the year. This plan of pumping back into the reservoir, rather 
than directly into the pipe leading to the existing pumping station, 
is suggested because the water filtering past the dam of the reser- 
voir contains so much iron that it would be objectionable if pumped 
directly to the city, and this iron would disappear by sedimentation 
if the water were pumped back into the reservoir at a point not too 
near the gate house. 

The second plan proposes supplementing the present supply by 
taking water from the Blue Hill Kiver, either by diverting the 
water by gravity through an open channel or by a pipe, — as pro- 
posed in the permanent plan for taking water from this river, — or 
bj' the erection of a temporary pumping station at the point where 
the river approaches nearest to the existing reservoir. 

For such temporary works for taking water as are here proposed 
it will probably be cheaper to lease land than to buy it, and to 
ari'ange with the mill owners upon the river for the temporary 
diversion of the water rather than to make a permanent taking. 

Of the two plans proposed, the first would be the cheaper one, 
and would probably supply sufHcient wat^r to prevent a shortage 
in a moderately dry year for the next three years, but might fail 
if an extremely dry year should occur within that time. The sec- 
ond plan has the advantage that it would furnish a more abundant 
and certain supply. If the first plan were adopted, and it should 
be found inadequate, it might still be feasible to resort to the 
second. 

Other methods of obtaining a temporary' additional supply may 
suggest themselves to you, such as, for instance, the purchase of 
water from the town of Braiutree, if it should decide to increase 
its supply by taking water from Great Pond. 

SwA^irscoTT. The Marblehead Water Company, supply- 
ing water to the towns of Swampscott and Nahant, applied 
to the Board July 9, 1894, reciuestinir the Board to give it3 
opinion upon the desirability of taking the water of Eloating 
Bridge Pond in Lynn as a source of public water supply. 
The Board replied as follows : — 

Aro. 3, 1894. 
In compliance with your request, dated Jnlj^ 0, 1894, that the 
State Board of Health should examine the water of Floating Bridge 
Pond, also known as Glenmore Lake, in the city of Lynn, with 
reference to its use for domestic purposes, the Board has caused 
the water to be examined chemically and microscopically, and has 



42 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

had the pond and its surroundings examined by one of its en- 
giueei"s. 

As a result of these examinations, the Board is of the opinion 
that the water of this pond is not of suitable quality for domestic 
use. The principal objection to the water at the present time is 
that it contains a very large number of microscopic organisms, 
which give the water a greenish turbidity and a disagreeable odor 
and make it unpalatable. The pond is also exposed to pollution 
at the present time from the population in its immediate vicinity, 
and this population is likely to increase rapidly in the future, owing 
to the proximity of the pond to the thickly settled portions of the 
city of Lynn. 

Copies of the chemical and microscopical analyses are enclosed 
herewith. 

Wareham, Oxset Water Company. An application was 
received May 17, 1894, from the Onset Water Company, for 
the advice of the Board relative to taking a water supply 
from Jonathan's Pond as a supply for Onset, a summer 
resort in Wareham. The Board replied as follows : — 

June 9, 1894. 

The Board has caused an examination of this pond and an analy- 
sis of its water to be made, and finds that the water is very soft, and 
of excellent quality for all the purposes of a public water supply. 

The limits of the territory which contributes to the supply of the 
pond, either by direct flow over the surface or by filtration under 
ground through the sandy territory in which the pond is situated, 
are not well defined ; and it is not, therefore, practicable to deter- 
mine at all definitely the quantity of water wliich this source will 
furnish. It seems probable, however, that it will furnish the; water 
required for the portion of the town of Wareham which the com- 
pany is authorized to supply from it. 

Watertown. The Wateiix)vvn Water Supply Company 
applied to the Board April 19, 1893, for its advice relative 
to certain proposed plans for filtering the public water sup- 
ply of the town. To this application the Board replied as 
follows : — 

FiiH. 3, 1894. 
Tlie State Board of Health received from you on April 20, 1893, 
an appHcation asking its advice with regard to certain proi)osed 
plans for filtering water, to be used in coinutction with your works 
for sup[)lying water to the towns of Watertown and Bchiiont. 
This application received the attention of the experts of the Board 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOAVXS. 43 

soon after it was submitted, but owing to the fact that you were 
making investigations with regard to a further supply during nearly 
the whole of the summer, and the time required to determine the 
probable effect of filtration upon the water which you found as a 
result of these investigations, the Board has not been prepared to 
reply until the present time. 

You have found by your examinations a location where you can 
pump water from the ground near the Charles River to supplement 
the supply obtained from your filter gallery. This water has been 
examined by the Board, and, white it contains iron and manganese, 
and does not show the high degree of chemical purification which 
water attains when it filters a sufficient distance through the ground 
under favorable circumstances, it is nevertheless very nearl}' free 
from bacteria, while the river water contains a very large number, 
thus showing that the water is rendered very nearly pure, bacteri- 
ally, by its filtration through the ground. 

Upon further examination it was found that the color was due to 
the presence of organic matter which held the iron in solution, 
and would not permit it to be removed by aeration and subsequent 
sedimentation, or by rapid filtration without the use of some chemi- 
cal. Upon treating the water with aluminum hydrate or aluminum 
sulphate, it was found that the color, and with it nearl3'all of the iron 
and some of the manganese, could be removed, either by precipita- 
tion, if the water was allowed to stand long enough, or by filtration. 

Some samples of this water were also collected by Professor Car- 
michael on Nov. 17, 1893, who, after treating it with crude alumi- 
num sulphate, filtered it through an experimental filter, constructed 
so as to imitate as nearly as practicable upon a small scale the 
Warren filter, and sent the filtrate to the chemist of this Board. 
Our chemist did not have a sample of water collected from the 
wells at the same time that the sample was collected for filtration ; 
but, by making a comparison between the filtrate and the unfiltered 
water collected from the wells nearly a month earlier, it was found 
tliat the addition of the aluminum sul|)luite and subsequent filtra- 
tion had removed nearly all tlie color, iron and alumina originally 
in the water, and about one-third of the manganese, leaving .1656 
of a part of oxide of manganese per 100,000, or .1 grain per gal- 
lon ; and that it had added to the water rather more than one and 
one-half parts per 100,000 of sulphuric acid. This sulphuric acid 
is not a desirable addition, and, in combination with the lime origi- 
nally in the water, would make the water to th?s extent more 
objectionable for use in boilers, but the treatment would make the 
water appear better to water consumers. The amount of aluminum 
sulphate used in the experimental filtration is said to have been 
two and one-half grains per gallon. 



44 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The advantages of the proposed filtration do not appear to the 
Board to offset the possible risks to the health of the community 
by the use of a large and indefinite amount of alum. 

TV"estborough Luxatic HosriTAL. The superintendent 
of the Westborough Lunatic Hospital applied to the Board 
Feb. 23, 1894, asking " whether, in the opinion of the Board, 
the water of Chauncy Pond would be suitable for drinking 
and domestic purposes if filtered." The Board replied as 
follows : — 

March 30, 1894. 

The State Board of Health has considered your request as to 
■whether the water of Chauncy Pond would be suitable for drinking 
and domestic use if filtered, and would state that it is a somewhat 
dillicult matter to filter a water of this character in such a manner 
as to render it both wholesome and palatable ; and the Board there- 
fore would not advise the adoption of this method of obtaining a 
water supply until an examination made by some competent engi- 
neer had shown that it was not feasible to obtain a more satisfac- 
tory supply in some other way. 

Should you wish to proceed further in the investigations for a 
water supply, the Board will give you such assistance as it can in 
the matter. 

. Westport, Horse Neck Beach. An application was 
received Jan. 15, 1894, from Mr. Thomas B. Tripp of New 
Bedford, for the advice of the Board relative to introduc- 
ing a water supply at Horse Neck Beach (a sunnner resort 
in AVcstport). The Board replied to this application as 
follows : — 

May 3, 1894. 

The State Board of Health received from you on Jan. IT), 1894, 
an application for its advice with regard to a water supply for 
that portion of '\V'esti)ort known as Jlorse Neck Beach, and on 
April 23 it received from you and had analyzed samples of water 
from a six-iucli tubular well sunk in tlie bottom of an old well on 
the side of a hill, located northerly from tlie beacli, and from one 
of several small springs at the foot of the hill. 

The analysis shows tiie water sui)plyiiig tlie tu])ular wrll to have 
been at some time polluted, probably by drainage from a farmhouse 
above the well, and again purified to a considerable extent by its 
passage through the ground to the well. The analysis of water 
from the spring shows only slight traces of previous ])olhili(>u, and 
it is a much [jurer and softer water than that taken from the well, 



No. 34.] AD\T[CE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 45 

notwithstanding the fact that the sample contained some foreign 
matter, owing to the disturbance of the bottom caused by taking 
the sample. If the well is to be used as a source of suppl}', pro- 
vision should be made for diverting the drainage from the farm- 
bouse to a point where it cannot get into the well ; and the water 
of the well should be analyzed from time to time, in order to deter- 
mine if its character changes, and if it is of suitable quality for 
continued use as a drinking water. 

It is not feasible to predict at all definitely the amount of water 
which these sources will furnish in dry seasons. A larger supply 
could probably be obtained from the springs, by excavating a 
basin of suitable size, than from the well ; but both of these 
sources may be required in order to furnish a suflicient supply of 
water for the inhabitants of the beach, and it would be well to 
arrange the works so tliat the water could be taken from both 
sources. If a basin should be constructed at the site of the springs, 
it should be so arranged as to exclude all surface water and animal 
life, and should be covered to exclude the light. 

"WixcHEXDON. An application was received Feb. 6, 1894, 
from the committee on -water supply of the town of Winchen- 
don, for the advice of the Board relative to taking the water 
of Upper Naukeag Pond as a public water supply for "Win- 
chendon. The Board replied as follows : — 

Feb. 17, 1894. 

The question of taking a water supply for Winchendon from 
Upper Naukeag Pond was brought to the attention of the Board in 
1888 by an application from the selectmen, and the Board, in its 
reply to the selectmen, dated July 3, 1888, made the fuUowing 
statement with reference to this pond as a source of water 
supply : — 

"The Upper Naukeag Pond will evidently furnish a suflicient 
quantity of water for Winchendou and Ashburnham for a long 
future. Its surroundings appear unusually favorable for insuring 
a very good quality of water, and chemical examinations show an 
unusually small amount of impurity ; but a peculiar and disagree- 
able odor has been found with every sample tested, which grows 
more disagreeable tlie longer it is kept. A visit to the pond in 
June and an examination of samples from many parts of the pond 
show the odor to be in all parts of it. The cause of this odor has 
not been determined, but it has existed during the past four 
months, and is so marked that the Board does not, at present, 
reconnnend the adoption of this pond as the source of supply." 



46 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

It will be observed that this reply was favorable in respect to the 
quantity of water to be obtained from this pond, and was unfavor- 
able in regard to quality, only because the water of the pond had 
a peculiar and disagreeable odor for the four months that the 
water of the pond was examined before the reply was made. The 
odor disappeared in August, 1888, and was again noticed in a 
sample collected in April, 1889. Since 1889 samples have been 
taken every year, as follows : two in August, 1889 ; one in Sep- 
tember, 1891 ; four from April to October, 1892 ; and three from 
March to August, 1893. In none of the samples taken since April, 
1889, has there been any recurrence of the disagreeable odor noticed 
before that time ; and as a rule there has been no odor whatever, 
even under the severe tests at the laboratory, where the odor is 
taken immediately after agitating water which has stood for some 
time in a closed gallon bottle. It may therefore be said that tlie 
later examinations of the water of Upper Naukcag Pond show that 
the odor noticed in the earlier samples does not recur either regu- 
larly or at frequent intervals. 

The extended examinations by the Board of the water supplies 
of the State since 1887 have shown conditions at other places 
somewhat resembling those at Upper Naukeag Pond. The water 
supplies of Plymouth, Norwood and Hudson, which are all taken 
from natural ponds that usually furnish very good water, were 
affected in 1892 and 1893 by growths of minute organisms which 
gave the water an unpleasant taste and odor at about the same 
season of the year that the odor was so noticeable in Upper 
Naukeag Pond. Water was introduced into Plymouth in 1855, 
and into Norwood and Hudson in 1885. In Plymouth no serious 
trouble has occurred, except at very rare intervals. In Norwood 
and Hudson no serious trouble was experienced until the years 
above mentioned. 

In view of the later experience Avilh tlio U[)pcr Naukeag Pond 
and the general experience Avith simihir pond watei's in other places 
in the State, the Hoard is of the opinion thatUpi^er Naukeag I'ond 
will furnish a water generally of excellent quality for all the pur- 
poses of a public water supply, subject, however, in common with 
many ponds in use for water supplies, to occasional seasons when 
the o(l(;r is disagreeable. 

Ancjther application was received March 23, 1894, from 
J. H. Fuirbiuik, cliairnian of the water committee of the 
town of Wincliendon, Htatin^r that the committee desired to 
investiifate Nankeanr Pond in Ashburnham and sources 
witliin the town of Winchendon, from which a water sup- 



Xo. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 47 

ply niiijht 1)0 obtained from bored or driven wells, and 
requesting the advice of the Board as to Avhat investiga- 
tions should be made by the town with regard to finding a 
suitable supply in the town of Winchendon. The Board 
replied as follows : — 

April 6, 1894. 

The state Board of Health received from you March 23, 1894, 
an appHcatiou stating that you desire to investigate, as sources of 
supply for the town, Upper Naukeag Pond in the town of Ash- 
burnliam, and sources within tlie town of Wincheudou from which 
a supply may be obtained from bored or driven wells, or by some 
other suitable means ; and you also ask the advice of this Board 
as to what investigations j'ou should make with regard to finding 
a suitable supply in the town of Wincheudou. You make the fur- 
ther request that the reply be made as promptly as possible, so 
that it may be available for use during the present session of the 
Legislature. 

The Board has already considered the question of a water sup- 
ply for the town, in response to previous applications from the 
town authorities. On July 3, 1888, in response to an application 
relative to Upper Naukeag Pond in the town of Ashburnham as a 
source of water su[)ply for Winchendon, the Board made a reply 
which contained the following statements : — 

"The Upper Naukepg Pond will evidently suppl}' a sufficient 
quautity of water for Wincheudou and Ashburnham for a long 
future. Its surroundings appear unusually favorable for insuring 
a very good quality of water, and chemical examinations show an 
unusually small amount of impurity ; but a peculiar and disagree- 
able odor has been found with every sample tested, which grows 
more disagreeable the longer it is kept. A visit to the pond in 
June, and an examination of samples from many parts of the pond, 
show the odor to be in all parts of it. The cause of this odor has 
not bocn determined, but it has existed during the past four 
months, and is so marked that the Board does not, at present, 
recommend the adoption of this poud as a source of supply ; but 
does recommend that the town employ a competent engineer, 
skilled in this kind of work, to make the necessary investigations 
to determine if an abundant and uuobjectionable suppl}- cannot be 
obtained from underground sources nearer the town." 

Since 1888 the Board has caused analyses to be made of the 
water of Upper Naukeag Pond from time to time, and on Feb. 17, 
1894, in response to a second application, gave its views as to the 
quality of the water which Upper Naukeag Pond wouUi furnish, 
the reply concluding with the following statement: — 



48 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

♦' In view of the later experience with the Upper Naukeag Pond 
and the general experience with similar pond waters in other places 
in the State, the Board is of the opinion that the Upper Naukeag 
Pond will furnish a water generally of excellent quality for all the 
purposes of a public water supply, subject, however, in common 
with many ponds in use for water supplies, to occasional seasons 
■when the odor is disagreeable." 

AVith its present information, the Board believes Upper Naukeag 
Pond to be an appropriate source of water supply for the town of 
Wlnchendon, unless some equally good or better supply can be 
found nearer the town. 

The Board has caused an examination to be made by one of the 
engineers of possible sources of supply nearer the town, and finds 
that there are three which it is desirable to investigate. 

The first of these sources is one from which a ground water sup- 
pl}- may possibly be obtained. It consists of low land bordering 
Miller's River, rather more than a mile from the town, and near 
the first crossing of the Cheshire division of the Fitchburg Rail- 
road over the river. 

It is in this location that two test wells were driven, and the 
results as reported are unfavorable, since the thickness of the 
water-bearing stratum of gravel in one case was only about six 
inches, and in the other eighteen inches. These wells are also said 
to have been driven to a depth of ouly eighteen feet in one case 
and twenty-four feet in the other. It would be useless to attempt 
to obtain a ground water supply at this place, unless further tests 
made by driving wells show that the porous material extends to a 
depth of twenty-five feet or more below the surface of the ground, 
and is much thicker than is indicated by tlie tests already made. 
It is also necessary that the porous material should extend over a 
considerable area, so that a well or wells at this place would draw 
water from a consideral)le distance, and there would be enough 
water stored in the interstices of the porous ground to prevent 
a deficiency during the drier portions of the year. 

As a rule, the ground-water supi^lies of the State, when taken 
from unpolluted territory, have furnished Ijettcr water than can be 
obtained from any surface source ; but in a few cases tlie water 
has contained iron, which lias rendered it less palatable and has 
b(;en i)articularly objectionable for laundry use on account of the 
stain imparted to white clothes. "While it seems probable that the 
water if obtained in sufficient quantity from this source would be 
of good quality, there is some uncertainty, and it would be neces- 
sary to determine by investigation the quality as well as the quan- 
tity of water to be obtained. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 49 

The second source is the gronml near Miller's River, belo^v the 
village of Ilydeville. Judging from surface indications, the con- 
ditions are not as favorable for obtaining a ground-water supply 
at this place as from the first source, though it is possible that tost 
wells may show more favorable conditions beneath the surface than 
are now anticipated ; and it may, therefore, be desirable to make 
some tests by driving wells at this place. 

In considering a Avater supply from this source, it is desirable 
also to have the territory below the town examined with reference 
to the purification of the sewage whenever a system of sewerage 
shall be adopted. If the land where the water supply would be 
taken is the only available land for sewage filtration, it is better 
that the water supply should be taken from some other source. If, 
however, there are other places where the sewage could be filtered, 
it will only be necessary to consider wdiether there will be an extra 
cost for conveying the sewage to the other land. 

The third source is the so-called Stone Lot, supplemented by 
water from Beaman Brook at a point in Massachusetts near the 
Cheshire division of the Fitchburg Railroad. This plan would 
involve the construction of a storage reservoir upon the Stone Lot 
and a pumping station at Beaman Brook for pumping water into 
the reservoir. It is probable that a suflicient supply of water for 
the town could be obtained by this plan, provided a water-tight 
reservoir having the capacity stated in the report of the sub-com- 
niittee on water supply in 18<S8, namch^, 48,000,000 gallons, can 
be constructed upon the Stone Lot. There is no reason to doubt 
that the small portion of the supply whicli would come directly 
from the Stone Lot would be of good quality. The water of 
Beaman Brook has not yet been analyzed. 

The tests suggested for ascertaining whether a suHlcient supply 
of ground water can be obtained should be made under the direc- 
tion of some engineer who has had experience in similar investiga- 
tions. If the supply is taken from the ground, the distributing 
reservoir to which it is pumped should be covered to exclude the 
light, as the water would otherwise deteriorate. 

The Board cannot advise more definitely with regard to the most 
appropriate source of supply for the town until it receives addi- 
tional information from j'ou. 

Another communication Avas received from the water com- 
mittee of AVinc'hendon, dated May 11, 1894, relative to 
certain tests which had been made in the Prentice ]\Icado\v, 
so called, in Winchendon, with the object of obtaining a 



50 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

■water-supply for the town. To this application the Board 
replied as follows : — 

Aug. 3, 1S94. 

The State Board of Health received from you a comrQunication 
dated May 11, 1894, relative to certain examiuatious which had 
been made with a view to obtaining a supply of water from the 
ground bordering upon Miller's River at a place locally known as 
Prentice Meadow, near the first crossing above the town of the 
Cheshire division of the Fitchburg Railroad over the river. "With 
this communication you forwarded a plan showing the location of 
driven test wells, samples of the material penetrated by them 
taken from different depths below the surface of the ground, and 
a statement of the depths of the various wells and of the amount 
of water which could be pumped from them with a hand pump. 
On June 2G3"ou furnished similar iuforjiiation and samples relating 
to additional wells driven in the vicinitj'' of the others. 

In order to obtain further information with regard to this source, 
the locality has been visited b}' one of the engineers of the Board, 
and the question of a supply from this place has been carefully 
considered. 

A sample of water collected and forwarded by you from one of 
the test wells in the meadow was analyzed, and was found to be 
of excellent quality. This is probably a sample of water perco- 
lating from the high laud back of the meadow toward the river, 
while if a water supply were to be taken from the ground at this 
place the level would be lowered by pumping so that some of the 
water would come by filtration from the river. This might change 
the chnrracter of the water somewhat, but piobably not enough to 
produce any marked deterioration of the quality, provided the 
water were taken from the ground at a distance of one hundred feet 
or more from the river. 

It is not probable that enough water can- be obtained by any 
well or group of wells locat(Ml in tlie nu^adow, wh(;re most of the 
test wells were driven, to supi)ly the town after water has been 
generally introduced. 

If the collecting system were made much more extensive by 
extending collecting galleries or pipes a long distance up and down 
the river and up the valley of the brook which serves as an outlet 
for Lake Martin, a larger supply of water might be obtained, but it 
sedrns probable that the supply to be oljtained in this way would 
be exhausted in dry seasons before the works had been in opera- 
tion for a sutncient length of time to warrant the adoption of this 
plan. The quality of water to be obtained by this plan might be 



Is^o. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 51 

as good as tliat of water taken from the ground in the manner first 
described ; but no definite statement can be made upon this point 
without more exact information as to tlie character of the ground 
into which the collecting system would be extended by this second 
plan. 

There is still another plan for taking water from this locality 
which has been considered ; namely, one in which, in addition to 
the collecting works just described, with such further additions as 
might prove necessary for carrying out the plan, water would be 
pumped from the river, to be distributed upon properly prepared 
high porous land, where it would filter into the ground, to be inter- 
cepted subsequently by the collecting system and conveyed to the 
main pump well after it had been purified by filtration through the 
ground. There is little doubt that a water of good quality could 
be obtained in this way, although much would depend upon the 
design of the works for filtering the water, and the care taken in 
the operation of the works to insure the filtration of all of the 
water and to limit the quantity filtered through any portion of the 
ground to the amount which it could thoroughly purify. 

Taking into account the first cost of this complicated system of 
works, the yearly cost of operating them in such a way as to 
obtain a suflicient supply of good water and the uncertainty as to 
the results which would be obtained, it does not seem advisable 
to adopt this plan, when you may obtain from Upper Naukeag 
Pond, by a simple plan and probably with a much smaller annual 
cost, an ample supply of water of good quality. 

The Board, in its reply, dated April 6, 1894, to a previous appli- 
cation made by you relative to the investigations that you had bet- 
ter make with regard to finding a suitable water supi)ly for the 
town of AViuchendon, suggested, in addition to the Upper Naukeag 
Pond plan, that you should investigate among other sources the 
feasibility of taking a water supply from the Stone Lot source, 
supplemented by water from Beaman Brook. You have sent us 
from this brook a sample of water collected on April 24, 1894, 
which had a deep brownish color, such as water acquires from con- 
tact with vegetable matter in swampy places. As far as can be 
judged from the analysis of a single sample of water, this source 
would not furnish a water of sulliciently good quality to make it 
an appropriate source of water supply for the town. 

In the reply already referred to, the Board stated that with the 
information which it then had it believed " Upper Naukeag Pond 
to be an appropriate source of water supply for the to^vn of Wiu- 
chendon, unless some equally good cr better source can be found 
nearer the town." The information which you have furnished 



52 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

regarding the Prentice Meadow source, and the further information 
now available regarding the quality of the water to be obtained 
from the Beaman Brook and Stoue Lot source, do not indicate that 
either of these sources will furnish an equally good or better sup- 
ply of water than can be obtained from Upper Naukeag Pond. 

"With its present information the Board is of the opinion that 
Upper Naukeag Pond is the most appropriate source of water sup- 
ply for the town of "Winchendon. 

A further communication was received from the water 
committee of Winchendon, dated Aug. 6, 1894, asking the 
Board, " what, in their opinion, is the minimum amount of 
water per day that the Prentice Meadow would yield, without 
pumping from the river." The Board replied as follows : — 

Sept. 10, 1894. 

There are two ways in which the quantity of water to be obtained 
from the ground in any given locality may be estimated. One is 
to ascertain the results obtained at other places somewhat similarly 
situated, and to use these results as a basis for estimating the 
quantity of water to be obtained from the proposed source. As 
no two cases are exactly alike, it is necessary to make due allow- 
ance for differences in the character of the ground, the size of the 
water-shed, the presence or absence near the ground-water source 
of a large stream or body of water, and for other conditions which 
may affect the quantity of water. 

In investigating the capacities of the various ground-water 
sources in Massachusetts, it is very noticeable that in cases where 
ledge is encountered at the moderate depth at wliicli it was found 
by test wells in a large part of the I'rentice Meadow, the quantity 
of water obtainable is much smaller than where the porous material 
extends to a much greater depth. 

There are eight sources in Massachusetts where ledge is encoun- 
tered at about the same depth beneath the surface of the ground 
as at the Prentice Meadow. According to the best information 
now available, the ca})acity of these sources in tlie driest years 
ranges from .00,000 gallons per day for the smallest to 155,000 
gallons per day for the largest. In some of these cases the con- 
ditions apart from the presence of the ledge are decidedly less 
favorable than at the Prentice ]\readow ; so that, judging by the 
experience in other places, it seems probable that wells at the 
Prentice Meadow would furnish the larger rather than the smaller 
quantity obtainable from the wells referred to. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 53 

The second way of estimating the quantity of water to he 
obtained from the ground takes into account the area of water-shed 
tributary to the location of tlie well or wells, the amount of storage 
capacity in the interstices of the ground which may be made avail- 
able by the lowering of the water in the ground during the drier 
portions of the year, and the area of river bottom in the vicinity 
of the wells from which water may percolate into the ground to 
rei)lace that pumped from it. Upon this basis the engineers of the 
Board have estimated that a well or wells in the Prentice Meadow 
would yield during the driest four months of a dry year about 
130,000 gallons per day. 

In the case of a ground-water supply it is not feasible to deter- 
mine the quantity of vfater to be obtained with nearly as much 
accuracy as in the case of a surface-water supply, because the 
character of the ground from which the water is to be drawn is not 
accurately known, even after as extended tests as you have made. 
While, therefore, the Board estimates that the quantity of water to 
be obtained from a well or group of wells in the Prentice Meadow 
would be from 100,000 to 200,000 gallons per day, it cannot be at 
all definitely stated that the quantity may not be even more or less 
than these figures. 

Seaverage AXD Sewage Disposal. 

The followino; is the substance of the action of the Board 
in reply to applications for advice relative to sewerage and 
sewage disposal : — 

Andover. An application was received from the sewer 
coinniissioncrs of Andover Feb. 8, 1894, for the advice of 
the Board relative to certain plans of sewage disposal for that 
town. To this a[)plication the Board replied as follows : — 

March 2, 1891. 
The plan accompanying yotir application shows a system of pipe 
sewers to provide for the sewerage of all of the thickly settled por- 
tions of the town, and to collect the whole of the sewage at a point 
on Lowell Street east of the Shawsheen Rivi'r. From this point 
three different plans are referred to in the report of your engineers, 
as follows : one proviiling for the discharge of the sewage, after it 
has been passed through a settling tank, into the Shawsheen River, 
about 1,200 feet below T>owcll Street; another for conveying the 
sewage through a twenty-four inch pipe from Lowell Street to the 
Merrimack River at North Andover ; and the third for pumping 
the sewage to filter beds located north-westerlv from Frve A'illage. 



54 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

You state iu 3'our application that you desire to adopt the first 
of these phins, which provides for aa outlet into the Siiawsheen 
River ; and iu a subsequent communication you make the further 
statement that it is proposed iu the beginning to build sewers for 
only a small portion of the town, as indicated upon an accompany- 
ing plan. 

The Board has not sufficiently investigated the plans submitted 
to enable it to advise as to the best method for the permanent dis- 
posal of the sewage of the town, although, judging from the report 
of your engineers, it seems probable that it will be best to discharge 
the sewage into the Merrimack Eiver. 

As you desire a prompt answer to your proposition to use in the 
beginning an outlet into the Shawsheeu River, about 1,200 feet 
below Lowell Street, the Board has carefully considered this sub- 
ject, and concludes that this outlet is not a suitable one for the 
sewage of the central portion of the town, or for as large a popu- 
lation as will probably be connected with the system within a few 
years after the works are first operated. 

Concord. The committee on sewerage of the town of 
Concord applied to the Board Nov. 20, 1894, for the advice 
of the Board upon a proposed plan of sewerage and sewage 
disposal for that town. The Board replied as follows : — 

Jan. 3, 1895. 

The State Board of Health received from you a communication 
dated Nov. 20, 1894, in wliich you state that the town of Concord 
passed a vote April 2, 1894, authorizing you " to apply to the next 
General Court for such legislation as may be necessary and desir- 
able to enable the town to construct and maintain a suitable sys- 
tem of sewerage and sewage disposal in general accordance Avith 
tiie report of the committee made to tliis meeting; " and you sub- 
mit with your communication the annnal report of tlie town, con- 
taining the report of the committee on sewerage referred to iu the 
said vote, and request the advice and recommendation of the State 
Board of Health in the premises. 

In tlie reijort submitted is outlined a proposed plan for tlie sew- 
erage of the more thickly settled parts of tlie town by means of a 
system of pipe Hevv(;r8 leading to a pumping station, at which the 
sewage will be forc(;d through a pipe to high dry land and there 
filtered and purified. Judging from the outline presented, the 
Board believes that the proposed plan is to be commended as one 
well adapted to the needs of the town of Concord, but can advise 



Xo. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWXS. 55 

more fully after the more definite plans, which it understands are 
to be prepared, are presented. 

An examination of the h\nd pointed out by you as being avail- 
able for the disposal of the sewage indicated that it was suitable 
for this purpose. 

The Board is of the opinion that intermittent filtration through 
land is the proper method of disposing of the sewage of your 
town. 

Haverhill. An application was received from the mayor 
of Haverhill June 22, 1(S94, for the advice of the Board rela- 
tive to a proposed sewerage system near Lake Saltonstall, 
the question being whether a separate or combined system 
of sewerage would be preferable, under the circumstances, 
and as to the disposal of the sewage of a part of the city 
near Dustia Square. The Board replied as follows : — 

Aug. 21, 1894. 

The State Board of Health received from j-ou a commuuication 
dated June 22, ISO-i, in which you state that petitions have been 
presented to the city council asking for a sewerage system in the 
vicinity of Lake Saltonstall, one of your sources of water supply ; 
and 3'ou ask the opinion of the Board as to whether the separate 
or combined system of sewerage is preferable under the circum- 
stances. You also ask with regard to the disposal of the sewage 
of another section of the city near Dustiu Square, suggesting that 
it may require the separate system, with filter beds. 

The State Board of Health has caused these subjects to be care- 
fully considered by its engineers. It finds that the proposed sj'S- 
tem in the vicinity of Lake Saltonstall is intended to provide for 
the tcrritor}' bordering upon the westerly half of the lake. 

In order that there may be no misunderstanding of terms, a 
" combined " system will be defined as one in which the sewage 
propi-r and tlie storm water flowing from streets and other surfaces 
during storms are convoyed away in one sewer, while a " seitarate" 
system is one in wlii^-h tlie sewage proper is carried away in one 
conduit, generally a i)i[)e of moderate size, while the storm water 
is removed by a much larger conduit. Very heavy storms furnish 
an amount of Avater very manj'^ times as great as the amount of 
sewage proper; so that, if all of the water during the lu-aviest 
storms is to be conveyed away by the sewers or drains, they mutt 
be very large as conqiared with the pipe for taking sewage only 
from the same district. It is consequently customary, ^^herever 



56 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

practicable, to provide an overflow for the discharge of the surplus 
storm water, so as to dimiuish the cost of the works. 

This practical consideration with regard to the size of the con- 
duit for carrying the storm water makes the question of the length 
of time that Lake Saltonstall will be used as a source of water 
supply an important one. If it is to be retained as a source of 
water supply, the sewers of a combined system should be large 
euough to take the water flowing off during the heaviest storms, so 
that there will be no overflow of sewage into the lake. If the use 
of the lake for water-supply purposes should be discontinued, the 
main sewer of the combined system might be a little smaller, but 
it should still be large, so that such overflow would take place only 
at very rare intervals. If the separate system should be used, the 
sewage would not overflow into the lake, because the quantity 
would not increase materially during rains, and the storm water in 
a separate conduit might overflow occasionally without doing any 
serious harm. Consequently, with the separate system, the storm- 
water conduit from Mill Street to the outlet of the lake might 
be much smaller than the corresponding sewer of the combined 
system. 

There is a third solution of the problem, using in part the sepa- 
rate system and in part the combined sj^stem, which may be more 
satisfactory' than either of the others. By this plan the separate 
system would be used to bring the sewage and storm water from 
most of this territoi'y to the low point in Mill Street near the 
westerly end of the lake, and from this point the sewer along the 
shore of the lake to its outlet would be built as a combined sewer 
to take both the sewage and storm water. In this case, however, 
the combined sewer might be a comparatively small one, as the 
surplus storm Avater of heavy storms could be permitted to over- 
flow into the lake before entering this sewer. By this plan the 
sewers down to the low point on Mill Street Avould cost more than 
the sewers of the combined system, but l>elow this point Avould 
cost much loss. 

Any one of the throe plans, if designed and constructed as indi- 
cated, would bo satisfactory from a sanitary point of view ; and 
the question as to which should bo adopted may i)roporly d('i)ond 
upon their relative cost, which your engineer has better ojjportuui- 
ties for determining than the engineers of this Board. 

The best method of disijosing of the sewage of the section of 
the city near Dustin Square has boon considered by the Board, and 
after making examinations with regard to the jjurification of the 
sewage by filtration through sand, with the subsequent discharge 
of thu olUuout from the Alter bods into Little Kiver, it has con- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 57 

eluded that it would be better and cheaper to convey this sewage 
to the Merrimack River through an extension of the present Hill- 
dale Avenue sewer or some other sewer in the valley of Little 
Eiver. 

Hudson. The sewerage committee of the town of Hud- 
son applied to the Board March 24, 1894, submitting to the 
Board the following questions relative to a proposed system 
of sewerage and sewage disposal for that town : — 

1. Will the town be permitted to drain the whole or a 
part of its sewage into the Assabet River ; and, if a part, 
what part? 

2. What is the best location for its filter beds, if not per- 
mitted to drain into the river? 

3. If filter beds should be necessary, what will be the best 
practicable method of constructing them? 

To these inquiries the Board replied as follows : — 

Mat 3, 1S94, 

"1, Will the town be permitted to drain the whole or a part of 
its sewage into the Assabet River; and, if a part, what part? 

" 2. What is the best location for its filter beds, if not per- 
mitted to drain into this river? 

" 3. If filter beds should be necessary what will be the best 
practicable method of constructing them?" 

The Board has carefully considered the question of the effect of 
discharging sewage from the town into the river, and is of the 
opinion that no considerable part of the sewage of the town could 
be discharged into the stream without having an injurious effect ; 
and it is desirable that a system should be adopted which would 
wholh' prevent the discharge of sewage into the river. 

The best method of purifying the sewage of a town is b}- inter- 
mittent filtration through porous sand or gravel, where such mate- 
rial can be foiuul ; and the examinations indicate that such material, 
quite favorably located, may be found in tlie town of Hudson, so 
that this is the best method for adoption in your case. 

Willi regard to the best location for filter beds, it is not feasible 
to advise delinitely without further knowledge as to the relative 
height of the town and of the land which might be used for filtra- 
tion. There is land on both sides of the river, about a mile below 
the town, which appears to be suitable for intermittent filtration. 
Tliis land is located on the easterly side of the first road which 
crosses the river below the Massachusetts Central Railroad. If 



58 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the selvage of the town could be brought by gravity to this locality, 
so that it would be six or eight feet above ordinary high water iu 
the river, beds might be prepared at this level upon which the 
sewage could be filtered ; but the preparation of such beds would 
involve considerable expense for filling and underdrainage, and on 
account of this expense the area of the beds might be more limited 
than would be desu-able. If, however, the sewage should be 
pumped to higher land, there would be a greater certainty of suc- 
cessful purification, the cost of preparing the beds would be much 
smaller and there would be an ample area of land for future 
extension. 

The amount of land which should be prepared for filtration in 
the beginning cannot be definitely told with the present informa- 
tion, but it would probably be between four and eight acres. The 
amount will depend upon the character of the material and the 
height of the land above the ground water, both of which can be 
determined by digging test pits. It is often desirable, Avhere laud 
is cheap and is so situated that it can be prepared for sewage filtra- 
tion at a comparatively small cost, to prepare a greater area of 
filter beds than is absolutely necessary, so as to insure the purifi- 
cation of the sewage at all seasons of the year, and so that the 
surface of the beds may be less liable to clog than if a large 
amount of sewage was deposited upon a comparatively small area. 
Liberal provision should be made for future wants by acquiring in 
the beginning sufficient land upon Avhich to construct additional 
filter beds from time to time, as they are made necessary by an 
increase in the number of people connected with the sewers. 

The town of Framingham acquired about seventy acres, and 
prepared about twelve acres for the filtration of the scM'age of 
South Framingham. This has proved to be an ample area for dis- 
posing of the sewage, but the town has recently prepared addi- 
tional beds, with a view to raising crops upon them. The whole 
of the town of Framingliam contained 9,2.30 inhabitants in 1800. 

The city of Marlborougli (population in 1800, i;],8()')) purchased 
about sixty-three acres, and prepared 11.3 acres for the disposal 
of sewage. In this case there has been a little difriculty in dispos- 
ing of the sewage in very cold winters, and vdien an unusual 
amount of ground water found its way into the sewers in the 
spring, which might liave been av(/ided if additional land had been 
prepared for filtration. It is probable that extensions will have to 
be made before long. 

In both of these cases the land is porous, and of very good 
quality for sewage filtration. 

The l'.(;ard will advise you further in this matter when you have 
further information to present. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 59 

MiLTOX. An application was received from the committee 
on sewerage of Milton May 2, 1894, for the advice of the 
Board relative to a system of sewerage for that town, having 
outlets into the Dorchester intercepting sewer of the City 
of Boston. To this application the Board replied as fol- 
lows : — 

Sept. 25, 1894. 

The main features of the proposed plan, as indicated by the 
wi'itten description and the plan accompanying your application, 
are systems of pipe sewers from which storm water is to be 
excluded, for collecting the sewage of the town and conveying it 
to the Dorchester branch of the main sewerage system of the city 
of Boston, and underdrains beneath nearly all of the sewers for 
collecting the ground water and convcj'ing it to the Nepouset River. 

Upon the plan three sewer districts are shown, each having an 
independent connection with the Boston sewer, and in addition to 
these the description refers to a fourth district, including the vil- 
lage of Milton Lower Mills, in which no sewers are shown upon 
the plan, but which is now partially provided with sewers which 
discharge into the Neponset River. It is' stated that the system 
for this district is to be connected with the Boston sewer, and it is 
also stated that the town has secured the consent of the mayor of 
Boston to this method of disposing of the sewage of Milton, and 
that he has named a price per year for such disposal, which is sat- 
isfactory to the town committee. 

The Board is of the opinion that the method of disposing of the 
sewage of Milton by discharging it into the main sewerage system 
of the city of Boston is the best that can be adopted, and that this 
method should be made to apply to all portions of the town, 
including the village of Milton Lower Mills. 

Tlie engineers of the Board have examined in a general way the 
locations, sizes and grades of the main sewers, and see no reason 
to doubt that a system designed substantially, as proposed, if con- 
structed with care, can be made to operate in a satisfactory man- 
ner. Some of the sewers necessaril}' have a low grade, and will 
require more care in order to keep them clean than if it were fea- 
sible to give thoni a higher grade. 

The amount of fall from the end of the fifteen-inch sewer in 
Granite Avenue on the Milton side of the Neponset River to the 
Dorchester intercepting sewer is sufficient to rentier operative a 
properly designed inverted siphon across the Noponsot River at 
this place. The application states that this inverted siphon is to 
consist of two ten-inch cast-iron pipes, so arranged that one will 



60 STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

take the ordinary flow and the other the surplus ; and the sugges- 
tion has since been made, verbally, that the diameter of these 
pipes might be reduced to eight iuches. It is desirable that at 
least one of the pipes should be made ten inches in diameter, and 
that both the siphon pipes and the short section of sewer leading 
from them to the Dorchester intercepting sewer should be placed 
low enough so that practically the whole difference in level be- 
tween the sewage in the sewer on the Milton side of the Neponset 
River and in the Dorchester intercepting sewer maybe made avail- 
able for cleansing the siphon pipes. In tliis case, as in the case of 
the sewers of low grade, the works must be maintained with care 
in order to insure satisfactory results. 

While a siphon is a feature not to be included in a sewerage sys- 
tem where it can be readily avoided, there seems to be no alterna- 
tive in the present case except to pump tlie sewage, and this would 
cost much more than the proper maintenance of a siphon. 

At Central Avenue the use of a siphon is avoided, as the plans 
provide for suspending the sewer from the existing bridge. 

In regard to the other two crossings, no opinion will be given 
at the present time, because for the one at Milton Lower Mills no 
plans have been submitted, and at Mattapan the elevation of the 
proposed extension of the Dorchester intercepting sewer has not 
yet been determined. 

The provision for removing the ground water by means of drains 
laid beneath the sewers is to be commended both on account of the 
sanitary benefits to be derived from keeping the ground thoroughly 
drained and because of the smaller amount of sewage which will 
be discharged into the Boston system. It has been found by expe- 
rience that where there are no underdrains nuich of the ground 
water finds its way into the sewers, even wlien tho}' arc constructed 
witli mucli care, so tliat in many places the volume flowing in the 
sewers is two or three times the vohimo of sewage proper. As 
this ground watcj', if collected in separate pipes, can be discharged 
into the Xei)onset River without doing liarm, it is much better that 
it should be disposed of in this way than by turning it into the 
Boston system, not only on account of the cost of pumping the 
added groimd water, but because tiic Boston system will be over- 
burdened and require duplication much sooner if care is not taken 
to prevent the entrance of ground water into tlie sewers connected 
with it. 

Experience in Framiiigliam, Newton and Brockton 1ms shown 
that it is feasible, by taking sufllcient care in the construction of 
the sewers and underdrains, to prevent the sewage from leaking 
into these drains to Cf^itaminate tlui ground water, and, indirectly, 
the streams into which the underdrains discharge. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 61 

Naxtucket. The sewer commissioners of Nantucket ap- 
plied to the Board June 21, 1894, for its advice relative to 
a proposed extension of the Lily Pond Drain, so-called, to 
an outlet at the end of Brant Point. The Board replied as 
follows : — 

Sept. 10, 1894. 

T'le State Board of Health has carefully considered your appli- 
cation, dated June 21, 1804, and the accompanying plans with 
regard to the proposed extension of the Lily Pond drain to an out- 
let ahout twenty-eight feet hej'ond mean low-water mark at the 
extreme end of Brant Point. 

The plans submitted show that a catch-basin for intercepting 
substances that are either lighter or heavier than water is to be 
built upon the sewer before it reaches the laud upon which the 
Brant Point lighthouse is situated. 

The Board has considered the question of this outlet with refer- 
ence t-o the quantity of sewage which now flows in the Lily Pond 
drain, and is of the opinion that the discharge of this amount of 
sewage at the proposed outlet, after it has had removed from it as 
much of the heavier and lighter matters as can be retained by a 
suitably constructed catch-basin, will not cause any serious trouble 
in tlie next few years. If the sewage should be discharged without 
the removal of the solid matters by a catch-basin suitably designed 
and maintained, it is not unlikely that floating matters would be 
cast upon the shore between the Nantucket House and the shore 
end of the westerly jetty, or on the shore of the inner harbor. 

The Board believes that it would not be advisable to increase the 
amount of sewage discharged at this outlet, and that the town 
should take measures for the introduction of a general system of 
sewerage, disposing of the sewage by the best available method. 

North Andover. An application was received May 28, 
1894, from the selectmen and road connnissioners of North 
Andover, for the advice of the Board relative to the pro- 
priety of entering a sewer from Main Street, North Andover, 
into the Merrimack lliver. The Board replied as follows : — 

Aio. 3, 1S94. 
This plan shon-s a system of pipe sewers for the main village of 
North Andover, and indicates that the sewage of the village of 
North Andover Centre may be brought into the same system through 
a twelve-inch pipe. The lower end of the Main Street sewer is to 
be twenty inches in diameter, and is to serve as the main outlet 
of the system. 



62 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

The Board is of the opinion that it is permissible for the present 
to discharge the sewage of the town of North Andover into the 
Merrimack River at Main Street, but advises that the sewage should 
be carried out into the river through a submerged pipe as far as 
practicable beyond low-water mark, in order tliat it may be diUited 
quickly, and that there may be less danger of fouling the shores of 
the river below' the outlet. 

Palmer. An application was received from the selectmen 
of Palmer May 11, 1892, for the advice of the Board relative 
to the disposal of the sewage of the main village of Palmer 
by direct discharge into the Quaboag River. The reply of 
the Board, embodying also its reasons for delay in answer- 
ing the application, was as follows : — 

Feb. 1, 1894. 

V>y the proposed plan the sewage is to be collected in a system 
of pipe sewers from which storm water is to be excluded, and is to 
be discharged into the Quaboag River below the bridge of the Bos- 
ton & Albany Railroad Company. 

On June 2, 1892, a public hearing upon this question was held 
at the office of the Board of Health. After this hearing the ques- 
tion was carefully considered by the Board, and it was concluded 
that it was desirable to defer making a formal reply until definite 
action had been taken by the city of Chicopee with reference to 
the abandonment of the Chicopee River as a source of water supply. 

The Board is now informed that the works for the supply of 
water to Chicopee Falls from a new source are completed, and that 
the use of the Chicopee River as a source of water supply has been 
discontinued. 

As a result of investigations l)y tlie engineer of the Board, and 
a carefid consideration of the plan proposed by you and the state- 
ments presented at the hearing, the Board concludes that the adop- 
tion of a system of sewers from which storm water is excluded Is 
to be commended as being the best adapted to the present and 
future requirements of tlie main viUage of Palmer ; and that tlie 
sewage may be turned into the Quaboag River below the Boston 
& Albany Railroad bridge, as proposed, for the present, with the 
understanding tluit the sewage is to be diverted from the river and 
purified whenever the pollution of the stream makes such action 
necessary. If at any time a public water supply should be taken 
from the stream at Chicopee or at any other place below Palmer, 
the necessity for at once diverting the sewage and purifying it 
would become imperative. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AXD TOWNS. 63 

Pollution of Kivers axd Sources of AVater Supply. 

Brookfield. a communication was received March 29, 
1894, from H. E. Cottle, Esq., chairman of a committee 
appointed by the town of Brookfiold to investigate the sub- 
ject of the poUution of Seven-mile Eiver by the town of 
Spencer, asking the advice of the Board as to the best 
course to be pursued by the town relative to the nuisance 
thus caused. The Board replied as follows : — 

June 8, 1894. 

As you arc aware, the town of Spencer applied to the State 
Board of Ilealtli last year for advice with reference to the disposal 
of its sewage, and in concluding its reply the Board expressed tlie 
opinion that the discbarge of the sewage directly into the Seven- 
mile river should be discontinued. 

The exuniinatious made at Spencer last year and a further 
examination made since your communication was received show 
that a large part of the offence is due to the discharge of wastes 
from the Spencer Gas AVorks into the sewers, and thence into the 
Seven-mile liiver. It is also essential to the purification of the 
sewage of the town by intermittent filtration (which is the method 
under consideration) that tlie gas Avastes should be removed from 
the sewer. The interception and removal of these gas wastes, so 
that they would not enter the Seven-mile River, would furnish a 
large measure of relief during the time when the town is preparing 
plans and constructing the works for purifjnng its sewage. The 
gas Avastes from other gas works in tlie State are now intercepted 
so that they do not cause a nuisance ; and the Board is of opinion 
that the Spencer Gas Company should provide at once for inter- 
cepting the waste matters from its works, so that they will not be 
discharged into the river. 

A copy of tiiis communication will be sent to the Spencer Gas 
Company. 

Deerfield. The selectmen of Deerfield, acting as a 
Board of Health, complained to the State Board of Health 
Aug. 13, ](S94, that sewage from the town of Greenfield was 
discharged into the Green Kiver (a stream which flows 
through the thickly settled part of the town of Deerfield), 
at or near the boundary line of these towns, and "to the 
common nuisance of the public and to the detriment of 



64 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

the public health,"* at the same time requesting the Board 
to "take such action and make such orders in relation 
thereto as the public health and interest demand." The 
Board replied to this communication as follows : — 

Oct. 4, 1894. 

The Board caused an examination of the premises to be made by 
one of its engineers in September, at a time -when there was a low 
flow of water iu the streams, aud he found that the Green River in 
DeerSeld, and in Greenfield below the outlet of the main sewer, 
was in an offensive condition, caused mainly by the dischax'ge into 
it of sewage from the public sewers of the town of Greenfield, but 
also to some extent by the discharge of sewage and polluting mat- 
ters from buildings and factories in the town of Deerfield. 

In view of the results of his examinations, the Board is of the 
opinion that this discharge of sewage aud polluting matters into 
this river should be discontinued. 

The best plan for disposing of the sewage cannot be definitely 
determined upon uutil surveys and other investigations have been 
made. It seems probable, however, that it will be best to inter- 
cept the sewage before its discliarge into the Green lliver, and 
convey it by means of an intercepting sewer to an outlet diseliarg- 
ing well out into the Deerfield River, beyond low-water mark, at 
some suitable place. 

As an intercepting sewer such as is proposed could be used 
jointly for the disposal of the sewage of both Greufield and Deer- 
field, the Board suggests the advisability of joint action, botli in 
the investigation of the matter and in the construction of works for 
preventing the pollution of the Green River. 

A copy of this reply will be sent to the Board of Selectmen of 
the town of Greenfield. 

FiiAMixGiiAM. A communication •was received from the 
Board of Health of Framjngham Juno 13, 1894, rc(iucHting 
the State Board of Health "to examine the condition of a 
portion of the Sudbury liiver running through Saxonvillc," 
and certain meadows in Fi-amingham and South Fi-aming- 
hani. Tlic Board, after making the examination, rciplied as 

follows : — 

Aro. 7, 1S91. 

Certain insanitary conditions exist in and along the Sudbury 
River in Saxonville and below tluit villnge, tending to impair the 
health of tlie inhabitants of the adjacent territory ; tliat the man- 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOAVXS. 65 

ner of disposing of the waste resulting from the washing of wool 
in the mill, the method of managing the sink drainage from vari- 
ous dwelling-houses adjacent to the river, the want of due care in 
the construction, maintenance and use of the ditches in the meadows 
described in the application are all objectionable ; that, while it 
cannot be demonstrated that these objectionable conditions are the 
direct cause of malaria, they are sufficiently serious to menace the 
public health ; and, finally, that in the opinion of the State Board 
of Health they are remediable conditions, and, under the ample 
authority of the Public Statutes, they are entirely within the con- 
trol and jurisdiction of the local Board of Health of Framingham. 

RocKPORT. A communication was received -Tuly 3, 1894, 
from the water commissioners of Rockport, asking the Board 
to notif}'' the owners of a glue factory located upon the water- 
shed of the Rockport water supply (Cape Pond) to cease 
polluting the w-ater supply. The Board replied as follows : — 

Arc. 3, 1894. 

This Board, in a communication dated Feb. 18, 1893, addressed 
to the selectmen of Rockport, Henri X.. "Woods and others, ex- 
pressed the opinion that there was an increasing pollution of the 
pond by the waste matters from the glue factory, and that if this 
pollution were stopped the water would in time become of satis- 
factory quality for the supply of the town. Samples of water col- 
lected in 1894 do not show any improvement in the character of 
the water as compared with a sample collected in February, 1893, 
and an examination made by the Board shows that the drainage 
from this factory still finds its way into the pond. 

The Board, therefore, has no reason to change its views as to 
the relation of the drainage from this factory to the quality of the 
water in the pond, and is of the opinion that, as this pond is to be 
used to supply the town of Rockport with water, the pollution 
of the water of the pond by the Avaste matters from the glue fac- 
tory should cease forthwith. 

The Board is not authorized to notify the proprietors of the glue 
factory to cease from polluting this pond, but sends for your infor- 
mation a marked copy of the general laws relating to the pollution 
of sources of water supply. 

Worcester. A communication wa-^ rocoivod from ]\[r. 
F. B. Smith of Worcester, June 20, 1894, relative to pro- 
posed restrictions upon a tract of land in Holden, the larger 
part of which lies upon the water-shed of a proposed storage 



66 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pul>. Doc. 

reseiToir of the City of Worcester, asking the advice of the 
Board as to the question of building cess-pools upon the 
water-shed of the reservoir, and at "what distance from 
the Tvater line it would be safe to construct them. The 
Board replied as follows : — 

AvG. 3, 1894. 

The State Board of Health received from yon a coramuuication 
dated Juue 20, 1894, relative to a certain tract of land iu Holdea 
owned by you and Mr. Lincoln Kinnicutt, the larger part of which 
lies upon the water-shed of a proposed water-supply reservoir of 
the city of TVorcester. You refer to proposed restrictions upon 
this laud, with a view to preventing the pollution of the Worcester 
water supply by the use which, may be made of the land, and 
iu the concluding paragraph ask " whether any tests have been 
made in regard to the effect of percolation through the soil, 
and, if the matter has heen determined by tests, what distance 
is necessary to purify sewage by percolation ; " also, " how near 
would it be safe to build cess-pools to the water line of the city's 
reservoir." 

The Board is not aware that auy tests have been made for the 
special purposes of ascertaining how far away from a cess-pool the 
water from it becomes purified by its passage through the ground. 
The distance would undoubtedly depend to a very great extent 
upon many local conditions, such as the depth from the bottom 
of the cess-pool to the level of the ground water, and the cliarac- 
ter of the material through which the liquid from the cess-pool 
filters. The conditions would be less favorable if tlie sewage 
percolates iu a somewhat concentrated stream in one direction 
than if it were diffused to a greater extent as it passes through 
the ground. 

Although there have been no special tests iu regard to the purifi- 
cation of sewage by its percolation from cess-pools, yet there is 
much information bearing upon this point. Nearly every well in 
a thickly settled village derives more or less of its supply by per- 
colation from cess-pools in the vicinity, and yet in a majority of 
cases tlie degree of piu'ification effected by filtration is such that 
the water of the wells is used for drinking purposes. 

In South Framiugham, Newton and Brockton underdrains have 
been laid beneath the; sewers to carry off the ground water, and 
before any sewage had been tiu'ued into these sewers samples of 
water were collected from the underdrains and analyzed. The com- 
mon method of disposing of the sewage of these places at the time 
was by means of cess-pools, and the analyses of the water from the 
underdrains left no doubt that it came in part from these sources. 



No. 34.] ADVICE TO CITIES AND TOWNS. 67 

The Board has already advised the town of Framingham with 
regard to the character of the water of its imderdraia aud its rela- 
tion to the water supply of the city of Boston, into which it was 
and is now discharged ; and, as there is some similarity between 
this case aud your own, a copy of the reply of the Board to the 
town of Framingham is enclosed herewith. 

The distance through which the liquid from a cess-pool must per- 
colate in order to remove the objectionable matters depends upon 
local conditions to such an extent that with present information it 
is impracticable to make a general statement of the distance from 
a reservoir that a cess-pool must be placed in order to insure safety. 
But under very favorable conditions of soil the filtration of sewage 
from a small number of cess-pools to a storage reservoir two hun- 
dred feet distant would not be likely to have a noticeable effect 
upon the quality of the water supplied from the reservoir. 



EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



EXPLANATORY NOTE. 

The systematic examination of the water supplies of the State was begun June 
1, 1887, and has been continued up to the present time. The results for the first 
two years were published in a special report of the Board upon the Examination of 
Water Supplies (1890), and for the succeeding years in the annual reports of the 
Board beginning with the 1890 (Twenty-second Annual) report. 

The special report contains a description of each of the water supplies in the 
State exi>ting at the date of that report, and the annual reports only contain descrip- 
tions of new works and changes in existing works. 

In all of these reports an alphabetical arrangement by towns has been adopted. 
Sources of water supply are tabulated under the name of the town supplied, other 
waters under the name of the town in which they are situated. The analyses of 
water from the larger rivers not used as sources of water supply are given in a sub- 
sequent tabulation, headed " Examination of Rivers." 

The method of making the chemical and microscopical examinations remains 
unchanged, and the results are presented in the tables of this report in the same 
form as in the last one. 

The samples of water are usually received at the laboratory from twenty-four to 
forty-eight hours after collection. All surface water and such samples of ground 
water as contain suspended matter are filtered through filter-paper before determin- 
ing the color, the residue on evaporation and the albuminoid ammonia iu solution. 
Some ground waters which are perfectly clear and colorless when drawn from the 
ground become turbid and colored on standing, in consequence of the oxidation of 
the iron which they contain. In these waters the residue on evaporation is deter- 
mined without filtration, since this iron is an essential and not an accidental ingre- 
dient in the water. In the changes which accompany the oxidation of tlie iron in 
waters of this character, they become first cloudy (well described by the word 
milk-ij) and finally deposit a precipitate of oxide of iron. In the cloudy condition 
they have a distinct color, which, while it does not have the same significance as in 
the case of surface waters, and is only a passing phenomenon, is, nevertheless, of 
interest as showing a color which the water may assume while the oxidation of the 
iron is in progress. "When the iron is all oxidized and precipitated the water may 
become colorless again. Explanatory notes will be given for waters of this kind 
in connection with the tables of analyses. 

The color of water is expressed by numbers which increase with the amount of 
color. The standard used is nesslerized ammonia, as described on page 631 of the 
Special Heport upon the Examination of "Water Supplies, 1890, and on page 329 of 
the Annual Report for 189.S. Boston water, as drawn from a tap at the Institute of 
Technology, had an average color in 1894 of 0.69. Other water supplies in the 
State have had an average color of from to 1.45. 



72 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

In cases where examinations of a source have been made with considerable regu- 
larity for several years, the averages of the chemical analyses of each year are given. 

In the microscopical examination of water there has been no change in the 
method employed since Nov. 6, 1890. This method was fully described in the 
Twenty-third Annual Report of the Board for the year 1891 (pages 3{)5-421). 
Before Nov. 6, 1890, the methods employed were less perfect, so that a smaller pro- 
portion of the total number of organisms present in the water was separated from it 
and observed under the microscope; and, before drawing conclusions from a com- 
parison of the microscopical examinations of waters made before and after this date, 
the explanatory note on page 70 of the Twenty-second Annual Report for 1890 
should be read. 

To indicate the amount of the so-called Zooglcea observed, the number of indi- 
vidual masses is not counted, but an area equal to 2,500 square microns, or .0025 
square millimeters, has been adopted as an arbitrary unit. 

In publishing the results of the microscopical examinations the same S3'stem is 
followed as last year. The plants observed are classified in four groups, viz. : 
Diatomacese, Cyanophycese, Algre and Fungi. The Animals observed are grouped 
as Rhizopoda, Infusoria, Vermes and Crustacea. 

The names of the different genera in each group are given with the numbers of 
each per cubic centimeter, except that, to avoid making the tables excessively long, 
they are omitted when present only in very small numbers. It is not feasible to 
make with regard to omissions a single rule which will apply to all cases, because it 
is desirable to include smaller numbers of animals than of plants, and of the larger 
animals than of animals generally. Moreover, there are exceptional cases in which 
it is desirable to indicate the presence of even very small numbers of the more im- 
portant plants or animals. Two general rules, however, have beeu adopted in 
printing the results, namely : — 

1. All genera of Plants are included in which the total number observed in 
twelve months amounts to 6 or more per cubic centimeter, or, iu other words, aver- 
ages as much as 0.5 per month. 

2. All genera of Animals are included in which the total number observed in 
twelve months amounts to 1.5 or more per cubic centimeter. 

The larger microscopic animals, such as some of the Crustacea, are included, 
even when present only in very small numbers. 

Fractions are generally omitted from the table, the nearest whole number of 
organisms per cubic centimeter being given. Where the total number of organisms 
observed is 0.5 or less, the fact that the organism was present is usually indicated 
by the abbreviation " pr.," but in the case of the larger organisms very small frac- 
tions are given. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



73 



EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



Water Supply of Abixgton and Rockland. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Bi(j Satidy Pond, Pembroke. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 
o 


Appearasce. 


Kksiuce on 

EVAHOBA- 
TION. 


AilMOSlA. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

3 

c 
o 
o 






i>^ 












Albuminoid. 
















00 


o 

1 


o 
2 


2 


a 

5 


c 
o 


"a 


§-1 

go U> 

o 






•a 
1 o 


•a 


c 


o 
a 


■0 


c 


1 

a 


2 


Q 


Eh 


aj 


O 


H 




b 


E- 


•=; 


■X. 


u 


» 


S5 


i o 


S 


IM91. ' 


1 




















i 
1 




11878 Mar. 12 


Slight. ! Cons. 


0.03 


2.75 


1.00 


.0004 


.0148 


.0116 


.0032 


.61 


.0050 


.0000 


.1896 


0.2 


12026 Apr. 10 


V. slight. V. Blight. 


0.05 


2.75 


1.00 


.0002 


.0114 


.0102 


.0012 


.63 


.0050 


.0000 


.1564 

1 


0.2 



Averages by Years. 



1887* 

1888t 

1892t 

1893 

1894 



0.20 

I 
0.10 

0.10 

0.07 

0.04 



0.94 
0.82 



3.45 
3.23 
4.30 I - 
3.19 1.19 
2.75 1 1.00 



.0006.0164 
.0000:. 0200 .0150 
.0010.0146.0122 
.0003'. 0131 .0109 



- 


.58 


.0056 


- 


- 


- 


.55 


.0073 


.0001 


- 


.0050 


.59 


.0090 


.0000 


- 


.0024 


.63 


.0012 


.0000 


.2130 


.0022 


1 
.62 

1 


.0050 


.0000 


.1730 



0.5 
0.5 

0.2 



* Juno to October, six samples. 



t January to April, five samples. 



X March. 



Note to analyses of 1S94 : Odor of the first sample, dislinctly vegetable and unpleasant, becoming 

stronger on heating; of the second, faiully vegetable and sweetish. The samples were collected from 

a faucet at the pumping station. 



Microscopical Examination. 

No. 11878. Diatomaceae, Aalerionetla,20; Cocconema, I; Cycloietla.K; Diatoma, 1; Jfelonira, d; 
Si/nedra, 60; Tabeliaria, ZO. Alga?, Art/irodmmuii, 11; Protocorcna, 9; Stnurogeuia,'!. Iniusoria, 
Dinnhrynn rases, 'i\ Peritliniiim,\. Vermee, Potij<irl/ira, 2 Miscellaneous, ^Jwo^/ira, 20. Total, 183. 

No. l'20Jt5. I>iatomacea5, Asterionelki, 6; CyclolelUt, 16; Diatoma, 1; Xitisc/iia, 1; Syne^^ra, 1; 
Tubellari'i, 11. Cyanophyceoe, Merismopedia, 'Z. A\g!e, Art/irodesmus, \; Protococcus,2b; Sirtuedet- 
ntua, 1. Infusoria, Dinobryon cases, 4. Crustacean remains, .03. Total, 75. 



74 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



AarESBURY. 

Water Supply of Amesbury. — Powow Hill Water Company. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Tubular Wells supplying Open Basins 

near Main Street. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
c 

s 
o 

^^ 

o 

a 
Q 


Appearance. 


Residue on 

Evaporation. 


Ammonia. 


c 

s 

o 


NiTBOQKN 
AS 


•d 

1 

s 

c 

£5 
o 


c 




a 

s 


s 


1 
■a 

GO 


U 

o 

a 


6 
Z 


•d 
o 

c 


1 
1 


g 


1 


1894. 

12611 July 25 

12612 July 25 
13041 Sept. 2S 


Slight, 

milky. 
Distinct. 

Slight. 


None. 

Slight, 

green. 
V.slight. 


0.12 
0.04 
0.08 


10.50 
9.20 
8.80 


.0002 
.0000 
.0004 


.0000 
.0078 
.0090 


.49 
.56 
.58 


.0020 
.0120 
.0300 


.0000 
.0000 
.0001 


.0031 
.0516 
.0520 


6.4 
4.2 
3.6 


.0400 
.0200 
.0300 


Av. 








0.08 


9.50 


.0002 


.0056 


.54 


.0147 


.0000 


.0356 


4.4 


.0300 











Odor of the first sample, none; of the second, distinctly disagreeable, becoming less strong on heat- 
ing; of the third, decidedly vegetable and disagreeable. The samples were collected at the pumping 

station on Main Street. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 12611. No organisms. 

No. 12612. Algae, ^cewedesTOWS, 32. Infusoria, C'n//)toTO07(as, 150. Total, 182. 
No. 13041. DiaiomacesB, 7'a6e//a/-ta, 2. Algae, /"rotococcjis, 632; Scenedemiu8,lG. MlscellaneouB, 
ZodgUea, 70. Total, 720. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Thirty-six Tubular Wells near Market Street, 
used as a Supplementary Source of Sttpjily. 

[Parts per 100,000 ] 







Appbarancb. 


i 


Ammonia. 




Mtkookn 

AS 


1 "* 
1 g 








" 


X 






?2 

C o 




■d 








a 


oi 




u 






c 




o o. 




o 


01 


n 


tfi 


OJ 




B 
a 


cO 
• 


"S 


a 

"5 


o 


= « 
1m 


1 


is 




b. 


£ 




a 
•E 


§ 


K 


O 


E- 


K 


S 


U 


tu 


< 


S 


K 


!< 


O 


m 


>b! 




IH04. 


























12613 


July 25 


Nono. 


None. 


0.03 


19.40 


.0026 


.0008 


1.20 


.0020 


.0000 


.0000 


12.1 


.0180 


13042 


Sept. 28 


None. 


None. 


0.04 


20.60 


.0030 

1 


.0006 


1.24 


.0000 


.0002 


.0160 


12.7 


.0060 



Odor none. The Bamples were collected at the pumping station on Market Street. 



Microscopical Examination. 

No. 12fll3. No organlfiraB. 

No. 13042. Miscellaneous, Zoi'igloea, 5. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 75 



Water Supply of Amherst. 



AMHERST. 

Amherst Water Company. 



Chemical Examination oj Water from a Faucet in the Tillage. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 







1 






Rksidce on 






NiTBOOEN 


■d 




§ 


Appkarakcb. 




EVAPOBA- 


Ammo.via. 




AS 


a 

3 




i 

o 
o 
a 
O 








TIOS. 




C 








1 
■5 


O 

6 




2 


Albuminoid, i 


g 


00 


S 

o 


1 

s 
»5 


1 


o 
o 


"3 
I 


1 O 
01 « 

5 


■d 

•S 

1 c 

s o. 


III 

o 1 a 




1894. 


















1 












1B406 


Dec. 3 


None. 


V.BUght. 


0.75 


3.80 


1.70 


.0000 


.0112 


.0094 


.0018 

i 


.16 


.0030 


.0000 


.6660 


0.6 



Odor, none. 

Microscopical Examination. 

DlatomacesB, AsUrionella, 2; Meloaira, 3; Synedra, 1. Total, 6. 



Water Supply of Andover. 

Chemical Examination of Waierfrom EaggetVs Pond, Andover. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 
o 

o 
O 

o 

P 


Appearance. 


Residue on 

EVAPOBA- 
TION. 


1 
1 Ammonia. 

1 


d 

1 
.a 
O 

.31 


1 

XlTBOGEN 
AS 


1 

3 

c 

6 

1 

5 






2 
Z 
hi 

3 
6- 


1 

•3 


i 

o 


1 


g 
g? 
§ 


1 


Albuminoid. 


m 

a 


1 




a 


"3 


•6 
1 "o 

00 « 

5 


•d 

QQ 


C 
03 

a 


11616 


1894. 

Jan. 9 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.10 


3.40 


1.00 


.0010 


.0122 


.0106 


.0016 


.0000 


.0000 


.2730 


1.4 


11707 


Feb. 4 


;V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.05, 


3.05 


1.15 


.0020 


.0116 


.0096 


.0020 


.36 


.0000 


.0000 


.2976 


1.8 


11841 


Mar. 4 


' None. 


V. slight. 


0.10 


3.40 


1.20 


.0006 


.0140 


.0124 


.0016 


.35 


.0050 


.0000 


.3084 


1.3 


11985 


Apr. 2 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.12 

1 

0.09 

1 


3.50 


1.35 


.0000 


.0110 
.0122 


.0094 


.0016 


.33 
.34 


.0030 


.0000 


.2871 


1.1 


Av. 




3.34 


1.18 


.0009 


.0105 


.0017 


.0020 


.0000 


.2916 


1.3 





















Averages by 


Tears. 
















- 


1889* 


- 


- 


0.10 


5.85 


2.70 


.0004 


.0198 


.0170 


.0028 


.29 


.0040 


.0001 


- 


1.1 


- 


1891t 


- 


- 


0.08 


3.35 


1.70 


.0004 


.0136 


.0080 


.0056 


.33 


.0030 


.0000 


- 


1.3 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.06 


3.20 


1.02 


.0003 


.0175 


.0147 


.0028 


.34 


.0051 


.0000 


- 


1.3 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.09 


3.30 


1.30 


.0013 


.0151 


.0124 


.0027 


.34 


.0020 


.0000 


.2762 


1.2 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.09 


3.34 


1.18 


.0009 


.0122 


.0105 


.0017 


.34 


.0020 


.0000 


.2915 


1.8 



July. 



t November. 



Note to analyses of 1894: Odor of the first two samples, distinctly vegetable; of the third, none; 

of the fourth, distinctly vegetable and somewhat unpleasant. The samples were collected from a 

faucet at the pumping station. 



76 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ANDOVER. 

Microscopical Examination of Water jrom HaggetVs Pond, Andover. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



1894. 



January. 



February. 



April. 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, . 

PLANTS, 
Diatomacese, . 

Asterionella, 

Cyclotella, .... 

Epithemia, 

Melosira 

Synedra, .... 
Tabellaria, 

Algse, Protococcus, 
Fungi, Crenothrix, 

ANIMALS. 
Infusoria, .... 

Dinobryon, 
DiDobryon cases, 

Monas 

Periditiium, 
Trachclomonas, 

Vermes, .... 

Monocerca, 
Rotatorian ova, . 

Mitcellaneou», Zoogloea, 

Total 



10 
11616 



5 
11707 



pr. 


pr. 

2 
3 



4 

11985 



pr. 



23 






18 


22 


38 





1 


pr. 
pr. 
pr. 





pr. 






"^ 



4S 



85 



126 



Water Supply of Arlington. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the town of Arlington 
relative to obtaining an additional water supply may be found on 
pages 7 and 8 of this volume. For analyses of samples of water 
from the wells mentioned in the rejjly to the town see the annual 
report of the Board for 1892, pages 81 and 82, and for 1893, page 
97. Works for the supply of the higher portions of the town from 
wells in the location mentioned in the reply of the Board were nearly 
completed at the end of 1894. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



77 



ARLINGTON. 

Chemical Examination of Water from a Faucet in Arlington. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





§ 


APPBABANCK. 




c 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


•d 






















S 








V 








ll 








' 










a 


o 


■5 

1 

s 


1 
•o 


_o 


2 


•a 
o 

c 

is 




1 
S 

2 


1 


c 

X 


1 


d 
2 


S5 


Q 


H 


GO 


O 


« 


^ 




o 


K 


2 


o 


3 






1894. 


























11605 


Jan. 5 


Slight, None, 
milky. 


0.20 


7.20 


.0040 


.0072 


■.78 


.0300 


.0004 


.2964 


2.9 


.0260 



Odor, none. The sample was collected from a faucet in the town hall, and represents water from 

the filter-gallery. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No organisms. 



ASHBURNHAM. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Upper Naukeag Pond, Ashburnham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



























_S 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Xitbooen 

AS 


a 

s 
c 














- 




Albuminoid, j 










O 


J* 


^ 












- 1 -i 








O 
































































a 

3 


a 


3 


a 

•3 


o 
o 


o 


°5> 
o 


i 


5 


is- 
solv 

U8- 

pend 


_2 


OS 


"C 


CO 


1 


55 


1894. 


H 


CC 


O 




-1 


^ 


H 


Q 1 « 


O 


2: 


2; 


O 


ca 


















1 










12095 


Apr. 24 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.15 


1.40 


0.65 


.0004 


. 0106'. 0084J. 0022 


.14 


.0070 


.0000 


.2765 


0.0 


12792 


Aug. 21 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.05 


2.00 


0.75 


.0000 


.OOSSj. 00761.0012 


.12 


.0060 


.0001 


.2464 


0.1 



Averages by Tears. 



- 


1888 


- 


- 


0.13 


2.01 


0.60 


.0002 


.0145 




_ 


.09 


.0045 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


1889« 


- 


- 


0.05 


1.95 


0.85 


.0000 


.0190 


.0134 


.0062 


.08 


.0020 


.0000 


- 


- 


- 


1890t 


- 


- 


0.03 

1 


2.43 


1.50 


.0003 


.0151 


.0115 


.0036 


.08 


.0050 


.0000 


- 


0.3 


- 


1891t 


- 


- 


0.00 


1.90 


0.85 


.0000 


.0122 


.0122 


.0000 


.09 


.0030 


.0000 


- 


0.0 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.05 


2.00 


0.75 


.0000 


.0106 


.0084 


.0022 


.11 


.0050 


.0000 


- 


0.3 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.08 


1.67 


0.75 


.0010 


.0094 


.0077 


.0017 


.12 


.0010 


.0000 


.1433 


0.2 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.10 


1.70 


0.70 


.0002 


.0097 


.0080 


.0017 


.13 


.0065 


.0001 


.2630 


0.1 



• April. 

Note to analyses of 1894: Odor, none.' 
beneath the surface. 



t August. I September. 

— The samples were collected from the pond, about 4 feet 



Microscopical Examination. 

No. 1209;'!. DliitoniaceoB, AsUrionellii, 18; Cyclntelln, 9; Syncdra, 5; Tiibetlaria, 8. Algae, 
Arthrode.tinus, 1; lyotococritii, 1; Stanrogenia, 3. Total, 45. 

No. 12792. CyaiiophycesB, Mivroryntis, 2; Algtp, Tetraxporo, 14. Infusoria, Dinobryon caset, 3. 
Crustacean remains, .02. Miscellaneous, Znogloea, 11. Total, 30. 



78 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ATHOl,. 

Water Supply of Athol. — Athol Water Company. 

During the past three years several changes have been made in 
the works for supplying the town of Athol with water. Phillipston 
reservoir, which was formerly from 8 to 12 feet deep over the larger 
portion of its area, has been improved by raising the main dam and 
overflow 1 foot, and by building a dike along the westerly and 
northwesterly side to cut off shallow portions. Material for the 
construction of the dike was taken from the shallower portions re- 
maining within the reservoir. The southerly side has been improved 
by excavation and filling so as to make deeper water and a steep 
shore. The slopes of the dam and dike are paved with field stones. 
A new pipe has been laid to draw water from the reservoir at a point 
about 250 feet from the shore. 

About 1,000 feet below the dam of the reservoir, a well, 25 
by 40 feet inside and 12 feet deep, has been dug in a large, flat 
meadow, to collect the leakage from the reservoir and ground 
water. It is proposed to pump this water back into the reservoir 
through a 6 inch force main when the water in the reservoir is below 
high- water mark. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Large Reservoir in Phillipston. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 







Appearance. 




l<^.SIIll•E ON 
EVAPO KA- 


.iVMHONIA. 




NlTUOGhN 
AS 


T3 












TUN. 






a 






u 
















3 
C 














c 




Albuminoid. 










O 


























u 




































1 

3 


o 


2 
"S 

a 


a 


i 


a 
o 




ij 


« 


> 

1 o 


•X3 
1 B 


o 


^ 


"C 


1 


1 


9q 


a 


H 


CO 


O 


H 


,A 


h 


f 


O 


'Jj 


O 

1 


'A 




o 


n 




1)404. 




























11638 .Inn. 10 


V. Blight. 


V.slight. 


O.flO 


1 6.20 


1.80 


.0002 .0122 


.01021.0020 


1.14 


.0070 .0000 


.7371 


1.9 


11718 F.t) 6 


Norii.. 


V Blight. 


0..W 


3.45 


1.10 


.0008 .0112 


.0098 .0014 


.13 


.00.30 .coo;! 


.6040 


0.8 


llS.iT ' M.ir. ', 


V.Hllght. 


Hllghi. 


0.40 


3.10 


1.0.5 


• Oduoj. 01)98 


.00H8 .0010 


.10 


.0(i.')0 .0000 


.4584 


0.6 


11998 ApriH 


iVonc. 


V. Blight. 


0..'J0 


2.60 


0.70 


.001111 .(1104 


.(I0H4 .0020 


.09 


.00:!0 .0000 


.4042! 0.3 


I21tt7 ; May 8 

1 


UlHlioct. 


C'UIIH., 

green. 


0.25 


2.55 


1.20 


.OOUOI.0098 


.0070 .0028 

i 


.10 


.0060 .0000 


.4084 


0.3 


12339!. Juno 8 


None. 


V Blight. 


0.05 


2.60 


0.85 


.00141.0080 


.0060. 0026 


|.0» 


.0000 .0000 


.1886 


1.4 


12497 July 9 


V.Hllght. 


Hlluhi. 


0.2.5 


2.85 


0.85 


.0070'. 01. ')8 


.01.T2 .0026 


.10 


.1)000 .0000 


.3696 


0.6 


12677 


Autf. 7j 


DlktlllCt. 


might, 
green. 


0,25 


2.80 


0.90 


.0000 .0250 


.0150 .0100 


.12 


.0030 


.0000 


.3734 


o.g 


12956 


8ept.l2 


Decided, 


COOB., 


0.50 


6.40 


- 


.0000 .0522 


.0122 .0400 


.11 


.0030 


.0000,. 2772 


0.6 






green 


brown. 




1 


















13086 


Oct. 4 


Decided, 
ureeo. 


ConB. 


0.80 


6.40 


2.40 


.0048 


.0398 


.0266.0132 


.12 


.0030 


.00001.8018 

1 


1.8 


13310 


Nov. 14 


Slight. 


Blight. 


0.25 


4.05 


1.10 


.0070 


.0058 


00481.0010 


_ 


.0180 


.0000 .2601 


1.4 


13458 


Dec. 6 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.75 


4.15 


1.35 


.0014 
.0010 


.0140 


.0122 
.0112 


.0018 
.0067 


.10 


.0070 
.0048 


.0000 .8085 
.0000 -iTfiO 


0.9 


Av, 






0.45 


3.75 


1.39* 


.0179 


n f) 





















Odor, vegetable or none. The samples were collected from the reservoir. 

• In milking this average the loss on Ignition for Heptcmber wbb aBgumed to be 3.40. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



79 



Averages by Years. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



ATHOL,. 





o 

a 


Appeabakce. 


KlLSlUL'E ON 

EVAPOKA- 

TtOSJ. 


Ammonia. 




NiTBOOEN 
AS 


■3 

a 


















Albuminoid. 














^ 






o 
















u 


«D 


u 

B 


I i 


3 
3 


1 


i 


"3 




a 


a 


•o 
> 

a O 


1 


c 
o 


1 


00 

o 




2 
•5 


































55 


c 


&- 


M 


o 


E^ 


>j 


Ec 


t- 


a 


30^ 


.16 


S5 


2; 


o 


33 


1887* 








1 

1.25 


4.23 


1.89 


.0027 


.0360 - I - 


'.0075 - 






1888 1 


- 


- 


- 


0.80 


3.22 


1.17 


.0010 


.01571 - 1 - 


.11 


.0127.0000 


1 _ 


_ 


1894 




~ 


~ 


0.45 


3.V5 


1.39 


.0019 


.0179.0112,0067 


.11 


,.0048.0000 


.4750 

1 


0.9 



* June and December. 



t January to March. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from the Large Reservoir in Phillipston. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 















1894. 








Nov. 






Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


Jane. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct, 


Dec. 


Day of examination. . 


18 


7 


6 


5 


9 


13 


10 


8 


15 


5 


15 


8 


Number of sample, 


11638 


11718 


11837 


11998 


12167 


12339 

• 


12497 


12677 


12956 


13086 


13310 


13458 


PLANTS. 


























DiatomacesB, .... 


pr. 


5 


2 


36 


12 


35 


pr. 








2,968 





3 


Cyclotclla 

Melosira 

Synedra, 

Tabellaria 





^'6 


1 
3 
1 



pr. 

1 

pr. 


• 



13 

23 


3 

7 
2 



1 

4 

30 




^'6 



pr. 
















-2,960 

8 













2 


Cyanophyceee, Anaba;na, . 























2,080 


11,400 


152 








Algae, 








pr. 











352 


1,700 


50 


92 








GIcBocapsn 

Pfdiiistrum 

Prolococciis, .... 

Scenedesraus 

Stauraetrum 


















^^6 























12 



340 






1,360 



340 









50 





SO 



6 

« 
















Fungi, Crenothrli, . 





1 


5 


pr. 


4 











250 


10 


204 


6 


ANIMALS. 




















, 






Infusoria 





1 





2 


3 








1 


200 


12 








Monns 

Peridlnium, .... 
Trachelumunas, 









1 











2 

pr. 



3 















1 



200 





10 
2 












Vermes, Rotifer, 























2 














Crustacea, Bosmina, 


° 























20 











ARacellaneoua, Zoogloea, 





3 








136 




















a 


Total, 


pr. 


10 


7 


38 


155 


35 


352 


3.783 


11,920 


3,234 


204 


9 



80 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



attl.eborough. 

Water Supply of Attleborough. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the Attleborough Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 







Ar 


>EARAXCE. 




id 


AMMONIA. 




JS'ITKOGEN 


■a 
















cS 


1 






AS 


a 
° 














1 






































hi 

Si 

& 






a 

5 


o 




i 


o 


a 




1 


CO 

60 


1 


S3 
O 


>5 


Ci 


r- 


CO 


'•^ 


» 


bt 


<: 


O 


•A 


g 


o 


HI 


M 




1894. 


























11631 


JaD. 15 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


4.00 

1 


.0000 


.0000 


.40 


.0250 


.0000 


.0101 


1.9 


.0040 


11778 


Feb. 14 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


3.90 


.0000 


.0004 


.38 


.0250 


.0000 


.0360 


2.5 


.0040 


11800 


Mar. 14 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


3.85 


.0004 


.0030 


.36 


.0300 


.0000 


.0480 


1.6 


.0060 


12066 


Apr. 17 


None. 


None. 


0.01 


4.00 


.0000 


.0012 


.37 


.0230 


.0000 


.0413 


1.8 


.0100 


12226 


May 15 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


3.70 


.0002 


.0024 


.35 


.0200 


.0000 


.0546 


1.3 


.0050 


12401 


Jane 19 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


4.00 


.0002 


.0002 


.36 


.0030 


.0000 


.0231 


1.7 


.0040 


12533 


July 16 


None. 


None. 


0.05 


3.50 


.0006 


.0012 


.38 


.0150 


.0000 


.0385 


1.6 


.0060 


12772 


Aug. 16 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


3.80 


.0004 


.0004 


.30 


.0130 


.0000 


.0500 


2.3 


.0040 


12963 


Sept. 17 


None. 


None. 


0.04 


4.50 


.0000 


.0000 


.34 


.0150 


.0000 


.0308 


1.9 


.0050 


13170 


Oct. 18 


V. slight, 
milky. 


V. slight. 


0.02 


4.10 


.0002 


.0024 


.36 


.0120 


.0000 


.0474 


1.7 


.0030 


13314 


Nov. 15 


None. 


None. 


0.01 


4.80 


.0000 


.0028 


.45 


.0220 


.0000 


.0359 


1.8 


.0010 


13485 


Dec. 13 


None. 


None. 


0.03 


3.60 


.0000 


.0028 


.44 


.0280 


.0000 


.0077 


1.6 


.0000 


Av 








0.02 


3.98 


.0002 


.0014 


.37 


.0193 


.0000 


.0353 


1.8 


.0043 













Odor, none. The samples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station, while pumping. 



Microscopical Examination. 

No. 11890. Zooglrna, 3. 

No. 129fS3. V\inn\, CrenothriXjA. Miscellaneous, Zotfi/ZtBa, 5. Total, 

In the remaining samplbH no organisms were found. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. «1 

AUBUEX. 

Auburn. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Dark Brook and Stoneville Reservoir, 

Auburn. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 

o 

i 


Appkarance. 


liESIDUK ON 

EVAPORA- 

TIO.\. 


Ammonia. 


c 
_c 
!a 

.73 
.35 


NiTROGBN 
A8 


■3 
a 

1 

a 

a 

sc 
p% 

X 

O 






Turbidity. 
Sediment. 


i 

o 
O 


2 


c 
o 

r 


h 


Albuminoid. 


■D 

I 


1 1 




c 

8 
a 


Total. 

Dis- 
solved. 

Sus- 
pended. 


S 

o 
c 

1 

X 


13223 
13224 


1894. 

Oct. 26 

Oct. 26 


V. Blight. 

Distinct. 


Slight. 
Cons. 


1.90 
1.10 


10.85 
6.95 


3.75 
2.40 


1 
i 
.0002.0270.0250.0020 

.0038 .0330 .0304 .0026 

1 : . 


.0050 
.0050 


.0001 

■™1 


1 
1 
1.41413.6 

.9835 2.1 

1 



Odor of the first sample, distinctly vegetable; of the second, decidedly vegetable and sweetish. 

The lirst sample was collected from Dark Brook, the second from Stoneville Reservoir, while making an 
examination of possible sources of water supply for the city of Worcester. 



Microscopical Examination. 

No. 13223. Dlatomaceae, Epithemia, 1; Syne.dra, 3. Fungi, Beggiatoa, 1; Crenothrix, 38. 
Total, 43. 

No. 13224. Diatoraacese, Diatoma, 15; Epithemin, 1; Gomphonema, 1; Melosira, 5; Pinnularia,!; 
SurireUa,2; iSynf dro, 44; Tabellaria,i. A\giB, Rap/iidium,'i; Scenedesmus,!. Faagi, Crenothrix, 4. 
Infusoria, Peridinium, 4. Total, 86. 



Water Supply of Avon. 
Chemical Examination oj Water from the Well of the Avo7i Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appearasck. 


1 

«> a 
a > 
•2-A 

m 
a 
S 


Ammonia. 


e 
e 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 
1 

o 


s 

•s 

a 




1 

1 


a 
H 


Sediment. 
Color. 


Free. 

Albu- 
minoid. 


1 




c 
2 


12934 


1894. 

Sept. 12 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.03 


6.20 


.0000 


.0014 


.41 


.0300 


.0000 


.0000 


1.4 


.0100 



Odor, none. The sample was collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 



Microscopical Examination. 



No organisms. 



82 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ATEH. 



Water Supply of Ayer. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the Ayer Water Works. 

[Parts per 100.000.] 





c 

"3 


APPEABANCE. 


B 
_o 

a 

S > 

Ha 
1 


Ammonia. 


o3 

B 

•n 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•a 

1 
s 

c 

o 


S 

■2 

a 




a 

a 


Turbidity. 


1 
•S 

So 


u 

o 
"o 




2 
o 

B 




2 


B 

2 




1894. 


























12092 


Apr. 23 


V. Blight. 


None. 


0.03 


5.00 


.0000 


.0010 


.41 


.0680 


.0000 


.0158 


2.1 


.0350 


12629 


July 30 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


5.50 


.0000 


.0004 


.42 


.0730 


.0000 


.0023 


2.6 


.0040 


12796 


Aug. 21 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


3.25 


.0000 


.0002 


.36 


.0700 


.0000 


.0077 


2.7 


.0100 


Av. 








0.01 


4.58 


.0000 


.0005 


.40 


.0703 


.0000 


.0086 


2.4 


.0163 













Odor of the first sample, decided; of the others, none. The samples were collected from a faucet 

at the pumping station. 



Microscopical Examination. 



No. 12092. Fungi, Crenothrix, 1. 

No organisms were found in the other samples. 



Chemical Examination of Water jrom the Distributing Reservoir 0/ the Ayer 

Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 















Uesiduk on 






Nitrogen 


■d 






,0 



Appeabancb. 




KVAPOKA- 
TION 


Ammonia. 




AS 


a 

a 
s 














^ 




Albuminoid. 













>, 


4-> 


























A 


.0 
3 





•3 


1 


i 


S 


o'S 


aj 


?. 


•a 
% 


■a 

T5 


a 
•c 




^ 


OD 


B 


a 






















= a. 












"A 


G 


E- 


m 





f- 


^ 


b 


H 


« 





K 


!zi 





H) 




1804. 


























12064 


Apr. 17 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.0 


5.80 


1.10 


.0012 


.0076 


.0050 .0026 


.45 


.0350 


.0004 


.0452 


2.1 





Iron, .0000. Odor, none. The sample was collected from the reservoir. 

Microscopical Examination. 

Diatomaceee, Synedra, 140. Algao, ProlococcuH, 300. Infusoria, Dynobryon cases, 60. Total, 000. 



Barre. 
The advice of the State Board of Ilcilth to the Barre Water Com- 
pany witli reference to taking the water of certain springs and 
brooks in that town as a public water supply may be found on 
pages 8 and 9 of this volume. Analyses of samples of water col- 
lected from these brooks are given on the following page. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 83 

BABRE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Brooks in Barre. 

[Parts per 100,000] 














KK8IDCK ON 




■ ■. 


KiTBOGEN 


•d 






1 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 


1 


AS 


5 












tion. 












1 
"S 


5 


1 




! d 




Albuminoid. 




so 


t 


c 
o 

U 

c 




1 




_2 

s = 




•a 

> 


•a 


m 
S 


































s 


^ 




■a 






s 


S 






So. 


£i 


X 


— 


X 


a 


S 


a 


&- 


CD 


u 


H 


J 


Eb 


fr- 


a 


09 


o 


2; % 


o 


"" 




1894. 




























12036 


Apr. 12 


Slight, 

clayey. 
None. 


Cons. 


0.18 


2.60 


0.90 


.0000 


.0074 


.0062 


.0012 


.20 


.0000 


.0000 


.2528 


0.6 


12035 


Apr. 12 


V. Blight. 


0.18 


2.45 


1.20 


.0000 


.0090 


.0082 


.0008 


.17 


.0000 


.0000 


.2947 


0.5 



Odor of the first sample, very faintly vegetable; of the second, none, becoming vegetable on heating. 

The first sample was collected from a small brook about half a mile east of Allen Hill and about 

one and a quarter miles norlh-west of the centre of the village of Barre. It was proposed to construct 
a storage reservoir on this brook. The second sample was collected from a small tributary of Prince 
River, about one and a half miles north of the centre of the village of Barre. It was proposed to divert 
the water of this brook into the reser^'oir mentioned above. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 12036. Diatomacese, J/efosira,n; 5<auronei»,l; Tabellaria,!. Fungi, Crenothrix,2. Total, 15. 
No. 12035. T>i&lomacese, Diatoma, I; Jferidion,!. Faugi, Crenothrix,!. Total, 3. 

Belchertown. ■ 
The advice of the State Board of Health to the town of Belcher- 
town with reference to the introduction of a water supply from 
Jabish or Chambray brooks in Belchertown will be found on pages 
9 and 10 of this volume. An analysis of a sample of water col- 
lected from Chambray Brook is given below. Analyses of water 
from Jabish Brook and from the Knight and Gold Reservoir of the 
city of Springfield upon this brook are given under Springfield. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Chambray Brook. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





S 

i 

o 

o 


Appearance. 

1 


Krsiduk on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


1 


Nitrogen 

AS 


-3 

a 
i 

c 






•B 
2 


1 


i 


a 


i 

00 


o 


Albuminoid. 


2 


i 




1 


"3 


•a 

> 


■6 

•o 

, E 

"S 


m 

s 

B 

■2 














ii 




















iz; 


a 


H 


00 


o 


H 


b. 


(^ 


Q 


X 


u 


X 


x 


o 


— 




1894. 






1 






















11785 


Feb. 19 


None. 


Slight. 


0.60 


3.00 


1.15 


.0000 


.0108 


.0088 


.0020 


.15 


.00301.0000 


.5560 


0.3 



Odor, fnintly vegetable. The sample was collected from the brook, at the line between Belch- 
ertown and Kulifld. 

Microscopical Exam ination. 

DiatomacesB, 5i/;i<rfra, 2; Tabellaria, \. Miscellaneous, Zo<7ptoa, 3. Total, 6. 



84 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

BELMONT. 

Water Supply of Belmont. 

(See Waterloivn.) 

Water Supply of Beverly. 

(See Salem.) 

Blackstone. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the Blackstone Water 
Compan}^ relative to the introduction of a water supply into this 
town from sources in the towns of Uxbridge and Blackstone will be 
found on pages 10 and 11 of this volume. Analyses of samples of 
water collected in connection with the investigation are given in the 
following table : — 

Chemical Examination of Water from. Emerson Brook and the Lower Ironstone 
Reservoir in Uxbridge, and from Fox Brook in Blackstone. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 
O 

o 

O 

o 

s 


APPEAR.VNCE. 


KKSIiniK ON 

EVAI'OKA- 

TION. 


Ammonia. 


c 
o 

(J 

.21 

.22 
.28 


NiTKOOBN 
AS 


•a 

1 

d 

a 
o 
O 

a 

V 

& 

O 






3 

3 


B 
.1 

■3 

<u 
CO 


O 

o 
O 


o 
o 
Eh 


o c 

3 


h4 


Albuminoid. 


1 






c 

Si 

a 

a 

in 




•6 

5" 


■a 

a S. 


i 
□ 

0] 

w 


11703 
11764 
11765 


1804. 

Feb. 14 

Feb. 14 
Feb. 14 


None. 
None. 
None. 


v. slight, 
v. Blight, 
v. Blight. 


0.70 
0.55 
0.55 


3.65 
3.35 
8.65 


1.60 
1.45 
1.45 


.0006 
.0010 
.0000 


.0124 
.0150 
.0124 


.0106 
.0132 
.0108 


.0018 
.0024 
.0016 


.0000 
.0030 
.0000 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.6160 
.5488 
.5624 


0.6 
0.5 
0.6 



Odor of all sampleH, dlHlinctly vegetable and Bwoetlsh. The first sainplo was collected from a 

mill pond on EmerHon Brook, at Shove's Baw-mlll, the Bccond from the Lower Ironstone IU>Horvolr near 
the dam, and the third from Fox Brooli, just above the niackntone River. Analyses of samples from 
other sources collected in 1893 In connection wllli this investigation, may bo found on page 101 of the 
annual rei)ort for 1803. 



Microscopical Examination. 

The number of organisms per cubic centimeter found In eacli of these samples was as follows: 
No. 11763, 27; No. 11704, 8; No. 1176.0, 01, nearly all of which were Dlatomaceiu. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 85 

BOSTON'. 

Water Supply of Boston. 

Reservoir No. 6, begun in 1890, was practically completed at the 
end of 1893, and the storage of water in it was begun on Jan. 10, 
1894. On the Ist of July the water had risen to within 2.34 feet of 
high-water mark, and remained nearly at this height until Septem- 
ber 7, when water was drawn from the reservoir for the supply of 
the city until November 30. The reservoir is situated on Indian 
Brook, a small tributary of the Sudbury River from the south, and 
is partly in Hopkinton and partly in Ashland. Its area at high 
water is 185 acres, its storage capacity 1,530,300,000 gallons and 
its average depth 25.4 feet. 

The filling of this reservoir has been looked forward to with inter- 
est, because it is the second large storage reservoir to be thoroughly 
prepared for the reception of water by the removal of all of the soil, 
stumps and vegetable matter, the first one being Reservoir No. 4, 
which is about three miles distant in an easterly direction. These 
two reservoirs are much alike in capacity, depth, the relation of their 
capacity to the amount of water entering . them and the manner in 
which they were prepared for the storage of water. Each reservoir 
has a large amount of swampy land upon its water-shed, amounting 
on that of Reservoir No. 4 to 10.2 per cent, of the land surface, and 
on Reservoir No. 6 to 11.4 percent.; but their water-sheds differ 
decidedly in respect to the amount of population upon them, the 
water-shed of Reservoir No. 6 containing 388 persons per square 
mile of land surface, and that of Reservoir No. 4 only 109 persons. 
When Reservoir No. 4 was filled it was found that the water im- 
proved instead of deteriorating, which is contrary to the usual 
experience when reservoirs which have not had the soil removed 
from them are filled ; and it was also found in the case of Reservoir 
No. 4 that the water which remains stagnant at the bottom during 
the summer did not contain products of decomposition or become 
offensive, as is usually the case with the bottom water of reservoirs 
and ponds. Reservoir No. 4 has stood the test of years, as the 
water in it has always been nearly free from the growths of minute 
organisms which infest many reservoirs, and the water has always 
improved by storage in it. 

The water entering Reservoir No. fi has more color and contains 
more organic matter than that entering No. 4, and is affected to a 
greater extent by the waste matters from the population upon the 



86 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

BOSTOX. 

water-shed ; and on these accounts it was questioned whether this 
water would not be more liable to contain growths of organisms and 
accumulations of products of decomposition near the bottom. Up 
to the present time the analyses show that there has been a very 
marked decrease in the amount of color and organic matter by 
storage, that there has been no laro;e o-rowth of oroanisms, and that 
during the period of summer stagnation there has been only a com- 
paratively small accumulation of products of decomposition at the 
bottom of the reservoir. 

Further examinations of the water of this reservoir will be of 
interest, and, should they give the same indications as the results 
during the past year, they will show very conclusively the value of 
removino^ the soil and veo;etable matter from laroje reservoirs in 
which water is to be stored for domestic use. 

Reference was made in the annual report for 1893 to the fact that 
the water supplied to the city of Boston had a higher color than in 
any previous year, and by reference to the table of averages by 
years on page 103 it will be observed that the color was somewhat 
higher in 1894 than in 1893. The reasons are similar to those 
given in the previous report, viz., that the color of the water of the 
streams was darker than usual, and, in addition, the increasing con- 
sumption of water in the city required the use of a larger proportion 
of the water of Sudbury River, which has a higher color than that of 
Lake Cochituate ; moreover, the color of the water of Reservoir 
No. 3 has been unfavorably aflectcd by work incidental to the con- 
struction of Dam No. 5. 

The capacity of Mystic Lake has been more severely taxed during 
the past year than in any [)rcvious year, notwithstanding the fact 
that the year was not an extremely dry one, and that the Charles- 
town district of Boston was supplied with water from the Cochituate 
works for several months, beginning with September 12. On 
August 31 the surface of the water in the lake had fallen so low that 
it became necessary to use temporary pumps to raise the water into 
the aqueduct leading to the main punij)s, and from this date the lake 
continued to lower until October 10, when the water was drawn 
12.08 feet below high-water mark and about 5 feet below the level 
of low tide in Boston harbor. The upper Mystic Lake is Ke[)arated 
from the lower Mystic Lake, which is a tidal basin, by a dam ; and 
when the water in the upper lake was drawn so low, a suliicient 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



87 



BOSTON. 

amount of salt water filtered through to increase the amount of 
chlorine in the water of the upper lake, as will be seen by the 
analyses on page 105. After the ice formed upon the lake, in the 
latter part of 1894, the water began to have a disagreeable odor, and 
early in 1895 the odor became extremely offensive, so that the water 
consumers found it necessary to obtain well or spring water for 
drinkinsr. 



Sudbury River Supply. — Chemical Examination of Water from Indian Brook 
at Head of Reservoir No. 6, Hopkiyiton. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 
O 

o 
o 
a 


APPEAEANCB. 


Kksiuuk. ox 

EVAI-OSA- 
TION. 


1 Ammonia. 

1 


s 


.32 


KlTROGEN 
AS 


•a 

s 

3 

= 


s 

>? 








3 


1 


o 






fa 


Albuminoid. 


1 


z 




1 

s 






t3 

> 

1 


•3 

•a 

, s 


1 


11570 


1891. 

Juu. 1 


None. 


V. Blight. 


2.70 


6.60 


4.30 


.0004 


.0389 


.0362 


.0036 


.0000 


.0000 


2.1450 


l.l 


11689 


Feb. 1 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


2.30 


5.95 


3.35 


.0026 


.0-232 


.0194 


.0038 


.55 


.0030 


.0001 


2.0540 


1.7 


11831 


Mar. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


2.30 


5.30 


2.70 


.0062 .0262'. 0244 


.0018 


1.45' 


.0000 


.0000'l.9200|l.3 


11971 


Apr. 2 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


1.25 


4.10 


2.00 


.0002 .0196 .0184 


.0012 


.43 


.0030 .0000 1.09340.8 
.0000 .0000 ]l. 6432 0.9 

.0000.0000,2.063611.1 

1 ' ' 


12123 


Apr. 30 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


2.30 


5.S5 


3.20 


.0004 


.0292 .0278 


.0014 


1- 


12298 


June 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


3.00 


5.90 


3.60 


.0004 .0334'. 0312 


.0022 


.30 


12451 


July 2 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


3.00 


7.05 


3.95 


.0010.0450.0422 


.0028 


.34 

1 


.0000.0001 


2.394712.1 


12626 
12859 
13046 


July 30 
Sept. 4 
Oct. 1 


Slight. 

Slight, 

green. 
Slight. 


ConB., 

brown. 
Slight, 

brown. 
V. slight. 


2.50 
1.10 
0.9U 


7.05 
6.65 
7.95 


3.30 
2.90 
2.45 


.0016 .0370 
.0014 .0314 
.0002 .0278 


.0338 
.0286 
.0258 


.0032 
.0028 
.0020 


.53' 

.60 

1.08 


.0060 
.0000 
.0020 


.0000 
.0001 
.0000 


1.6247 
.9702 
.9243 


1.9 
1.8 
2.2 


13236 


Nov. 1 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


2.30 


9.15 


4.75 


.0004 


.0406 


.0386 


.0020 


!.83 


.0030 


.0000 


2.2792 

1 


2.7 


13412 


Dec. 3 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


2.30 


7.65 


4.00 


.0016 
.0014 


.0356 .0334 
.0323 .O.'SOO 


.0022 



.0024 


.63' 
.54 


.0050 


.0000 
.0000 


2.2946 


1.8 


Av. 








2.16 


6.58 


3.38 


.0018 


1.7839 


l.fi 






1 













Odor, generally distinctly vegetable, sometimes mouldy or disagreeable, 
lected from the brook, at lis entrance into Ucservoir No. 6. 



• The samples were col- 



Microscopical Examination, 
The average namber of organisms per cubic centimeter found io thise samples was TO. 



88 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BOSTOX. 

SuDBUKT RiVEB SuppLT. — Chemical Examinatio7i of Water from Reservoir 
No. 6, Ashland, collected near the Surface. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





§ 




Appeakabcb. 


Residub on 
Evapora- 


AUUONIA. 




NiTBOQEN 


s 






u 






tion. 












i 




1 


o 


S 


i 
1% 


a 


Albuminoid. { 


c 
o 


1 


so 
o 

r 


i 
1 




a 


1 


1 


a 


•a 


■s 

, c 


m 

1 


























£5 










55 


« 




H 


^ 


o 


H 


■-) 


b 


H 


ft 


OD 


^ 


S5 


o 


a 


1894. 






























11832 ' Mar. 


1 


Decided, 


Cons. 


1.20 


6.06 


2.00 


.0048 .0208 


.0192 ,0016'| 


.46 


.0050 


.0002 


1.4800 


l.S 


1 




clayey. 














1 






1 






11972 1 Apr. 


'2 


V. slight. 


CODB. 


o.yo 


3.70 


1.60 


.0030 


.0168 


.0152 .0016J 


.36 


.0080 


.0002 


.7238 


0.9 


12125 j Apr. 


30 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.90 


4.10 


1.65 


.0002 


.0156 


.0138 


.0018 


.39 


.0080 


.0001 


.7742 


0.8 


12295 j Joae 4 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


1.10 


3.76 


1.45 


.0042 


.0238 


.0162 


.0076 


.36 


.0030 


.0001 


.7238 


1.1 


12452 j July 


2 


Distinct. 


V. slight, 
green. 


0.85 


3.90 


1.80 


.0000 


.0220 


.0188 


.0032 


.30 


.0000 


.0001 


.7316 


1.1 


12627 (July 


30 


V. Blight. 


Slight, 
green. 


0.75 


4.00 


1.25 


.0004 


.0170 


.0154 


.0016 


.40 


.0060 


.0000 


.7316 


0.8 


12860 Sept. 


4 


Slight, 


Slight, 


0.65 


3.50 


1.65 


.0002 


.0190 


.0172 


.0018 


.37 


.0000 


.0001 


.685211.6 






green. 


brown. 


























13047 Oct. 


1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.60 


3.65 


1.25 


.0000 


.0170 


.0148 


.0022 


.40 


.0020 


.0000 


.5688 


1.1 


13237 Not. 


1 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.43 


3.45 


1.45 


.0002 


.0166 


.0148 


.0018 


.39 


.0030 


.0000 


.4736 


1.0 


13413 Dec. 


3 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.65 


4.20 


1.90 


.0000 
.0013 


.0220 
.0191 


.0204 
.0166 


.0016 


.44 

.40 


.0050 
.0040 


.0000 
.0001 


.6737 


1.6 


Av.. 








0.79 


8.93 


1.59 


.0025 


.7466 


1 It 













Odor, generally dietincUy vegetable. The samples were collected from the reservoir, near the 

dam. For monthly record of height of water iu this reservoir, see table at end of Boston analyses. 

ScDBCRT RivEE ScpPLT. — Microscopical Examination of Water from Reservoir 
No. 6, Ashland, collected near the Surface. 

[Number of organlgma per cubic centimeter.] 



1804. 



Mar. Apr. May. June. July. July. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec 



Day of examination, . 
Number of sample, 

PLANTS. 
Dlatomaceea, 

DIatoroa, 
Melonira, 
B^ncdra, 
Tubcllarla, 

Algee 

Protococcua, . 
Tetraspora, . 
Zoospores, . . 



11832 



3 
11972 



2 
12125 



5 
12295 



3 
12452 



31 
12627 



6 
12880 



301 



292 

9 





2 

13047 



2 
13237 



3 
13413 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



89 



BOSTON. 

Sudbury River Supplt. — Microscopical Examination of Water from Reservoir 
No. 6, Ashland, collected near the Surjace — Concluded. 

[Namber of organisms per cubic centbneter.] 



1894. 



Apr. 



May June. 



I 
July. ' Jnlv. ! Sept. 



ANIMALS. 

Bhizopoda. Difflugia, . 

Infusoria, 

Dlnobryon, . 
Dlnobryon coses, . 
Peridlnium, . 

Synura 

Trachclomonas, 

Vermes, .... 

Anurea, .... 
Rotifer, .... 

Miscellaneous. Zobglcea, 

Total 





100 




100 





137 



137 







40 



82 



40 



84 



207 



472 



52 



87 



128 87 



13 



SuDBUBT RiVEB SUPPLY. — Chemical Examination of Water from Reservoir 
No. 0, Ashland, collected near the Bottom. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





§ 

1 

o 
o 


Appbaeance. 


Kesidcb cm 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
c 

s 

.39 


NlTBOGEN 
AS 


1 

a 

a 

1 

M 

o 






•3 
1 


1 


i 

o 


1 


5 

o = 

"if 


i 


Albuminoid. 


m 

2 


s 

■c 




1 

9 


"3 
o 


•a 
> 

5" 


■6 

1 a 
5£ 


00 

S 

a 

1 


12124 


1894. 

Apr. 30 


V. Blight. 


Cons., 


0.90 


4.16 


1.85 


.0046 


.0150 


.0126 


.0024 


.0070 .0001 


.7876 


0.6 


12297 
12453 


Jane 4 
July 2 


DlsUnct. 
Slight. 


Cons., 

rusty. 
Slight. 


0.90 
0.80 


4.20 
4.00 


2.10 
1.80 


.0038 
.0074 


.0204 
.0150 


.0174 
.0132 


.0030 
.0018 


.36 
.37 


.0050 
.0030 


.0001:1.7468 

It 
. 00021 1. 6391 


l.l 
1.1 


12628 
12861 


July 30 
Sept. 4 


Slight. 
Slight. 


Slight, 

brown. 
Slight. 


1.25 
2.60 


3.40 
6.25 


1.55 
1.75 


'.0138 
.0336 


.0164 
.0184 


.0150 
.0164 


.0014 .38 
.0020 .36 


.0000 
.0000 


.0023 
.0001 


.6653 1.3 
.8008: 1.3 


13048 


Oct. 1 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


0.60 


3.75 


1.60 


.0016 


.0186 


.0150 


.0036 


.37 


.0000 


.0000 


.6846 1.1 


18238 


Nov. 1 


Blight. 


Blight. 


0.43 


3.70 


1.80 


.0000 


.0178 


.0142 


.0036 


.30 


.0030 


.0000 


.6005 1.4 


13414 


Dec. 3 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.68 


4.20 


1.40 


.0006 


.0186 


.0152 


.0034 


.40 


.0030 


.0000 


.0645 1.0 


Av. 








1.01 


4.08 


1.73 


.0082 


.0175 


.0149 


.0026 


.38 


.0020 


.0004 


0724' ■• ** 















Odor, generally vegetable; in September, decidedly disagreeable, 
from the reservoir, near the dam. 



'The aamples were collected 



90 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BOSTOX. 

SuDBUUV Rn'ER ScpPLY. — MicToscopical Examination of Water frovi Reservoir 
No. 6, Ashland, collected near the Bottom, 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




May. 


June. 


July. 


July. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, 


2 


5 


3 


31 


5 


2 


2 


3 


Number of sample 


12124 


12297 


12453 


1262S 


12861 


13048 


13238 


13414 


PLANTS. 


















Diatomacese 


7 


113 


11 


1 


6 


66 


109 


5 


Astprionella 

I)i;itoma, 

MfloBira 

Bynedr.i 

Tabellaria 





3 
4 





lOS 
5 




6 
5 







1 




6 








6 



44 

16 




44 
13 
49 





1 

1 

3 


Fungi. Crenothrix, . . 





56 


33 


248 


3 


2 








ANIMALS. 


















Khizopoda. Difllugia, 

















7 


3 


3 


Infusoria 


2 


1 


5 


69 





3 


4 


1 


Dinobryon cases, 

Mallomoiias 

I'eriiliiiium 

Trachelomonas,. 


1 
1 







1 






4 
1 


68 

1 












3 




4 






1 




Vermes. Anurea, 





1 


1 

















3Iiscellaneouii, 





84 


40 


152 


104 


228 








Acarlna, 

Zoo($l(£a 







84 


.04 
40 



152 



104 



228 










Total 


g 


255 


90 


470 


113 


806 


116 


9 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



91 



BOSTON'. 

Sddbuky River Supply. — Chemical Examination of Water from Cold Spring 
Brook, at Head of Reservoir No. 4, Ashland. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 
o 


.\PPBARANCB. 


Kesidue on 

KVAPOHiV- 

TION. 


AUMOKIA. 


5 
5 


NlIBOOEN 
A3 


•a 

a 

3 

S 


C 
?« 
t? 








•5 

3 
p 


c 

a 

"3 


o 

a 


O 


i 

o = 
at ^ 
o 

>-) 


6 


Albuminoid. { 


1 







1 

SSI 


■5 
1 


•0 
> 

5 


•d 


a 
a 

C 
■3 

a 


11572 


1891. 

Jan. 1 


None. 


V. slight. 


1.40 


5.30 


2.55 


.0004 


.&242 


.0198 


.0044 


.34 


.0130 


.0000 


1.2480 


1.3 


11690 
11821 


Feb. 1 
Mar. 1 


V. Blight. 
V. slight. 


Slight, 

sandy. 
Slight. 


1.10 
1.45 


4.50 
5.05 


2.35 
2.30 


.0000 
.0008 


.0152 .0128 
.0238 .0226 


.0024 
.0012 


.33 
.30 


.0070 
.0070 


.0000 
.0000 


1.5405 
1.2144 


1.3 

1.4 


11973 


Apr. 2 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.40 


3.65 


1.75 


.0000 


.0202 .0178 


.0024 


.28 


.0030 


.0000 

1 


.8917J0.6 


12130 


May 1 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


2.10 


4.20 


2.50 


.0010 


.0256.0242 


.0014 


.30 


.0030 


.0000 


1.2760 0.9 


12298 


June 4 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


2.70 


5.90 


3.55 


.0006'.0328[.0304 


.0024 


.21 


.0030 .0001 


1.7864 1.6 


12454 


July 2 


None. 


V. slight. 


1.90 


5.25 


3.00 


.0010 .0278 


.0258 


.0020 


.31 


.0000 .0001 


1.3706,1.3 


12643 


Aug. 1 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.75 


4.50 


2.00 


.0000 .0208 


.0176 


.0032 


.30 


.0020 .0001 


.64061.1 


12862 


Sept. 4 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.65 


3.30 


1.45 


.0028 


.0186 


.0166 


.0020 


.22 


.0020 .0001 


.53900.9 


13062 


Oct. 2 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.40 


3.70 


1.10 


.0000 


.0100 


.0084 


.0016 


.36 


.0000 .0001 

1 


.3476 0.9 


13239 


Nov, 1 


V. slight 


Slight. 


1.80 


7.75 


3.60 


.0004 


.0362 


.0342 


.0020 


.43 


.0080 


.0000 


1.88651.9 


13415 


Dec. 3 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


1.60 


6.15 


2.85 


.0008 
.0007 


.0288 
.0237 


.0268 
.0214 


.0020 
.0023 


.39 
.31 


.0030 


.0000 
.0000 


1.60161.7 


Av. 








1.44 


4.94 


2.42 


.0043 


1.19521.2 






, 






1 




1 



Averages by Years. 



- 


1889* 


- 


- 


2.24 


- 


- 


.0025 


.0410 


.0385 


.0025 


.28 


.0056 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.91 


4.49 


2.01 


.0011 


.0243 


.0210 


.0033 


.24 


.0090 


.0001 


- 


1.5 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


1.30 


4.87 


2.30 


.0009 


.0297 


.0262 


.0035 


.23 


.0087 


.0001 


- 


1.3 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


1.44 


5.15 


2.57 


.0003 


.0308 


.0266 


.0042 


.25 


.0068 


.0001 


- 


1.2 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


1.23 


4.52 


2.16 


.0013 


.0248 


.0212 


.0036 


.26 


.0031 


.0001 


.9765 

1 


1.3 


- 


1894 


- 




1.44 


4.94 


2.42 


.0007 

1 


.0237 


.0214 


.0023 

1 


.s, 


.0043 


.0000 


,1.196i 


1.2 



• June to December. 



Note to analyses of 1S94 : Odor, dlBtinctly vegetable, 
brook, ut its entrance into Reservoir No. 4. 



■The samples were collected from the 



Microscopical Examin a(ian . 
The average number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in these samples was 52 



92 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BOSTOX. 

Sudbury River Supply.- 



Chemical Examination of Water from Reservoir 
No. 4, Ashland. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





5 

o 
o 

C 


Appeaiukce. 


Kesidub on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 

o 


NlTROGKN 
AS 


T3 

a 

3 

i 

o 

g 

o 






3 

6- 


c 
B 


o 

6 


1 


a 

ii 

IS 

•J 


ta 


Albuminoid. 


1 


2 




1 

g 
a 


^ 


•a 

1 o 

Q 


1 o 
a o. 


m 

a 


1804. 




























11573 Jan. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


4.85 


1.90 


.0104 


.0214 


.0188 


.0026 


.30 


.0100 


.0001 


.9344 


1.1 


11691 Feb. 1 


BUght. 


Slight. 


1.10 


4.45 


2.20 


.0062 .0178 


.0152 


.0026 


.32 


.0120 


.0000 


.9322 


1.3 


11822 ' Mar. 1 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.73 


4.00 


1.45 


.0078 .0206 


.0176 


.0030 


.36 


.0070 


.0002 


.7280 


1.8 


11974 . Apr. 2 


V. slight. 


Blight. 


1.00 


3.80 


1.70 


.0028 .0238 


.0212 


.0026 


.26 


.0070 


.0001 


.7677 


0.8 


12131 May 1 


i Blight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


3.60 


1.75 


.0000 .0170 


.0168 


.0012 


.28 


.0050 


.0001 


.8416 


0.8 


12299 : June 4 


Slight. 


Blight. 


1.00 


4.25 


2.00 


.0024 .0212 


.0198 


.0014 


.26 


.0050 


.0000 


.7969 


1.1 


12455 1 July 2 


Slight. 


Blight. 


0.90 


3.65 


1.50 


.0004 .0186 


.0172 


.0014 


.29 


.0000 


.0000 


.9009 


1.3 


12644 Aug. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.78 


4.35 


1.90 


.0000 .0230 


.0210 


.0020 


.28 


.0000 


.0001 


.7316 


0.8 


12863 i Sept. 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.70 


3.40 


1.35 


.0004 


.0188 


.0162 


.0036 


.27 


.0020 


.0001 


.5698 


0.9 


13063 


Oct. 2 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.65 


3.65 


1.60 


.0004 


.0168 


.0164 


.0014 


.31 


.0000 


.0000 


.6688 


1.1 


13240 


Nov. 1 


; Distinct, 


Cons , 


0.45 


3.50 


1.65 


.0002 


.0196 


.0180 .0016 


.28 


.0030 


.0000 


.4906 


1.3 


13416 


Dec. 8 


1 clayey. 
1 Slight. 


earthy. 
V. slight. 


0.75 


4.60 


2.00 


.0010 


.0240 
.0202 


.0208 .0032 
.0180 -0022 


.31 

.29 


.0030 
.0045 


.0000 
.0001 


1.1396 


1.8 


Av. 








0.83 


4.00 


1.73 


.0027 


.7840 


1 1 















Averages by Years. 



■ - 


1887* 


- 


- 


0.74 


3.71 


1.61 


.0005 


.0246 


- 


- 


.25 


.0033 


- 


- 




- 


1888 


- 


- 


0.72 


3.83 


1.70 


.0007 


.0277 


- 


- 


.22 


.0054 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


1889 


- 


- 


0.86 


3.48 


1.98 


.0016 


.0251 


.0218 


.0033 


.23 


.0068 


.0002 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.61 


3.67 


1.40 


.0008 


.0222 


.0191 


.0031 


.24 


.0096 


.0001 


- 


1.7 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.53 


3.24 


1.66 


.0006 


.0187 


.0160 


.0031 


.20 


.0062 


.0001 


- 


0.9 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.64 


3.60 


1.52 


.0002 


.0200 


.0168 


.0032 


.23 


.0061 


.0001 


- 


1.1 


- 


1893 


i 


- 


0.77 


3.64 


1.63 


.0024 


.0206 


.0178 


.0033 


.23 


.0048 


.0001 


.6773 


1.0 


- 


1894 


i 


- 


0.83 


4.00 


1.73 


.0027 


.0202 


.0180 


.0022 


.29 


.0045 


.0001 


.7840 


1.1 



* June to Docembor. 



NoTB to analyses of 1894: Odor, generally dlHtlnclly vegetable, somellmos none. The sampIeB 

were collected from the reservoir, near the gute-lioiise, 1 foot borifiith the surface. For monthly record 
of height of water lu this reservoir, sec table at end of Boston analyses. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



93 



BOSTON. 

Sddbdrt River Scpi'LT. — Microscopical Examination of Water from Reservoir 

No. 4, Ashland. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Not. 


D«o. 


Day of examination 


2 


2 


2 


8 


2 


6 


8 


2 


5 


3 


2 


8 


Number of sample, .... 


11573 11691 


1182211974 


1213112299 

i 


124S5 


12644 


12863 


13063 


13240 


13416 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomaceee 


1 





pr. 


3 


52 





1 


90 


6 


13 


15 


4 


Cyclotella 

Bynedra, 

Tabellarla, 



1 












pr. 




^^2 

1 


2 

42 

8 








1 




36 

48 
6 


8 
3 



9 

1 
3 


8 
6 
2 


2 
3 




AlgSB 











2 





91 


229 


u 


49 


20 


8 





Botrycoccus 

Chilorococcus 

ProldcoccuB, 

Kapbidium, 

Scenedeimus, .... 
























2 












55 
1 

35 





203 

5 
17 





14 







30 
19 







4 
16 






8 










Fungi. Crenothrix, 











2 


1 


■ 1 





6 














ANIMALS. 


























InfuBorla 


4 


39 


2 


1 


2 


6 


8 


1 


3 


2 








Ciliated infnsorian, . . . 

Dlnobryon, 

Dlnobryon cases, .... 

Mallomouaa 

Monne, 

Peridinlum 

Trachelomonaij, .... 







4 




19 
10 




10 





2 












1 








2 


5 












8 










1 







3 





t 



1 




1 




















Vermea. Polyarthra, . 








3 


pr. 


1 























Miscellaneous. Zobglcsa, . 





8 


pr. 





10 





8 


SB 


68 


30 










5 


42 


6 


8 


60 


07 


242 


147 


126 


65 


23 


4 



94 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BOSTOX. 

ScDBURY RiVEK SuppLY. — Chemical Examinalioyi of Water from Sudbury Eiver, 
at Head of Reservoir No. 2, Ashland. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





s 
o 

o 

1 

o 
o 


Appearancb. 


HKSniUK ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
o 




Nitrogen 
as 


§ 

3 

a 
o 
O 
a 

to 

o 








1 




o 


c 
o 

o 
1-1 




Albuminoid. { 


S 
§ 






s 


o 


•3 

> 

5" 


■3 
1 C 

CO 


a 
V. 




1894. 




























11574 


Jan. 1, 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


1.40 


5.55 


2.45 


.0018 


.0216 


.0194 


.0022 


.38 


.0080 


.0000 


1.2324 


1.4 


11692 


Feb. 1 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


4.80 


1.80 


.0000 


.0166 


.0148 


.0018 


.39 


.0120 


.0000 


.8769 


1.3 


11823 


Mar. 1 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.30 


5.15 


2.00 


.0002 


.0230 


.0206 


.0024 


.35 


.0120 


.0000 


1.1200 


1.3 


11975 


April 2 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


1.20 


3.60 


1.45 


.0000 


.0212 


.0192 


.0020 


.31 


.0050 


.0002 


.8470 


0.8 


12132 


May 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


2.00 


4.20 


2.45 


.0004 


.0256 


.0240 


.0016 


.35 


.0050 


.0000 


1.1640 


0.9 


12300 


Jane 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.90 


5.30 


3.05 


.0030 


.0298 


.0262 


.0036 


.26 


.0070 


.0000 


1.4245 


1.3 


12456 


July 2 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.50 


4.45 


2.40 


.0002 


.0258 


.0244 


.0014 


.25 


.0030 


.0001 


1.0125 


1.3 


12645 


Aug. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


4.10 


1.75 


.0008 


.0248 


.0236 


.0012 


.29 


.0030 


.0001 


.8701 


0.7 


12864 


Sept. 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.90 


4.35 


1.90 


.0016 


.0220 


.0200 


.0020 


.25 


.0080 


.0002 


.7122 


1.3 


13064 


Oct. 2 


V. Blight. 


Cons. 


0.78 


4.10 


1.85 


.0000 


.0202 


.0176 


.0026 


.40 


.0000 


.0000 


.8058 


0.8 


13241 


Nov. 1 


Slight. 


Slight, 


1.30 


5.10 


2.50 


.0002 


.0244 


.0228 


.0016 


.43 


.0030 


.0000 


1.2281 


1.4 


13417 


Dec. 3 


Slight. 


earthy. 
Slight. 


1.40 


5.40 


2.40 


.0004 
.0007 


.0224 
.0231 


.020C 
.021] 


.0024 
.0020 


.40 

.34 

\ 


.0050 
.0059 


.0000 
.0001 


1.3860 


1.4 


Av. 








1.31 


4.68 


2.17 


1.0566 


1.2 
















_ 


1887* 


_ 


_ 


1.13 


5.37 


1.81 


.0021 


.0313 


_ 




.39 


.0170 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1888 


- 


- 


1.19 


4.76 


2.07 


.0018 


.0293 


- 


- 


.29 


.0108 


.0002 


- 


- 


- 


1889 


- 


- 


1.25 


3.62 


1.38 


.0013 


.0294 


.0267 


.0027 


.30 


.0080 


.0002 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.82 


5.18 


2.09 


.0014 


.0250 


.0220 


.0036 


.30 


.0135 


.0001 


- 


1.7 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.88 


4.35 


1.81 


.0008 


.0274 


.0236 


.0038 


.26 


.0112 


.0001 


- 


1.1 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


1.00 


4.71 


2.08 


.0006 


.0247 


.0214 


.0033 


.28 


.0099 


.0001 


- 


1.3 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.99 


4.67 


2.03 


.0019 


.0232 


.0196 


.0036 


.34 


.0068 


.0001 


.8219 


1.4 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


1.31 


4.68 


2.17 


.0007 


.0231 


.0211 


.0020 


.34 


.0050 


.0001 


1.0668 


1.2 



* June to December. 

Note to analyses of 1894: Odor, distinctly vegetable, soraotimos also faintly mouldy. The mim. 

pies were collected from the river, near the old dam at the upper end of lieservolr No. 2, at a depth of 1 
foot beneath the surface. 



Microscopical Examination. 

The average number of organisms per cubic conllmeler found In these samples was 1 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 95 

BOSTOX. 

SuDBUUY RrvEit Supply. — Chemical Examination of Water from Reservoir 

No. 2, Framingham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 

■3 




a 


Appkaba>xe. 


Kksiuuk on 1 

KVAl'ORA- . 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


9 

c 

i 


NlTROGKN 
A3 


i 

s 

c 




c 
tc 

Q 








3 

3 


3 
1 








■3 









Albuminoid. | 


00 







a 

s 


"3 


E- 


> 
1 

CO to 

5 


•d 

•0 
1 s 


CO 

a 

d 
53 


1804. 


























11575 JaD. 1 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


1.20 


5.10 


2.25 


.0014 


.0214 .0186 


.0028 


.39 


.0120 


.0001 


1.1154 2.1 


11693 Feb. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


4.45 


1.90 


.0000 


.0168 .0144 


.0024 


.36 


.0150 


.0000 


.9045 1.3 


11824 Mar. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.83 


4.05 


1,85 


.0006 


.0176 .0160 


.0016 


.32 


.0070 


.0000 


.8400 1.3 


11976 


Apr. 2 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.20 


3.70 


1.85 


.0006 .0210'. 0184 


.0026 


.28 


.0070 


.0000 


.7892 0.8 

1 


12133 


May 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.20 


3.70 


1.90 


.0000 .0198 .0176;. 0022 


.31 


.0050 


.0000 


.9040 0.8 


12301 June 4 


, Slight. 


Slight. 


1.50 


4.90 


2.60 


.0030.0234 


.0218.0016 


.30 


.0080 


.0000 


1.0125 1.1 


12457 j .July 2 


\ Distiuct. 


Slight. 


1.20 


4.40 


2.40 


.OOOe'. 0254 .0216!. 0038 

1 1 


.27 


.0030 


.0001 


1.0087 1.3 


12646 1 Aug. 1 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.85 


4.40 


2.10 


.0000|.0220^.0196 


.0024 


.29 


.0020 


.0000 


.7276 0.7 


12865 Sept. 4 


! Distinct. 


Slight. 


1.20 


3.85 


1.85 


.0004 


.0254 .0214 


.0040 


.26 


.0020 


.0001 


.73921.3 


130G5 


Oct. 2 


Slight. 


Cons. 


1.00 


4.40 


2.25 


.0000 


.0208 '.0186 


.0022 


.36 


.0000 


.0000 


.7742 0.9 


13242 


Nov. 1 


Slight. 


Slight, 


0.90 


4.00 


1.35 


.0016 


.0224 .0205!. 0018 


.37 


.0030 


.0000 


.8431 1.3 


13418 


Dec. 3 


Slight. 


earthy. 
Slight. 


1.35 


5.40 


2.30 


.0010 


.0236 


.0224 


.0012 


.42 
.33 


.0050 
.0058 


.0000 
.0000 


1.4630 2.3 


Av. 




1 




1.12 


4.36 


2.05 


.0008 


.0216 


.0193 


.0023 


.9268 1.3 






1 






1 



Averages by Years. 



- 


1887* 1 


- 


- 


1.09 


4.94 


1.87 


.0015 


.0335 


- 


- 


.34 


.0048 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1888 


- 


- 


1.08 


4.63 


2.01 


.0005 


.0300 


- 




.30 


.0102 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


1889 


- 


- 


1.04 


3.42 


1.26 


.0015 


.0296 


.0252 


.0044 


|.29 


.0075 


.0002 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.77 


4.58 


1.83 


.0010 


.0235 


.0191 


.0044 


.28 


.0128 


.0001 


- 


1.7 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.72 


4.02 


1.68 


.0004 


.0230 


.0194 


.0036 


.24 


.0105 


.0001 


- 


1.0 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.89 


4.35 


1.92 


.0004 


.0231 


.0192 


.0039 


'.29 


.0082 


.0001 


- 


1.3 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.98! 


4.28 


1.86 


.0010 


.0219 


.0190 


.0029 


.31 


.0054 


.0001 


.8120 


1.2 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


1.12 


4.36 


2.05 


.0008 


.0216 


.0193 


.0023 


|.33 


.0058 


.0000 


.9268 


1.3 



* June to December. 



Note to analyses of 1894 : Odor, generally distinctly vegetable. The samples were collected from 

the reservoir, near the gate-house, at a deplh of 8 feet beneath the surface. For monthly record of 
height of water in this reservoir, see table at end of Boston analyses. 



96 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BOSTOX. 

Sur>BnRT RivEK Sr'PPLT.^- Microscopical Examination of Water from Reservoir 

No. 2, Framingham. 

[Number of organisms per cable centimeter.] 



Apr. 



May, 



July. Aug. 



Sept. 



Day of ezamlnatioD, 
Number of sample, 



2 2 
11575:11693 



2 
11824 



4 
11976 



3 

12133 



5 
12301 



3 

12457 



2 5 

1264612865 



3 

13065 



3 
13418 



PLANTS 
Dlatomaceee, . 

Cyclotella, 

DIatoma, 

Helosira, 

Herldion, 

Navicula, 

Bynedra, 

Tabellarla, . 

CyanophycesB, 

Anabeena, 
Meriamopedia, 

AlgSB, .... 

Chlorococcna, 
Protococcus, . . 
Kapbidium, . 
Bcencdeemue, 
StanrogeDla, . 
Ulothrix, 

VMUgi. Crenotbriz, 



ANIMALS. 
Bhlzopoda. Diillugla. . 

Infusoria, 

Knglena, . . . 
Monae, .... 
Perldlnium, . 
Trachelomonas, . . 

Vermes. RotatorUn ova. 



Mltcellanemit. ZoSgUca, 



TOTAI, 



11 



64 



44 



102 



25 



42 



402 



104 



254 



219 



176 



338 



124 



814 



No. 34.] EXAmNATIOX OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



97 



BOSTOX. 

SuDBUKY River Supply. — Chemical Examination of Water from Walker's Brook 

Marlborough. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





d 

o 

i 

f 

o 

o 
o 
■3 




Appbarascb. 


Kl-.SIDCK ON 

EVAPOBA- 

TION. 


AUSIOKIA. 


• 
a 

1 
2.34 


NiTBOOEH 

AS 


T3 

a 

a 
1 

s> 

M 











2 


3 



§ 

3 


(b 


Albuminoid. 




1 

S 


r 




1 

8 


1 
3 

e 




a 

«> 








■6 

a. 

to'* 


1 


11671 


1804. 

Jan. 1 


Dletlnct. 


Com. 


0.45 


16.10 


4.20 


.0128 


.0168 


.0160 


.0018 


.3250 


.0012 


.4976 


9.S 


11687 


Feb. 1 


Dlfitinct. 


Cons., 

eorthy. 
Slight. 

Slight. 


0.20 


14.40 


4.05 


.0312 


.0116 


.0100 


.0016 


2.19 


.2000 


.0014 


.3286 


6.0 


11818 
11069 


Mar. 1 
Apr. 2 


Distinct, 

milky. 

V. Blight. 


0.56 
0.50 


15.20 
13.30 


3.86 
3.45 


.1440 
.0336 


.0264 
.0180 


.0238 
.0158 


.0026 
.0022 


2.59 
2.18 


.2000 
.2760 


.0018 
.0030 


.6640 6.1 
.4520 4.0 


12127 
12810 


May 1 
June 6 


Distinct. 
Slight. 


Cons., 

tibroua. 
Slight. 


0.60 
0.65 


13.45 
14.95 


4.30 
3.85 


.0024 
.0016 


.0210 
.0218 


.0162 
.0204 


.0048 
.0014 


2.20 
2.35 


.2000 
.2760 


.0028 
.0011 


.4944 4.0 
.52616.4 


12467 


July 6 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.20 


13.06 


2.70 


.0018 


.0176 


.0148 


.0028 


1.86 


.1360 


.0020 


.2087 


4.9 


12641 


Aug. 1 


Distinct, 
milky. 
Slight. 


Slight. 


0.30 


16.00 


3.60 


.0000 


.0172 


.0164 


.0018 


1.94 


.0500 


.0008 


.3005 


6.1 


12853 


Sept. 4 


Slight. 


0.17 


10.65 


1.90 


.0016 


.0106 


.0074 


.0032 


1.49 


.1000 


.0004 


.2156 


3.8 


13052 


Oct. 1 


V. slight. 


Blight. 


0.15 12.25 


2.86 


.0000 


.0132 


.0118 


.0014 


1.78 


.1750 


.0007 


.1935 4.4 


13252 
13423 


Nov. 1 
Dec. 3 


Thick. 
Slight. 


Heavy, 

earthy. 
Cons. 


1.40 
0.42 


18.20 
14.15 


5.10 
3.65 


.0238 
.1920 

.0371 


.0686 
.0180 

.0217 


.0400 
.0160 

.0171 


.0286 
.0030 

.0046 


2.10 
1.97 

2.08 


.1300 
.2000 

.1888 


.0025 
.0036 

.0018 

1 


1.3808 6.6 
.3619 6.0 


Av. 








0.46 


14.14 


3.62 

















Averages by Tears. 



- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.49 


16.84 


4.35 


.0307 


1 
.0274.0225 


.0048 


2.68 


.2975.0037 


_ 


5.7 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.38 


14.06 


3.94 


.0337 


.0257 .0180 


.0077 


1.96 


.1878 


.0020 


.3927 


6.2 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.46 


14.14 


3.62 


.0371 


.0217 .0171 


.0046 


2.08 


.1888 


.0018 


.4701 


4.0 



Odor, generally distinctly vegetable and musty, becoming stronger on heating. The samplci were 

collected from the brook, at the first road bridge below Maple Street, about a mllo south of the centre of 
the city of Marlborough. This seriee of analyses Is being made In order to determine to what extent the 
pollution of the brook will be diminished by the introduction of a sewerage eystem into the city of Marl- 
borough. The system was put In operation in the latter part of 1801. 



98 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BOSTOX. 

ScDBUKV River Supply. — Chemical Examinatioii of Water from Stony Brook, 
at Head of Reacrvoir No. 3, Southborough* 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 
o 
a 
Q 


Appkaeakce. 


Rksidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammokia. 


[ 

e 

c 

5 

6 


Nitrogen 
as 


1 

3 

oa 

C 

a 

1 

s 






2J 

3 
Eh 


c 

1 
■a 


1 

u 

o 

a 


O 


c 

C-- 

o = 

00 ^ 
O 




Albuminoid. 


2 


a 




1 

s 


"3 

O 


■a 

0) 

> 
i'o 


•a 


tn 

e 

1 

33 




1894. 












1 














11576 


Jan. 1 


V. Slight. 


V. slight. 


1.00 


7.15 


2.55 


,0016', 0228 


.0206 


,0022 


.48 


.0410 ,0003 


1.0280 


2,2 


11694 


Feb. li Slight. 


V. slight. 


1.00 


6.00 


2.40 


,0002', 0192 


,0160 


.0032 


.50 


,0300 ,0001 


,9164 


1,9 


11825 


Mar. 1 


Slight, 


Slight. 


1.10 


6.00 


2.25 


,0012 ,0204', 0184 


.0020 


.45 


,0230 ,0001 


.9480 


1,8 


11977 


Apr. 2 


V.Blight. 


Slight. 


1.23 


4.85 


2,20 


,0008 .0242 .0218 

1 


.0024 


.40 


,0170;,0002 


.8893 


1,6 


12134 


May l! Slight. 


V.Blight. 


2,00 


5.20 


2.75 


.0012.0262.0246.0016 


,42 


.0070.0001 


1.2096 


1.7 


12302 


June 4 Distinct. 


Cons. 


1.90 


5.70 


2.80 


.0014 .0376 .0350 .0026 


,32 


.0080'. 0001 


1.37291.8 


12458 


July 2 Distinct. 


Slight, 
brown. 


1.50 


7.50 


3.40 


.0030 


.0468 .0230 .0238 


,36 


.0000 .0000 


1.4029i2,7 


12647 


Aug. 1 ''- Decided, 


Cons., 


1.20 


7,15 


2.45 


.0002 


.0422 ,0276 ,0146 


,68 


,oo7o;,oooo 


,93942,2 


12866 


1 green. 
Sept. 4 Distinct. 


rusty. 
Slight, 


1.50 


6,35 


2.85 


.0024 


,0450 ,0396 .0054 


,58 


.0020'. 0001 

1 


,95481,8 


13066 


Oct. 2 'i Slight. Slight^' 
Nov. 1 L Distinct, Slight, 


0.95 


6.70 


2.65 


.0036 .0278' 0270 


.0008 


,63 


,0000 .0001 


,82952,1 


13243 


1.40 


7.85 


3,10 


,00261. 0334'. 0308 


.0026 


,63 


.0080 .0001 


1,1627 


2,5 


13419 


Dec. 3 


clayey. 
Slight. 


earthy. 
Cons. 


1.00 
1.32 


6.45 


2.25 


.0094 
.0023 


.0170 .01-16 
.0302 nsJO 


.0024 
.0053 


,54 
.49 


.0380 .0005 
.0151 .0001 


,9856 


" 


Av. 








6.41 


2.64 


1,05332.0 























Averages by Years. 



- 


1887t 


- 


- 


0,97 


7,74 


2,86 


.0029 


.0355 


- 


- 


,74 


.0152 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1888 


- 


- 


1.16 


6,26 


2.17 


,0039 


.0312 


- 


- 


,51 


,0303 


,0004 


- 


- 


- 


1889 


- 


- 


1.11 


5.04 


1.76 


,0061 


.0308 


.0280 


.0028 


,50 


,0275 


,0005 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.72 


7,31 


2.12 


,0033 


.0257 


.0226 


,0032 


,56 


,0262 


,0003 


- 


2,4 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.86 


6,15 


2.24 


,0047 


.0291 


.0256 


.0035 


,59 


,0226 


.0003 


- 


2.0 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.96 


6,19 


2.35 


.0015 


.0291 


.0252 


,0039 


.49 


,0202 


.0002 


- 


1.9 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.95 


6,03 


2.27 


.0027 


.0273 


.0237 


,0036 


.50 


,0127 


.0002 


,8254 


2.0 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


1,32 


6.41 


2.64 


.0023 


.0302 


,0249 


.0053 


,40 


,0161 


,0001 


1,0633 


2.0 



• The rjuality of the water in Stony Brook at the iippc^r end of Reservoir No. 3 mid in the reservoir 
ll»p|f ha« been uiifiivorably affect<'d during much of lhi« y<'ar \ty the coiiHlniclioti of a diini for another 
reservoir furtlur up the Ijrook, wJdch huH iniide it iieceHnary to floo<l the Hwainps above from time to time, 
and Hubsequently to allow the water to Uow down the brook. 

t June to December. 

NOTK to analyHOH of 1894: Odor, generally distinctly vcKOlable, frequently mouldy or unjilcnsant; 

on healliiK, the odor is HtrotiKcr and frcijiiently KruHMy. The samideH weic; collected from llie brook, 

about 50 feet below the llrst road above Keservolr No. 3, at a depth of 1 fool beneath tlie surface. 



Microscopical Examination. 

The average number of organisms per cubic cetitimeter found In these samples was 500. The greatest 
numbers found were 3,210 In Au«ubI, coiiMlstlng chlelly of Olaloniiieeii! (Meloniru) and Zoogltca, and 
1,164 in September, chiefly Diatomaceo: (i/elotira), Crenollirix and Zoogl.ca. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



99 



Sudbury River Sui'pli'. 



BOSTOX. 

- Chemical Examination of Water from Reservoir 
No. 3, Framingham.. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 

I 

o 
2 

a 


Appeabance. 


Kksidce on 

KVAPOKA- 1 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


« 

c 

2 


SITBOOES 
AS 


•6 

1 

9 

B 


e 







s 


c 

a 

CO 


1.^ 
o 
o 

O 


"5 


_5 
2 


u 


Albiiinlnokl. ] 


OS 






B 

a 


"a 


> 

5 


■d 

■a 

« Z 


OB 
CO 

■H 

a 

a 


11577 


1H94. 

.Jan. 1 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.90 


6.95 


2.35 


.0024 


.0266 


.0238 


.0028 


.53 


.0250 


.0003 


.8954 


2.2 


11695 


Feb. 1 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.90 


6.75 


2.80 


.0016 


.0186'. 01-2'. 0014 

1 


.47 


.0300 


.0002 

1 


.93851.9 


11826 


Mar. 1 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.78 


5.70 


1.90 


.0038 


.0192 .0174 .0018 


.47 


.0200 .0002' 


.8176 1.8 


11978 ! Apr. 2 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.90 


4.35 


1.95 


.0008 


.0210'. 0188 .0022 


.35 


.0150 .0002 


.74461.3 


12135 


May 1 


Slight. 


Cons. 


1.10 


4.25 


1.70 


.0010 


.0204 .0186 .0018 


.43 


.0100.0002 


.80561.3 


12303 
12459 


June 4 
July 2 


Decided, 

green. 

Distinct. 


Cons., 

brown. 
Slight. 


1.25 
1.30 


5.35 
5.30 


2.45 
2.. 50 


.0010 
.0018 


.0336.0270.0066 
.0296 .0260 .0036 


.36 
.32 


.0100 
.0050 


.0001 
.0002 


.93321.6 
1.039512.2 


12648 
12867 
13067 


Aug. 1 
Sept. 4 
Oct. 2 


Slight, 

green. 
Distinct. 

Distinct. 


Slight, 

green. 
Slight, 

brown. 
Cons. 


0.95 

0.85 
0.90 


5.30 
5.25 
5.40 


2.10 
2.10 
2.00 


.0006 
.0040 
.0018 


.0276.0250.0026 
.0308.0272.0036 
.0330 .0260 .0070 


.39 
.37 

.42 


.0020 

.0020 
.0000 


.0001 
.0002 
.0000 


.8932 2.3 
.7161.1.8 
.8453|1.8 


13244 
13420 


Nov. 1 
Dec. 3 


1 Distinct. 
Slight. 


Cons., 

. green. 
Cons., 
green. 


0.70 
1.05 


5.20 
6.00 


2.15 
2.40 


.0020 
.0012 


.0300.0248.0052 
.0280'. 0256 .0024 

.0265 -ft'WiLnnai 


.38 
.48 

.41 


.0000 
.0070 


.0000 
.0001 


.7854 
1.0164 


2.1 
2.1 


Av. 








0.97 


5.48 

1 


2.20 


.0018 


.0105 


.0002 


.8692 


1 












■ 







Averages by Years. 



- 


1887* 


- 


- 


0.91 


5.48 


2.02 


.0073 


.0318 


- 


- 


.43 


.0170 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1888 


- 


- 


0.98 


4.98 


1.79 


.0038 


.0288 


- 


- 


.40 


.0218 


.0003 


- 


- 


- 


1889 


- 


- 


0.84 


4.39 


1.50 


.0042 


.0306 


.0254 


.0052^ 


.42 


.0182 


.0003 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.62 


5.40 


1.84 


.0020 


.0238 


.0197 


.00411 


.40 


.0229 


.0002 


- 


2.0 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.80 


4.75 


1.66 


.0032 


.0242 


.0200 


.0042 


.38 


.0190 


.0002 


- 


1.7 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.72 


5.17 


1.97 


.0024 


.0254 


.0219 


.0035' 


.40 


.0211 


.0001 


- 


1,8 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.90 


4.97 


2.10 


.0028 


.0259 


.0207 


.0052' 

j 


.37 


.0100 .0001 


.7681 


1.7 


- 


1894 


- 


0.97 


5.48 


2.20 


.0018 


.0265 


.0231 


.0034 


.41 


.0105 .0002 


.86921.9 

1 1 



• June to December. 



Note to analyses of 1S94 : Odor, generally distinctly vegetable, frequently mouldy or unpleasant. 

The saniplci* were collected from the reservoir, near the gate-house, at a depth of 8 feet beneath 

the surface. For monthly record of height of water In this reservoir, see table at cud of Boston 
analyses. 



100 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BOSTOX. 

Sudbury River Supply. — Microscopical Examination oj Water from Reservoir 

No. 3, Framingham,. 

[Number of organlsma per cnblc centimeter.] 



Day of ezaminatloD, 
Number of sample, 



1804. 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. Jane. July. Ang. Sept. Oct. Not. Dec 



2 2 
11577:11695 



2 
11826 



4 3 

1197812135 



5 
12303 



8 
12459 



2 
12648 



6 
12867 



3 

13067 



2 6 

13244 13420 



PLANTS. 
Diatomaceee, 

Anterlonella, . 
CyclotfUa, . 
Dlatoma, 
Weloaira, 
tiynedra, 
Tabellaria, . 

Cyanophyceee, . 

Anabfcua, 
Chroococcus, . 
Clathrocystls, 
Merinmopedla, 
MicrocyHtlB, . . 

Algee 

Chlorococons, 
ProtococcuB, . 
Raphldlum, . 
Btaurogcnia, . 
Tetraupora, . 

ANIMALS, 
Infusoria, 

Chlamydomonas, . 
DInobryon caeca, . 
EuRlena, 
MaTlomonaB, . 
I'erldlnlum, . 
Byncrypta, 
Tracbelomonas, . 

VermeB, . 

Polyarthra, . 
Uoilfer, . 



135 


1 

2 

6 

104 

23 



93 



808 



800 
8 





1,264 

940 

132 

28 



76 

83 



422 

240 
24 

2 


15j9 



Miscellaneoua. Zooglosa, 



Total, 



pr. 



68 



48 



146 



44 



24 



146 



849 



101 



1,327 



428 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



101 



CocHiTUATE Supply. — Chemical Examination oj Water from 

in Wayland. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 



BOSTON. 

Lake Cochituate, 











Residce on 










"^■^ 




c 


Appbaraxce. 




Evapora- 


^Vmmonia. 




NlTBOSEN 








2 






tion. 








s 














^ 




Albnmlnoid. 








o 


t>> 


.*.* 






























5 
1 


a 


c 

o 


s 


= 


« 


"a 


•a 
> 









1 


s 


1 

















u 


















a a 


c-i 


00 


O 


f- 


•J 


'^ 


H |a 


cc ~ 





"A 


!z; 





P3 


1S»4. 
























11578 : Jan. 1 


V. Slight. 


Cons. 


0.10 


4.50 


1.50 


.0016 


.0138 .0108 


.0030 


.49 


.0075,. 0002 


.3572' 1.9 


11696 ' Feb. 1 


Slight. 


Slight, 
white. 


0.20 


4.80 


1.60 


.0016 


.0134 .0112 

1 


.0022 


.53 


.01201.0000 

1 


.4013; 1.9 


118-27 Mar. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.23 


5.00 


1.35 


.0000 


.0148.0130 


.0018 


.51 


.0100 .0000 


.4040 2.1 


11979 j Apr. 2 


Slight. 


Cons., 


0.2:3 


4.80 


1.45 


.0006 


.0184 .0152 

1 


.0032 


.50 


.0120 .0001 


.3296 1.9 


12138 ' May 1 


Slight. 


green. 
Cons. 


0.23 


4.50 


2.00 


.0006 


.0174 .0138 


.0036 


.63 


.0080 .0001 


.3888, 2.1 


12304 . June 4 


Distinct. 


Slight, 
green. 


0.30 


4.55 


1.50 


.0008 


.0182 .0156.0026 


.47 


.0150 .0001 


.3942 1.8 


12460 July 2 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.20 


4.80 


1.95 


.0000 


.0180.0152.0028 

1 1 


.54 


.0050 .0003 


.4081 2.3 


12649 Aug. 1 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.18 


5.00 


1.50 


.0006 


.0162i. 0136'. 0026 

1 


.51 


.0060.0003 


.40041 2.4 


12808 ' Sept. 4 


Slight, 


Slight. 


0.15 


4.70 


1.35 


.0016 .0172'. 0134'. 003s! 


.50 


.0000 .0001 


.3157 1.8 


1 i 


green. 




1 
















13068 Oct. 2 


v. slight. Cons. 


O.lo 


5,80 


2.50 


.0000 


.0148,0132 .0016 

1 


.56 


.0020'. 0000 


.3871 2.1 


13245 Nov. 1| 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.18 


5.00 


1.25 


.0008 


.0160 


.0136 


.0024 


.48 


.0030 


.0000 


.3311 


2.1 


13422! Dec. 3 


Distinct. 


Cons., 
green. 


0.23 


3.70 


1.15 


.0012 


.0174 


.0154 


.0020 


.50 


.0030 


.0000 


.3211 


2.2 


Av, 


1 






0.20 


4.76 


1.59 


.0008 


.0163 


.0137 f>09fil 


.51 


.0070 


.0001 


.3699 


2.1 




1 








1 



Averages by Years. 



- 


1887* 


- 


- 


0.21 


6.08 


1.38 


.0017 


.0186 




_ 


1.44 


.0096 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


1888 


- 


- 


0.19 


4.90 


1.24 


.0033 


.0217 


- 


- 


.43 


.0127 


.0003 


- 




- 


1889 


- 


- 


0.33 


5.08 


1.62 


.0025 


.0210 


.0177 


.0038 


.46 


.0208 


.0003 


- 




- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.21 


4.74 


1.03 


.0016 


.0184 


.0149 


.0035 


.49 


.0206 


.0003 


- 


2.4 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.24 


4.66 


1.44 


.0017 


.0182 


.0145 


.003" 


.42 


.0212 


.0002 


1 


1.8 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.15 


4.61 


1.35 


|.0018 


.0168 


.0133 


.0035 


.48 


.0152 


.0001 


! - 


2.0 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.21 


4.64 


1.58 


..0016 


.0168 


.0138 


.0030 


.46 
.51 


.0098 


.0002 


.3926 


2.0 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.20 


4.76 


1.69 


.0008 

1 


.0163 


.0137 


.0026 


.0070 


.0001 


.8699 


2.1 



* June to December. 

Note to nnalyeee of 1804: Odor, vegetable; on heating, becoming also frequently unpleasant or 

grassy. The samples were collected in the gate-house. For monthly record of height of water in 

tliis lake, sec table at end of Bonton annlyses. 



102 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BOSTOX. 

CocHixrATE Supply. — Microscopical Examination of Water from Lake Cochit- 

iiatc, 171 Wayland. 

[Number of organismB per cubic centimeter.] 





1S94. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of exaraination, . 


2 


2 


3 


4 


3 


5 


3 


2 


5 


3 


2 


3 


Number of sample, 


11578| 


11696 


11827 


11979 


12138 


12304 


12460 


12649 


12868 


13068 


13245 


13422 


PLANTS. 


























DiatomacesB, 


593 


880 


102 


1,092 


1,866 


827 


8 


6 


17 


354 


510 


1,568 


Asterionella, 

Cyclotella, 

Fragilaria, 

Melosira, 

Stephanodiscus, . 

Synedra, 

Tabellaria, . 


242 
36 

194 



114 


640 
20 


142 



78 


54 
1 



40 





7 


370 
64 
10 

440 
2 

112 

104 


920 
84 


416 
4 
2 

440 


5 

280 



12 



10 

520 



3 




1 

4 



1 

4 

1 





1 




16 



252 
1 

59 
20 


22 




424 
8 
29 
49 





1,480 

10 
68 
10 




Cyanophyceee, . 





22 


16 








7 


23 


16 


12 


99 


332 





AnabasDa, 
Apbanocapsa, 
Clathrocyetjs, 
MicrocyetiB, . 
Oscillaria, 















2 

20 






16 
















7 






19 



4 



10 


4 



6 

3 
4 



10 

84 

2 

2 

1 


332 













Algse 


10 





pr. 


5 


10 


67 


126 


15 


80 


45 








ChlorococcuB, 
Gla-ocapsa, . 
Hyalotheca, . 
ProtococcuB, 
Slaurogeuia, 
Telraspora, . 





10 












^^6 








2 
3 





2 

8 








15 
16 
36 


126 










16 








80 




6 
9 

30 




















ANIMALS. 


























Rhizopoda, . 


7 


10 


1 


2 


























Actlnophrys, 
DifHiigia, 


7 
pr. 


10 
pr. 


1 




2 
pr. 



































Infusoria, 


7 


22 


pr. 


46 


17 


1 


5 








3 


64 


17 


Dlnobryon, . 
Dlnobryon caeeR, . 
MullornonaH, . 
Perldlnium, . 
Synura, . 
Tlntinnldlum, 
TrachelomonaH, . 



2 


4 



1 


2 
5 


4 
8 

1 
2 




pr. 






22 
10 
6 

2 
pr. 



12 
3 
2 









1 






1 



3 


1 















(1 









1 
1 




1 


2 
Ou 
1 
(1 
1 







2 

11 



4 


Vermes, . . . . 








! 





1 


2 














1 


4 


Anurea, 

Hotlfer 


















1 



1 
1 














n 






1 



4 


Crustacea. CyclopB, . 





.01 


.02 


.02 


.01 











.02 



3 










illncellaneouH. Zoogloea, . 


18 





6 


11 


140 





24 


7 








Total, .... 


035 


634 


125 


1,156 


2,034 


004 


186 


44 


109 


604 


907 


1,689 



No. 84.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



103 



CociiiTUATi-: WoHKS. — Chemical Examination of Water from, 
Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



BOSTON. 

a Faucet a< the 





B 

o 
o 

(S 




ArPEAEA>XE. 




KESIDL'K UN 
EVAPORA- 

TIOK. 


1 AilMOXIA. 


1 




5 


NiTBOGEN 
AS 


•a 

S 

s 

1 

B 
I 








I 

•3 

re 


o 
o 


1 


c 
1-3 


1 


Albuminoid. 




09 

is 






Turbidity 


1 


■3 
> 

a" 


•3 
•a 


eo 




1801. ^ 




























lloSO 


Jau. 


2 |V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.70 


5.70 


2.55 


.0012 


.0182 


.0152 


.0030 


.47 


.0080 .0001 


.7316 


1.9 


11697 


Feb. 


1 Slight. 


Slight. 


0.75 


5.05 


2.20 


.0004 


.0154 


.0132 


.0022 


.44 


.0150 .0000 


.6794 


1.8 


1I8-J8 


Mar. 


1 Slight. 


Slight. 


0.70 


5.25 


1.65 


.0016 .0210'. 0186 


.0024 


.45 


.0180 .0000 


.7000 


1.7 


llOSl) 


Apr. 


2 , Slight. 


Cons. 


0.60 


4.35 


1.85 


.0006 .0174|. 0148 


.0026 


.38 


.0170 .0001 


.5505 


1.4 


1J1J<; May 


1 V. slight. Cons. 


0.60 


4.35 


1.85 


.0010 .0132 .0112 


.0020 


.41 


.0130 .0000 


.6043 


1.4 


l-230o June 


5 V. slight. 1 Slight. 


0.65 


4.20 


1.60 


.0004 .0146 .0126 


.0020 


.39 


.0170 .0000 


.5221 


1.9 


1-2461 July 


2 Slight. 


Slight. 


0.85 


4.55 


2.00 


.0000 


.0184 


.0166 


.0018 


.39 


.0100 .0001 


.7084 


1.8 


12651 Aug. 


2 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.60 


4.50 


1.10 


.0000 


.0156 


.0142 


.0014 


.37 


.0100 .0003 


.5120 


2.0 


12S69 Sept. 


4: 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.70 


4.45 


1.50 


.0008;. 01 86 


.0170 


.0016 


.38 


.0090 .0002 


.5621 


1.7 


13069 Oct. 


3| 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.58 


4.50 


1.60 


.0000 


.0146 


•.0130 


.0016 


.44 


.0030 .0000 


.5688 


1.6 


13246 Nov. 


1 

1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.50 


4.10 


1.65 


.0006 


.0172 


.0162 


.0010 


.38 


.0000 .0000 


.5790 


1.7 


134-21 Dec. 


s 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


,.,0i 


4.70 


2.50 


.0010 


.0186 


.0174 


.0012 


.43 


.0070 .0000 


.8354 


1.7 


Av. 










0.69 


4.64 


1 
1.83 


0006 


0169 


0150 


.0019 


.41 




.6295 


1.7 




• * 1 










1 



Averages by Years. 



1887* 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 



- 


0.35 


4.89 


1.37 


.0002 


.0225 


- 


- 


.41 1 


.0094 


- 


~ 


- 


0.38 


4.94 


1.53 


.0012 


.0215 


- 


- 


.40 


.0183 


.0002 


- 


- 


0.51 


4.71 


1.43 


.0005 


.0199 


.0176 


.0023 


.42 


.0272 


.0002, 


- 


- 


0.35 


4.70 


1.25 


.0003 


.0169 


.0148 


.0021 


.42 i 


.0241 


.0001 


- 


- 


0.37 


4.39 


1.63 


.0005 


.0161 


.0136 


.0025 


.37 i 


.0227 


.0001 


- 


- 


0.37 


4.70 


1.67 


.0007 


.0188 


.0138 


.0030 


.411 


.0210 


.OOOlj 


- 


- 


0.61 


4.54 


1.84 


.0010 


.0174 


.0147 


.0027 


.38 


.0143 


.OOOlj 


.5976 


- 


0.69 


4.14 


1.83 


.0006 


.0109 


.0150 


.0019 

1 


.41 


.0106 


.0001 


.6295 



2.2 
1.7 
1.9 
1.8 
1.7 



* Juae to December. 

Note to analyses of 1S94 : Odor, generally faintly vegetable, 
on healing, and sometimes also mouldy. 



■ The odor generally became stronger 



104 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Piil). Doc. 



BOSTOX. 

CociiiTCATE Works. — Microscopical Examination of Water from a Faucet at 
the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Boston. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May.June. July. Aug. Sept Oct. Nov.l Dec, 



Day of exarainatioD, 
Number of sample, 



1 3 
: 11580 



116971182811980 



12126 



12305 12461 12651 



12869 



3 
13069 



13246 13421 



PLANTS. 
Diatomaceee, . . .150 

Asterionella, .... 

Cyclotella, 14 

Fragilaria 

Melosira 29 

Synedra, .... 

Tabellaria, .... 

Cyanophycese, 

Anabaena 

Microcystis 

Algse 

Chlorococcus, . . . . 

Protococcus, ! 

Scenedesmus 

Tetraspora, 

Fungi. Crenothrix, 



128 ' 69 



pr. 



154 



149 



83 



35 



105 







17 



191 

162 
12 



27 



ANIMALS. 
Bhizopoda. Actinophrys, 



Infusoria, 



Cryptomonaa, 
Dinobryon cases, 
Mallomouas, . 
Monas, . 
Peridlnium, . 
Byfiura, . 
Vortlcella, 



Vermes. Uotifer, . 



MltcellaneouB. ZoOglcca, 



Total, 



2 
1 



162 



i 
11 2 



187 



34 



206 



828 



144 



40 



288 



60 



I 

! 

i 
7 



100 



74 102 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 105 



BOSTON. 

Mystic Supply. — Chemical Examination of Water from Mystic Lake. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





3 

■3 





I 


Appearanxe. 


Uesidl'i: ox 
Evapora- 
tion. 


AMMON'IA. 




1 

3.02 


XlTBOGES 1 

AS , 


s 

s 

s 




1 






a 


M 




■5 


1 
3" 





Albuminoid. 


to 

s 
s 


s 




.a 
S 

3 


■5 
1 


■a 
> 


•a 

•a 

J. c 

S a> 


s 
f 


lloCS 


1891. 

Jan. 1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.04 


15.85 


1.80 


.0480 


.0180 


.0164 


.0016 


.0760 


.0012 


.2168 


5.1 


11686 Feb. 1 None. 


V. slight. 


0.05 


j 15.55 


2.55 


.0600 .0132 


.0118.0014 

! 


2.98 i.lOOO 


.0015 


.2275 


5.1 


11817 Mar. 1 


•SllRht, 

milky. 
Slight. 


Slight. 


0.08 


1 13.90 


2.50 


.0736 


.0292 


.0214 .0078: 2.43 .0870. 0015 


.4048 


5.0 


11963 : Apr. 2 


Slight, 


0.12 


1 12.65 


1.95 


.0776 


.0208 


.0164 


.0044 J2.42. 0730]. 0008 


1.2384 


4.6 


12141 ; May 1 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.18 


11.90 


2.10 


.0374 .0234 


.0168 .0066"2.18 '.0600 .0015 

1 1, 


.3000 


4.0 


12308 June 4 


' Distinct. 


Cons., 


0.15 


12.85 


2.65 


.0320 


.0280 


.0174 


.0106 


12.49: .0650 


.0008 


.2964 


4.2 


124G3 July 2 


Distinct, 


green. 
Slight, 


0.05 


12.90 


2.30 


.0062 


.0206 


.0160 


.0046 


2.82i.0580 


.0010 


1.2618 


4.2 


12650 Aug. 1 

1 
12870 Sept. 4 

13044 Oct. 1 


Decided. 

Slight. 

Distinct. 


green. 
Cons., 

brown. 
Slight, 

brown. 
Cods. 


0.12 
0.12 
0.12 


14.25 
14.45 
! 16.90 


2.00 
3.50 
2.50 


.0010 
.0016 
.0018 


.0394 
.0228 
.0240 


.0216 
.0162 
.0172 


.0178 
.0066 
.0068 


:2.80 
2.94 
4.21 


.0150 
.0350 
.0300 


.0012 
.0006 
.0009 


'.2695 
.2156 
.2251 


5.8 
4.9 
5.0 


13251 I Nov. 2 


Decided. 


Cons., 

earthy. 
Slight. 




0.07 


24.85 


3.60 


.0224 


.0170 


.0096 


.0074 


7.86 


.0551 


.0014 


.2156 


7.4 


13411 Dec. 3 


Distinct 


0.18 


21.20 


3.25 


.0952 


.0260 
.0235 


.0208 
.0168 


.0052 


5.56 

3.48 

1 


.0450 
.0583 


.0015 
.0012 


.2603 


6.9 


Av. ' 


1 


0.11 


15.60 


2.56 


.0381 


.0067 


i.2608 


5.2 



Averages by Tears. 



_ 


1887* 


_ 


. 


0.28 


10.82 


1.62 


.0114 


.0266 


- 


- 


2.06| 


.0263 - 


- 


- 


- 


18S=: 


- 


- 


0.21 


10.12 


1.76 


.0244 


.0267 


- 


- 


1.94 


.0433 .0016 


- 


- 


- 


18S9 


- 


- 


0.26 


9.02 


1.97 


.0211 


.0278 


.0209 


.0069 


1.67 


.0586 .0012 

1 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.13 


10.65 


1.78 


.0197 


.0223 


.0183 


.0040 


1.57 


.0796 .0008 


- 


8.7 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.13 


9.50 


1.81 


.0186 


.0242 


.0187 


.0055 


1.58 


.0731. 0012 


- 


3.5 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.07 


11.52 


2.09 


.0185 


.0206 


.0153 


.0053 


2.22 


.0608.0007 


- 


4.1 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.10 


12.62 


2.17 


.0240 


.0215 


.0159 


.0056 


2.49 


.0583.0007 


- 


4.4 


- 


1894 

1 




- 


0.11 


15.60 


2.66 


.0381 


.0235 


.0168 


.0067 

i 


3.48 


.0583,. 0012 

1 1 


.2608 


5.2 



♦ June to December. 

Note to analyses of 1S94: Odor, generally unpleasant, mouldy or disairreeable, becoming stronger 

on heatiuu;. The larger amount of residue on evaporation and of chlorine in the la.«t three samples 

was due to the inliltration of sea water when the lake was drawn to an unusually low level. The 
samples were collected from the lake, near the gate-house. For monthly record of height of water In 
this lake, see tabic at end of Boston analyses. 



106 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BOSTON'. 

;Mystic ScrPLY. — Microscopical Examination of Water from Mystic Lake. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Jan. 


Jan. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


nee. 


Day of esamiuation, 


1 


31 


2 


3 


3 


6 


3 


2 


5 


2 


3 


3 


Number of sample, . 


11568 


11686 llSnj 11968 


12141 


12308 


12463 


12650 


12870 


13044 


13251 


13411 


PLANTS. 


























DiatomacesB, 


3,206 


360 


70 


351 


745 


11,020 


9,744 


1,604 


734 


692 


6,582 


2,480 


Asterionella, 
Fragilaria, . 
Melbsira, 
Synedra, 




6 



3,200 








360 


28 



10 

32 


120 
13 
34 

184 


240 

100 

5 

400 




220 



10,800 








9,744 




1,600 



4 



14 


720 



412 


280 




10 

12 

6,560 








2,480 


AlgSB 


44 


2 


2 


13 


393 


715 


300 


580 


600 


295 


112 


28 


Arthrodesmus, . 

Chlorococcus, 

Protococcus, 

Scenedeemus, 

Stauraetrum, 





44 






2 







2 





5 
8 





1 

10 
380 

2 




13 

20 

680 

2 


48 





252 










580 

. 





600 






292 
3 





u 
112 








28 



Fungi. Crenothrix, . 


32 


4 





38 


1 























ANIMALS. 


























Infusoria, . 





2 


1 


pr. 


13 


33 


120 


1.513 


81 


422 


14 


2 


Encysted protozoon, . 
MonaH, 
Peridinium, 
Trachelomonae, . 
Vorlicella, . 
Voriicella stems, 












1 
1 








1 







^'6 


pr. 






1 

2 

i 

2 
7 


1 
32 








120 







1 

1,512 








1 

80 







420 







14 







2 





Miscellaneous. Zoijgloca, 


3 


16 


120 


86 


94 


20 


24 





108 


88 





148 


Total, 


3,285 


384 


193 


488 


1,246 


11,788 


10,188 


3,697 


1,523 


1,497 


6,708 


2,658 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 107 



iBOSTOSr. 

Exnminntion of Water from Lower Mystic Lake for Chlorine and Organisms. 

XoTE. This lake is a tidal basin, and not n source of water supply. 



1894. 



November. November. November. November. 



Day of esamlDatiOD, 
Number of sample, 
Chlorine (parts per 100,000), 



13 

13286 

442 



13 

13287 
535 



13 

13288 
549 



13 

13289 
399 



DiatomacesB, 



Cyclotella, 
Melosira, . 
Orthosira, 
Synedra, . 



PLANTS. 



Algee, 



Conferva,. 
Scenedesmus, 



1,367 





1,360 

5 



1,359 





1,354 

3 



1,558 

4 



1,552 

2 



1,307 



11 

1,290 

3 



Infusoria, 



ANIMALS. 



Monas, 
Pararaa3cium, 
Peridinium, 
Synura, . 
Trichodlna, 



Total number of organisms, 



1,372 



1,361 



1,560 



1,314 



Chemical Examination of Water from Jamaica Fond, at Various Depths: 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





5 \ 

o 1 

o 
"3 

1 


Appearance. 


Rksidub o^' 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


6 

a 

1 

.s 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•a 

1 

3 
ta 

s 
o 

So 
>t 

K 

o 






2 

3 

3 


i 


i 




e 
o 

o = 

r 




Albuminoid. { 


1 

2 


J5 




i 


a 


1 

5 


•3 

CO 


CO 
CO 




1804. ' 






























12798 


Aug. 22 


Decided, 
white. 


Slight, 
white. 


0.03 


- 


- 


.0000 


.0396 


.0158 


.0138 


- 


.0000 


.0000 


.2849 


- 


12799 


A u 11.22 


Decided, 


Slight, 


0.03 


6.80 


1.70 


.0000 


.0420 


.0158 


.0262 


.94 


.0000 .0000 




2.7 


12800 


Aug. 22 


green. 

Distinct, 

white. 


white. 
V. slight. 


0.01 


- 


- 


.0000 


.0316 


.0086 


.0230 


- 


.0100 


.0001 


_ 


- 


12801 


Aug. 22 


Decided, 


Slight, 


0.03 


_ 


_ 


.0010 


.0346 


.0102 


.0244 


_ 


.020C 


.0002 


! _ 


_ 


12802 


Aug.22 


white. 
Decided. 


yellow. 
Slight. 


0.00 


- 


- 


.6080 


.0536 


.0220 


.0316 


- 


.0040 


.0003 


; - 


- 



* The use of this pond as a source of public water supply has been permanently diecontlnnod. 

Iron in the second sample, .0100; In the last, .6000. Odor of the first four samples, none; that of the 
first three, becoming distinct on heating; odor of the last sample, offensive. The samples were col- 
lected, In the order of their numbers, at the following depths, In feet, beneath the surface : 0, 10, 20, 30 
and 40. The color of the last samplo^fter standing one day was 5.00, and was a bright yellow. 



108 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BOSTOX. 

Microscopical Examination of Water Jrom Jamaica Pond, at Various Depths. 

[Xuniber of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



August. August, 



August. 



August. 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 



23 [ 23 

12798 1 12799 



23 
12801 



23 

12S02 



PLANTS. 



Diatomaceae, 



Cyrabella, 
Synedra, 



yanophyceee, 



Anabsena, 

Clathrocystls, 

Oecillaria, 



4,816 

1,080 



3,736 



2,661 
1,000 

1 

1,660 



1,672 

32 



1,640 



7 

1 

6 

1,840 




1,840 



2,200 





2,200 



ANIMALS. 
Rhizopoda. Actinophrys, . 



Infusoria, 



Ceratium, 
Ciliated infusorian, 
Monae, . 
Peridinium, . 
Vorticella, 



Vermes, 



Anurea, 

Monocerca, 

Polyarthra, 



7 


14 





1 








5 


2 


1 





1 
1 


1 







1 









Mitcellaneoua . Zoogtea, 



Total, 



4,846 



2,679 



1,704 



20 



1,873 



2,201 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



109 



BOSTOX. 

Table ahowing the Heights in Feel above Tide-marsh Level on the First oj each 
Month of the Water iji the Lakes and Storage lieservoirs of the Boston Water 
Works,Jrum ivhich SamjAes of Water were collected during (he Year IS 94. 



Beservoir 

No. 2. 

; Flash Bdards, 

1G7.12 


Reservoir 

Xo. 3. 

Stone Crest, 

17.5.24 


Reservoir 

Xo 4. 

Flash Boards, 

215.-.'1 


Reservoir 

No. 6. 

Flash Innards, 

•.'a.3.00 


Farm Pond. 

High Water, 

149.25 


Lake 
Cochituate. 
nigh Water. 

134 36 


Mystic Lake. 

Hifih Water, 

7.00 


18»4. 

Jan. 1, 


160.17 


168.53 


178.83 




148.74 


127.94 


3.85 


Feb. 1, 


160.61 


172.32 


185.92 


259.33 


148.98 


127.. 59 


5.85 


March 1, 


166.12 


175.54 


192.70 


268.42 


149.27 


128.22 


4.87 


April 1, 


166.01 


175.40 


204.84 


281.52 


149.32 


132.60 


0.45 


May 1, 


166.02 


175.39 


211.39 


288.26 


149.50 


134.13 


6.37 


June 1, 


167.24 


175.54 


214.60 


291.08 


149.30 


134.24 


6.67 


July 1, 


162.92 


172.62 


215.26 


292.66 


149.03 


133.24 


5.46 


Aug. 1, 


. 1 162.02 


169.29 


207.36 


292.68 


148.66 


131.59 


2.35 


Sept. 1, 


162.57 


170.92 


191.63 


292.54 


148.34 


129.88 


—1.45 


Oct. 1, 


162.94 


170.95 


185.54 


283.30 


148.19 


128.14 


-4.47 


Nov. 1, 


. 1 164.08 


172.77 


187.55 


274.23 


148.34 


126.74 


—3.72 


Dec. 1, 


1 164.55 


175.40 


191.90 


275.29 


148.49 


126.27 


0.67 



Water Supply of Bradford. — Bradford Water Company. 

In the last annual report it was noted that a progressive deteriora- 
tion of this water, as compared with previous years, had occurred, 
and that the organic matter as shown by the albuminoid ammonia, 
and the product of its decomposition as shown by the free ammonia, 
Avere decidedly on the increase. The deterioration of the water has 
continued during 1894 in even a more marked degree than in pre- 
vious years, there being in particular a very great increase in free 
ammonia and in iron. In view of this condition of the water, the 
Bradford Water Company applied to the State Board of Health, in 
the latter part of 1894, for advice as to a proposed new supply, and 
as to improving the present supply pending the introduction of a 
new one. The town has decided to acquire possession of the works, 
and, it is said, will assume control of them April 1, 1895. 

The water now used is drawn, as stated in previous reports, from 
several large wells having a wooden curbing, and a considerable 
area of water surfoce is exposed to the air. The water as it tirst 
comes from the ground may be nearly or quite clear and colorless ; 
but, owing to the oxidation of the iron which it contains in solution, 
it quickly l)ccomcs turbid and colored. An extended statement with 
regard to this change is given on pages 120 and 121 of the annual 
report of the Board for 1893. 



110 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BRADFORD. 

Analyses of samples of water from the present sources and from 
Chadwick's Pond are given below ; and an analysis of a sample of 
water from Johnson's Pond, one of the proposed sources of supply, 
may be found under Groveland. 

Chemical Examinalion of Water from the Wells of the Bradford Water Companrj. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





"SO 


Apfeakaxce. 


el 

o o 

ll 


Ammonia. 


o 
c 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 

a 

3 
K 

o 


s 
o 




i 

B 


!3 


a u. 
1 1 


i 


"S 

, B 

< 


s 

g 


1 


s 
2 


11601 
11737 
11859 
12029 
12181 
12353 
12514 
12744 
12910 
12980 
13099 
13284 
13444 


1894. 

Jan. 4 

Feb. 8 
Mar. 7 
Apr. 11 
May 9 
June 12 
July 11 
Aug. 14 
Sept. 10 
Sept. 18 
Oct. 8 
Nov. 9 
Dec. 3 


Distinct, 

milky. 
Decided, 

milky. 
Distinct, 

milky. 
Distinct, 

milky. 
Distinct, 

milky. 
Slight, 

milky. 
Decided, 

milky. 
Decided, 

milky. 
Distinct, 

milky. 
Distinct, 

milky. 
Distinct, 

milky. 
Decided, 

milky. 
Decided, 

milky. 


V. slight. 

Cons., 

rusty. 
Cons., 

rusty. 
Slight. 

Slight, 

rusty. 
None. 

Cons., 

rusty. 
Cons., 

rusty. 
V. slight. 

Slight. 

Slight, 

rusty. 
V. slight. 

V. slight. 


0.50 
0.55 
0.30 
0.25 
0.30 
0.40 
0.60 
0.05 
0.50 
0.50 
0.60 
0.70 
0.45 


7.40 
5.60 
5.50 
4.80 
6.60 
6.90 
5.70 
7.20 
6.00 
5.70 
6.50 
5.10 
5.90 


.0382 
.0388 
.0394 
.0310 
.0294 
.0274 
.0502 
.0526 
.0462 
.0544 
.0416 
Lo402 
.0620 


.0046 
.0046 
.0066 
.0054 
.0034 
.0034 
.0036 
.0092 
.0048 
.0046 
.0092 
.0068 
.0056 


.30 
.30 
.27 
.32 
.29 
.25 
.27 
.24 
.26 
.29 
.28 
.28 
.29 


.1100 
.0400 
.0250 
.0350 
.0070 
.0180 
.0130 
.0050 
.0100 
.0100 
.00.50 
.0150 
.0100 


.0006 
.0001 
.0008 
.0002 
.0040 
.0009 
.0002 
.0012 
.0003 
.0000 
.0012 
.0002 
.0003 


.1120 
.1280 
.0869 
.1312 
.0847 
.1609 
.0662 
.0924 
.1347 
.1254 
.1963 
.1424 


2.6 
2.1 
2.1 
1.9 
3.4 
2.9 
1.9 
2.5 
2.9 
1.8 
2.3 
2.3 
2.8 


.1150 

.1550 
.1360 
.1220 
.0580 
.0960 
.1450 
.2000 
.0750 
.1900 
.1980 
.1900 
.1960 


Av. 








0.43 


6.08 


.0409 


.0056 


.28 


.0244 


.0008 


.1225 


1 
2.4 I.U53 















Averages by Years. 



- 


1889* 


- 


- 


0.00 


8.95 


.0000 


.0014 


.21 


.0400 


.0000 




1.0 


- 


- 


1890t 


- 


- 


0.00 


5.30 


.0002 


.0036 


.34 


.0150 


.0001 


- 


2.6 


- 


- 


isoit 


- 


- 


0.04 


6.40 


.0000 


.0027 


.23 


.0350 


.0001 


- 


1.8 


- 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.03 


6.59 


.0262 


.0029 


.28 


.0760 


.0003 


- 


2.4 


- 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.33 


5.80 


.0297 


.0047 


.30 


.0475 


.0008 


.0994 


2.6 


.0774 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.43 


6.08 


.0400 


.0056 


.28 


.0244 


.0008 


.1225 


2.4 


.1458 



• Jnly. t October. % April, two samples. 

Note to analyses of 1894: Odor, generally distinct, frequently unpleasant, Nob. 11737, 12514 and 

12080 were collected from a faucet at the pumping station, and tlio other samples from faucets In the 
town. 

Microscopical Examination. 

The avcrni^i! number of organisms per cubic centimeter found In these samples was 204, chie/ly 
Crenothrlx and Zo<jgl(cu. 



Xo. 34.] EXxVMIXATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. Ill 

BRADFORD. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Distributing Beservoir of the Bradford 

Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 
o 


ArPEARANCK. 


KKSIDUK OS 

EVAPOKA- 

TIOS. 


Ammonia. 




NiTBOGBN ; 
AS 


1 

s 






■3 




H 


1 


1 
2 


a 


OS 

00 °(i 




.VIbiimlnokl. 




B 



1 


1 




u 

3 


a 


> 


■o 


03 
hi 


g! 


■S 

U4 


































'A, 


3 1 




M 


u , 


£1 


-3 


b 


H 


Q 


oa°- 


u 


X, 


« 





a 




iNn4. 


























12981 


Sept. 18 


Slight, 
milky. 


Cons., 
gray. 


0.50 


5.70 




.0384 


.0122 


.0104 .0018 


.33 


.0200 


.0004 


.1925 


1.8 



Iron, .1000. Odor, faintly vegetable. The sample was collected from the distributing reservoir. 



Microscopical Examination. 

DiatomacefB, Synedra, 1. Algaa, Chlorococcun, 2. Fungi, Crenolhrix, 1. Miscellaneous, ZoOglcea, 
32. Total, 36. 



Chemical Examination of Water from ChndwicK's Pond, Bradford. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





ate of Collection. 


Appearanxe. 


Kksiduk on- 
Evapora- 
tion. 


' AMMONIA. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

3 

s 








>^ 






s 




Albaminold. 



















' 




1 


3 


S 




3 


§1 

CO M 




"3 


■3 

> 

"1 


■3 1 

•a ; 


1 


a 


00 


bo 


1 

3 


•^, 


- 


H 


en 





H 


>J 


h 


H 


5 


M^- ■ 


c;> 


55 


'A 





a 




IM04. 


















1 










12902 


Sept. 6 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.10 


5.30 


1.70 


.0002 


.0208 


.0180 


.0028 

1 


.35 


.0020 


.0000 


.3542 


i.g 



Iron, .0100. Odor, faintly vegetable and mouldy. The sample was collected from the pond, 300 

feet from the east shore, in connection with an investigation for a new water supply for Bradford. 



Microscopical Examination. 

No. 12902. Dlatomacese, .i'l.i^erioneWa, 14; Ci/clotella,l; .VeloKira,!. Cyanophycose, C/iroticoccua, 
8; Clathrodjutin, Vi; Jticrocynlis, 1. Algn, Protococcus, 32. Vermes, J'oli/arlhra, 1. Crustacea, 
Cydop-i, .01. Miscellaneous, ylcariwa, .02. Zo<">glaa,3i. Total, 105. 



112 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BKAEsTEEE. 

AVater Supply of Bkaintree. 
In 1893 a direct connection was made between the filter-gallery 
of the Braintree water works and Little Pond by running a 12-inch 
main from the pond into the filter-gallery. The filter-gallery fur- 
nished a suflicient suppl}^ without the use of water from the pond 
until July 12. Between that date and Septembers water was drawn 
from the pond into the filter-gallery for the supply of the town for 
a total of forty-three hours. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Filter-gallery of the Braintree Water 

Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





d 


APrKAEASCE. 


c 
o 

if 


Ammonia. 


B 
o 

6 


NiTKOGEN 
AS 


s 

3 

c 
O 


c 

03 




s 

S 

S5 


■5 

•e 

a 
E- 


£ 
rr. 


c 

c 

6 




"3 
O 

c 

< 


2 

IB 


^ 


1 

M 


11603 


1894. 

Jan. 3 


1 
None. 


None. 


0.00 


5.55 


.0000 


.0030 


.92 


.0700 


.0000 


.0858 


2.1 


.0040 


11725 


Feb. 7 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


5.10 


.0012 


.0068 


.85 


.0350 


.0000 


.1184 


1.7 


.0050 


11854 


Mar. 7 


None. 


None. 


0.05 


4.90 


.0004 


.0062 


.84 


.0580 


.0000 


.1800 


1.7 


.0050 


12034 


Apr. 11 


V. slight. 


None. 


0.00 


4.80 


.0000 


.0050 


.84 


.0630 


.0000 


.1540 


1.6 


.0100 


12174 


May 8 


1 None. 


V. slight. 


0.05 


4.50 


.0000 


.0044 


.81 


.0450 


.0000 


.1804 


1.3 


.0135 


12343 


June 11 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


0.10 


4.25 


.0002 


.0054 


.80 


.0170 


.0000 


.0077 


1.4 


- 


12551 


July 15 


! None. 


V. slight. 


0.07 


6.25 


.0006 


.0048 


.82 


.0120 


.0000 


.1140 


1.4 


.0105 


12729 


Aug. 13 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.03 


5.50 


.0000 


.0030 


.80 


.0050 


.0001 


.0847 


1.5 


.0200 


12916 


Sept. 10 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.07 


5.30 


.0010 


.0040 


.83 


.0080 


.0002 


.0847 


1.8 


.0400 


13094 


Oct. 8 


t Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.02 


5.50 


.0000 


.0058 


.86 


.0050 


.0003 


.0760 


2.2 


.0230 


13281 


Nov. 8 


' None. 


None. 


0.03 


5.45 


.0002 


.0032 


.92 


.0300 


.0008 


.0462 


1.9 


.0075 


13438 


Dec. 5 


Distinct. 


Cons., 
brown. 


0.02 


6.20 


.0010 


.0056 


1.00 


.0580 


.0000 


.0678 


1.9 


.0280 


Av. 








0.04 


5.19 


.0004 


.0048 


.86 


.0338 


.0001 


.1000 


1.7 


.0135 






i 







Averages by Years. 



1802 
1893 
1894 



0.07 
0.02 
0,03 
0.04 



7.14 
4.69 
4.72 
5.19 



.0006 
.0002 
.0002 
.0004 



.0045 
.0030 
.0049 
.0048 



.86 
.76 
.83 



.0948 
,0102 
,0363 
,0338 



.0003 
.0001 
.0001 
.0001 



.1029 
.1000 



1.8 

1.8 
1.7 



.0037 
.01^6 



* June, 1887, to May, 1888. 

Note to analyses of 1894 : Odor in March and Docetnber, faintly vcKctablc; in August, diHtinct; at 
other times, none. On hoatlni,', the odor of the March and December HuinpleH dlsuppeured, uiid the odor 

of the October Kample was dlHtinctly vegetable and iinpleuHant. 'I'bi; HiunpleH weic collected from a 

faucet at the pumplTiK station. Water was drawn from Little I'onil into llie lilter-n"llery uh follows : 
July 12, 13, 14, 20, 29, Heplember 2 and 3. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 113 

BRAIXTREE. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Filler-c/ alter y of the Braintree 

Water Works. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, 
Number of sample, . 


5 
11603 


8 
11725 


8 
11854 


13 
12034 


10 
12174 


13 
12343 


17 
12551 


14 
12729 


12 
12916 


9 
13094 


10 
13281 


7 
13438 


PLANTS. 
Fungi. Crenothrix, . 








10 








8 





210 





20 


3 


160 


ANIMALS. 
Infusoria, . 

Dinobryon, 
Dinobryon cases, 
Peridinium, 


16 



16 


1 




1 


4 

1 
3 

























4 

4 








































Miscellaneoua. Zoiigloea, 

















38 





7 


580 


380 








Total, 


16 


1 


14 








46 


4 


217 


580 


400 


3 


160 



Chemical Examination of Water Jrom a Faucet supplied from the Braintree Water 

Works. 

[Parts per 100,000 ] 





e 

o 

u 


Appeabasce. 


Kksidck on 

EVAPORA- 
TIOS. 


Ammonia. 


1 


NiTBOGEN 
AS 


1 

s 

1 






>. 








e 

o 




Albuminoid. 














QD 


a 

a 

2; 


o 

a 


5 
2 

s 


s 


c 

o 
I 


2 

o 
5h 


o s 

r 


£ 


73 


Dig- 
Bolved 

Sus- 
pended 


c 
1 
5 


2 
S 


m 


s 

g 

o 


■5 

5 




1804. 




























13045 


8ept.30 


Slight. 


Heavy, 
brown. 


0.05 


5.25 


0.90 ; 


.0002 


.0220 


.0078 


.0142 


.92 


.0180 


.0000 


.0948 


1.8 



Iron, .0900. Odor, none. The sample was collected from a faucet, three miles from the pump- 
ing station. 



Microscopical Examinatioti. 

Diaiomaceee, Synedra, i. Cynuophjcem, Clalfirocj/ntia, 4. Faagi, Cri'?iothrij',Z,0\6. Total, 3,0i4. 



114 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BRAENTTREE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Liille Pond, Braintrce. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 
"3 

o 

o 

"3 


Appearakce. 


RKSIDnE ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


£ 

o 
2 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 

s 

n 
c 

5 

c 
to 
>> 

o 






3 


1 


o 
o 




c 
c 


a) 


Albuminoid. 


2 


!? 




a 


o 


5 


-a 

to ^ 

5^ 


c 
■o 


1894. 






1 


















11724 Feb. 7 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.18 


4.50 


1.70 


.0026 


.0314 


.0242 


.0072 


.85 


.0050 


.0000 


.4560 1.1 


12173 Mar. 8 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.30 


3.95 


1.55 


.0002 


.0170 


.014S 


.0022 


.72 


.0030 


.0000 


.4494 0.8 


12728 


Aug. 13 


Distinct. 


Blight. 


0.25 


3.45 


1.05 


.0004 


.0238 


- 


- 


.77 


.0000 


.0000 


.3426 0.8 


13280 


Nov. 8 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.25 


4.20 


1.35 


.0026 


.0234 


.0182 
.0191 


.0052 
.0048 


.82 
.79 


1.0000 


.0000 


.3888 1.1 


Av. 






0.25 


4.03 


1.41 


.0015 


.0239 


.0020 -iifinn 


.4092 in 






1 1 











Odor of all samples, vegetable, and of the August sample also mouldy; the odor of the last two 
samples became stronger on heating. The samples were collected from the pond. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from Little Pond, Braintrec. 

[N'umber of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



February. 



May. 



August. 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, . 

PLANTS. 
Dlatomaceee, . 

Cyanophycese, 

Anabajna, .... 
Chroiicoccus, 
ClHtlirDcyBtJH, . 
MtTiMmopedia, . 
MlcrocyHliH, 

Algse, 

ArthrodcHmuB, . 

Nephrocyllum, . 

ProtococcuB, 

Kaphidlum, 

Ti;traHpora, 

ZiiiJBporeH, 

Fungi, Crenotbriz, 

ANIMALS, 
Bhizopda. MIcrogromla, . 

Infusoria, .... 

iJiiiobryon, 
J>lnobryon caHUS, 

MoriiiH 

Pfrldlnluin, 
Tlntliinldium, . 
Truchelomonaii, . 

Mltcell'tneouH, Zo()glcea, 

Tfrt'AL 



11724 



10 
12173 



14 
12728 



10 
13280 



pr. 
29 



864 
800 
62 
1 

I 
1 



44 





I 


pr. 


pr. 



80 



875 



124 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 115 



BROCKTOX, 



Water Supply of Brockton. 



The advice of the State Board of Health to the city of Brockton, 
relative to increasing the water supply of the city and providing a 
high-service supply for certain districts, may be found on pages 12 
and 13 of this volume. 

It has already been indicated in previous reports that the quality 
of the water supplied to the city improved very much from 1887 to 
1891, and remained nearly constant after 1891. It will be seen, by 
reference to the table of averages by years on the following page, 
that the average analysis for 1894 is very nearly the same as those 
of the three years immediately preceding. 

On five occasions during the first half of 1894 samples of water 
were collected before and after passing through the open tank, in 
which the water is aerated by forcing air into it through a system of 
perforated pipes laid near the bottom of the tank. By reference to 
the table on page 118, giving the comparison of examinations before 
and after aeration, it will l)e ol)served that the aeration does not 
cause any material change in the character of the water, so far as 
can be determined by the examination of samples. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Salisburij Brook, at the Point where it enters 
the Storage Reservoir of the Brockton Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 


Appeakakce. 


1 


Kksiduk on 

EVAPOBA- 


1 AMMONIA. 




UlTBOGES 


1 






?; 








TIOK. 








s 






■3 




>, 













Albuminoid. 








c 

;1 












aa 








= 






c:;^ 






■a 


■3 






OB 


a 


s 


S 


ti 




u 


S 


c 


•3 


t^ 


« 


a 


> 


•0 

00 ^ 





£ 


"w 




c 

•2 


































5?; 


- 


r- 


oc 





H 


>A 


b 


H 


a 


s.°- 


u 


'A 


K 





- 




1894. 


























VZUl 


May 2 


Distinct. 


Slight, 
browD. 


o.vo 


3.10 


1.35 


.0004 


.0172 .0152'. 0020 


.41 

1 


.0000.0000 

1 


.6800 0.3 


12491 


July 9 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.20 


4.00 


2.20 


.0006 


.0314 .0280' .0028 


1.47 


.0000 .0000 


.8478 0.6 

1 



Odor of the first sample, decidedly vecetable and sweetish, becoming unpleasant and oily on heat- 
lug; of tlie second eiiniple, distinctly vfuotable and swcetiHl), becoming faintly mouldy on heating. 

The samples were collected from the brook, just above the reservoir. 



Microscopical Examination. 

No. 12147. T)\AXomnceK, Aiierionella,bh; Cijmbelln, 1; Diadetmun, 10; J/f7o«»rfi, 36; Si/iiedra, ' ; 
Tabellaria, 05. Cyi\uo\i\iycQK, Anaheina, 2; A\gsi,ArthroileDmHS,1; Conferva, \. Fungi, CV"<HoWri>, 
2. Infusoria, /)ifjo/)ri/OH casc^, 14; Peridhiium,\. Total, 166. 

No. 12491. Diatomaceae, Ante rioii ilia, 4; Diatoina, 1; Synetlra, 20; Tabellaria, 580. AlgSB, Con- 
fertHt, 1; Cosmariiim, 1; I'amlorina,'!; Scenedesmus, 1. Fungi, Crtnotlirix, 28. Infusoria, Peridi. 
nium,4; 7'rac/ielomonas, 2; yermee, Jfonocerca,!; Polyart/ira, 1. Total, 646. 



116 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BROCKTOX. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Salisbury Brook Storage Bcservoir, 

Brockton. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 

1 

1 

o 


1 

Appearakce. 


Kksidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


j Ammonia. 


,44 


KiTBOGEN 
AS 


1 

= 

1 

1 

! c 






' I 


Zi 


o 

5 


5 

p 


o 
o 


i 


Albuminoid. 


s 


.2 




z 


> 




S 

□ 


11587 


1894. 1' 

.Jan. 2 Slight. 


Cons., 

rusty. 
Slight. 


0.75 


4.60 


2.25 


.0016 


.0272 .0198 


.0074 


.0020 


,0000 


i 
1.7683 


0.6 


11712 


Feb. 5 Slight. 


0.70 


4.15 


2.00 


.0028 


.0198 ,0168 


.0030 


.45 


.0000 


,0000 


1,8000 


0.8 


11839 


Mar. 5 Slight. 


Slight. 


0.80 


4.00 


1.80 


.0008 


.0176 .0156 


.0020 


143 


.ooso'.oooo 


.7424 


0.6 


11982 


Apr. 2' Slight. 


Slight, 


0.68 


3.55 


1.65 


.0000 


.0164 


.0140 


.0024 


,37 


.0030 ,0000 


.5783 


0.2 


12148 


May 2 ''Decided. 


Cons. 


0.75 


2.85 


1.10 


.0008 


.0206 


.0154 


.0052 


,41 


.0000 .0000 


.7232 


0.3 


12315 
12492 


June 5 1 Distinct. 
July 9 ! Distinct. 


Cons., 

yellow. 
Slight, 

yellow. 
Slight, 

brown. 
Cons., 

brown. 
Cons. 


0.90 
0.90 


3.40 
3.40 


1.65 
1.60 


.0006 
.0004 


.0226 
.0238 


.0196 
.0218 


.0030 
.0020 


,36 
,45 


.0050 ,0000 
,0000 ,0000 


.7084 
.6730 


0.6 
0.4 


12676 
12884 
13078 


Aug. 7 |! Slight. 
Sept. 5 ! Distinct. 
Oct. 3 Distinct. 


0.75 
0.80' 
O.SOj 


3.45 
3.30 
3.35 


1.55 
1.20 
1.45 


.0000 
.0002 
,0060 


.0222 
.0248 
.0262 


.0198 
.0210 
.0188 


.0024 
.0038 
.0074 


.43 
.42 
.45 


.0020 
.0000 
.0000 


.0000 
.0001 
.0000 


.5890 
.5082 
.5530 


0.8 
0.6 
0.5 


13265 


Nov. 6 Distinct. 


Cons., 


0.88! 


4.00 


1,55 


.0010 .0278 


.0206 


.0072 


,50 


,0050 


.0000 


.5775 


1.3 


13437 


Dec. 5 Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.95^ 


4.50 


1.70 


,0002 .0250 


.0226 .0024 


,51 


,0050 


.0000 


.7438 


1.1 


Av.. 






81 


3 71 


1.63 


0012 i'"'B 


0188 ^^^f^ 


,44 


,0021 


.0000 


.6638 


0,7 










1 






1 



Averages by Years. 



- 


1887* ' 


-. 


- 


0.99 


4.94 


2.25 


'.0033 


.0541 


_ 


. 


.33 


.0069 


_ 


- 


_ 


1888 


- 


- 


0.76 


3.77 


1.61 


'.0031 


.0309 


- 


- 


,31 


.0066 


.0001 


- 




- 


1880 


- 


- 


0.78 


2.79 


1.01 


Lo028 

1 


.0306 


.0218 


.0078 


.30 


.0048 


.0002 


- 




- 


1890 1 


- 


- 


0.75 


4.07 


1.98 


1.0016 


.0274 


.0219 


.0055 


.32 


.0063 


.0001 


- 


0.9 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.62 


3.16 


1.45 


'.0010 


.0213 


.0169 


.0044 


.28 


.0061 


,0001 


- 


0.6 


- 


1892 ; 


- 


_ 


0.55 


3.41 


1.37 


.0004 


,0213 


.0168 


.0045 


.36 


.0030 


,0000 


- 


0.7 


- 


1893 ! 


- 


- 


0.67 


8.59 


1.70 


.0007 


,0237 


.0196 


.0041 


.40 


,0019 


,0001 


.6545 


0.7 




1894 ! 

1 


- 


- 


0,81 


3,71 


1.63 


.0012 


.0228 


.0188 


.0040;!. 44 


.0021 


.0000 


.6688 


0.7 



* June to December. 



Note 10 iinalyHcs of 18!il: Odor, Kcuernlly dlHtlnclly vc({Ctnblc, Bonictlmon mouldy, unplcuHnnl or 

di#aKrccablc. In May the odor lifcanrn- oily on heating. The Biimpk'H were collected fiorn Ihe 

reservoir, near the itatehouHc, 1 foot Ix^npath the Burfnce. For a record of heights of water in this 
re«er\'olr on dntcH when HamplcH of water were collected for aniilyslH, nee pa^'o 119. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 117 

BROCKTON. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Salisbury Brook Storage Bcserooir, 

Brockto7i. 

[Number of organisrae per cubic centimeter.] 















1894. 














Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug 


.Sept. 


Oct. 


Kov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, . 
Number of earn pie, . 


4 

11587 


6 
11712 


6 
11839 


4 
11982 


3 

12148 


6 
12315 


10 
12492 


8 
12676 


6 
12884 


5 
13078 


8 
13265 


7 
13437 


PLANTS. 
DIatomacese, 

Asterionella, 
Dintoma, 
Meiosira, 
Synedra, 
Tobellaria, . 

Algae 

Arthrodesmus, . 
Chlorococcu«, 
Clostcrium, . 
Pediastruin, . 
Protococcurt, 
Rapliidium, . 
Sceucdesmus, 

Fungi, Crenolhrix, 


384 

52 

4 

148 

lE^ 

2 

2 







2 


10 

4 



6 

pr. 

pr. 










21 

21 







pr. 














103 

27 



24 

1 
51 

2 





2 

pr. 




252 

92 

4 

104 

4 

48 

2 







2 

6 


610 

28 
n 

145 
1 

436 

20 


4 


15 

1 




2,973 


3 

10 



2,960 

12 







10 



• 2 




377 

168 


5 

204 

9 

3 




6 





2,389 

32 

1 

116 

480 

1,760 

15 

2 


2 

8 
3 




798 

60 
1 

516 

1 
220 

90 

7 
2 
66 
5 
4 
8 
8 




750 

72 



482 

28 
168 

58 


4 

2 

4 



48 




36 

7 


4 
25 

2 


2 









ANIMALS. 
Khizopoda, Ditllugia, . 

Infusoria, 

Diiiobryon, . 
Dinobryon cases, 
Euulena, 
Mallomonas, 
Peridiniiim, . 
TintinniJium, 
Trachcloraonas, . 

Vermes, .... 

Anurea, 
Polyarthra, . 
Kolatorlan ova, . 
Rotifer, 

Crustacea, . 

Cyclops, 

Crustacean remains, . 


2 

2 





2 



3 

2 
1 











195 

17 

108 

pr. 



70 





1 

pr. 

1 

pr. 

pr. 









64 


28 


36 



pr. 





pr. 











120 


78 


42 



pr. 

pr. 
pr. 

^^0 









43 


38 


5 











.02 


.02 




7 




3 
4 


















224 





224 



1 

1 




.01 


.01 




92 





92 
















2 

13 




1 


10 

2 

1 

1 




.01 

.01 




1 

3 






2 
1 

I 

1 




.03 

,03 



11 

42 





40 

2 

2 


2 











52 





52 



2 



1 



1 



' 



jnacellaneotts. Zocigloea, . 


68 








5 





52 


240 


600 


400 


680 


228 





TOTAt, .... 


403 


206 


85 


230 


303 


689 


3,450 


1,078 


2,820 


1,573 


1,091 


92 



lis 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BROCKTOX. 

Cowparison of Examinatio7is of Water from the Brockton Water Wo7'ks before 
and ajler Aeration in the Open Tank. 

Note. —Figures in bold-face type show results of examinations before aeration. Figures in 
Roman type show results of examinaiiuns after aeration. 





s 
_o 

o 

"3 

o 
o 

■3 

a 


Appearance. 


Odob. 


1 

'A 


a 


B 




'a 



Cold. 


Hot. 


11587 
1158S 
11712 
11711 

11839 
11840 
11982 
11931 

12315 
12316 


Jan. 2 
Jan. 2 
Feb. 5 
Feb. 5 

Mar. 5 
Mar. 5 
Apr. 2 
Apr. 2 

June 5 
June 5 


Sli't. 

V.slight. 

Sli't. 
1 
1 DiBl't. 

Sli't. 

Slight. 
Sli't. 
Slight. 

Dist't. 
Slight. 


Cons., 
rusty. 
Slight. 

Sli't. 

Heavy, 
dark, 
earthy. 
Sli't. 

Hpavy, 

brown. 
Sli't. 

ConB., 
dark, 
brown. 

Cons., 

yellow 

Cuus., 
rusty. 


0.75 

0.80 
0.70 
0.80 

0.80 
0.80 
0.68 
0.70 

0.90 
0.85 


Distinctly vegetable 
and. aromatic. 

Distinctly vegetable and aro- 
matic. 

Distinctly vegetable, 
sTveetish. 

Diftiuctly vegetable, sweet- 
ish. 

Distinctly vegetable, 
sweetish. 

Dii'tiuclly vegetable, sweet 
iflli . 

Distinctly vegetable 
and earthy. 

Dixiiiicily vegetable, sweet- 
ish. 

Decidedly vegetable 

and mouldy. 
Decidedly vegetable and 
mouldy. 


Distinctly vegetable. 
Distinctly vegetable. 

Distinctly vegetable, 

sweetisn. 
Dirttiuctly vegetable, sweet- 

ieh. 

Distinctly vegetable, 

sweetish. 
Fuiully vigetable. 

Distinctly vegetable, 

sweetish. 
Decidedly vegetable and 

mouldy. 

Decidedly vegetable, 

sweetish. 
Decidedly vegetable and 

eweeti^h. 


Av. 
Av 








0.77 
0.79 





























Coviparison of Examinalio7is of Water frovi the Brockton Water Works before 
and aJlcr Aeration in the Open Tajik — Conoliuled. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 









UKtill) 


UK ON 1 








NlTIIOOEN 


•d 






4. 
2 




1 

"3 








KVAHOKA- 1 
TION. 




Ammonia. 


oS 
c 




A8 


s 

§ 

u 

c 

K 


•3 


c 








a 


C 



, 


Albuminoid. 


1 


1 


O.S 


1 

a 
9 


2 

c 


•d 






2; 


a 




H 


2 


u. 


H 


a 


a.- 1 


U 


'/i 


« 





a 









1894 












1 
1 














11587 


Jan. 


2 4.60 


2.25 


.0016 


.0272 


.0198 


.00741 


.44 


.0020 


.0000 


.7683 


0.6 


.0235 


463 


ll.'iXS 


.Ian. 


■1 ' 4.;i(i 


i.y.i 


.OIK hi 


.1 l-.il Irt 


.0184 


.111122 


.41 


.00110 


.01100 


.82211 


0.5 


.0-.i'^,i 


fi.5 


11712 


Feb. 


5 4.15 


2.00 


.0028 


,0198 


.0168 


,0030 


.45 


,0000 


.0000 


.8000 


0,8 


.0360 


206 


lITIi 


I-VI,. 


.'. 4.11.) 


2.0.0 


.IMI.iH 


Mltl 


.017.1 


.ooilt 


.4>1 


.IMI..0 


.000(1 


.720(1 


O.H 


.0:11 iO 


43.') 


11839 


Mar. 


5 , 4.00 


1.80 


.0008 


.0176 


.0156 


.0020 


.43 


.0030 


.0000 


,7424 


0.6 


.0300 


85 


11^41 


Mar. 


.'. 4.i».'i 


1 .XII 


III II II'. 


. 1 12 1 2 


.0171 


.oiiiis 


.4:1 


.oij:;o 


.1111110 


.74110 


0.0 


.irj'.io 


W8 


11982 


Apr. 


2 ! 3.55 


1.65 


.0000 


.0164 


,0140 


,0024 


.37 


,0030 


,0000 


.5783 


0.2 


.0260 


230 


liw^i 


A|.r. 


■I 


i.Mt 


1.41) 


.iiumi 


.III '.III 


.01:1s 


.U0.'i2 


.:if, 


.11000 


.OUOll 


. ;..i-/'J 


0.2 


.0200 


3:10 


12315 


June 6 


3.40 


1.65 


1 .0006 


.0226 


.0196 


.0030 


.36 


.0050 


.0000 


.7084 


0,6 


- 


689 


VHM 


.June 


h 


3.a.5 


1.00 

1.87 


1 .0014 


.02.14 


.(il'.iii 


.011-14 


.:is 
,41 


.oo;iu 


.0000 


.704.0 


0.0 


- 


471 


Av. 


1 




3.94 


.0012 


.0207 


.0172 


.0035 


,0026 


,0000 


.7195 


n.R 


,0289 


335 


Av. 





... 


3.82 


1.76 


.0014 

i 


.0217 

1 


.0173 


.0044 


.41 


.0022 


.0000 


i .7081 

1 


0.5 


.0209 

1 


287 



No. 34.] EXAMIXATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



119 



BROCKTOX. 

Table showing Height of Water in Salisbury Brook Storage Reservoir, Brockton, on 
the First Day of Each Month in 1894. 

[Note. —High-water mark ie 14.25 feet.] 



Jan. I, 
Feb. 1, . 
March 1, . 
April 1, , 
May 1, 
June 1,* . 



Ueiglit 

of 
Water. 



Feet. 
14.25 



14.25 
14.25 
14.25 
14.25 
14.75 



July 1, 
1, 



Ang. 
Sept. 1, 
Oct. 1, 



Height 

of 
Water. 



Feet. 
13.67 



10.17 
8.73 



Nov 1 ! 9.90 

Dec. 1 14.25 



* In the latter part of May, 1894, the water was raised temporarily 6 inches above high-water mark. 

Chemical Examiyiation of Water from Underdrains beneath the Seivers at Brockton 

[PartB per 100,000.] 





c 
o 


Appearancb. 


1 


Ammonia. 




Mtkogkn 

AS 


•o 
w 

S 

3 
















•d 








1 




2 
3 


g 
S 


u 

o 


o o. 

= ? 
la 


» 


o 
c 


i 


1 
g 






1 


a 






























» 


a 


t- 


CO 


O 


a 


b 


< 


S 


» . 


!5 


o 








1804. 


1 
























11664 


Jan. 19 


eileht. 


Slight, 


0.02 


16.10 


.0640 


.0060 


1.82 


.2100 


.0050 


.0671 


3.9 


.1240 






milky. rusty. 






















12477 


July 5 


Dietitict, 
milky. 


Cons , 
snod. 


0.05 


15.90 


.7200 .0160 


2.13 


.1150 


.0020 


.2425 


4.2 


.0180 


12478 


July 5 


V. slight, 
milky. 


V. slight. 


0.08 


14.90 


.0720 .0064 


1.88 


.2650 


.0030 


.1124 


4.9 


.0220 


12479 


July 6 


V. slight, 
, milky. 

1 


Cone., 
rusty. 


0.00 


16.00 


.0194 .0090 


2.13 


.4000 


.0012 


.0269 


3.9 


.2600 



Odor, of the first sample, faintly musty; of the second, decided of gas tar; of the third, distinctly 

musty; and of tlie fourth, distinct, of fermentation. The samples were collected as follows: the 

first two from an underdrain at a manhole in Summer Street, near Grove Street; the third, from an 
underdraiu at the pumping station; and the last, from an underdrain near Perkins Avenue. 

Microscopical Examination. 

The numher of organisms per cubic centimeter found in each of three samples was as follows: 
No. 11661, 272; No 12477, 1,2S0; No. 12478, 34; No. 12479, 670. The numbers found consisted almost 
wholly of Crouothrix and Zougloea. 



Water Supply of Brookfield. 
The reservoir from which the supply of this town has been taken 
became dry about the middle of August, 1894, and is said to have 
remained so for about two months. During a portion of this time 
water for the supply of the town was pumped from the Quaboag 
River. 



120 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BROOl^TrELD. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the town of Brookfield, 
relative to the use of the Quaboag River as a temporary source of 
water supply for the town, may be found on page 13 of this volume. 

Chemical Examination of Wate?' from South Pond, Brookfield. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Residue on 








•o 






§ 


Appearakce. 




Evapora- 


ASISIONIA. 






a 

3 

B 

o 

U 

c 






1 
■a 






tion. 












>. 


^ 






S 
c — 




Albimiinoid. 


0? 






b 




-3 


■d 


s 


.a 
S 


e 


5 


a 


o 


t 


c = 


9 


2 


> 


•a 


o 


£ 


T. 


>> 


a 
■H 


































^ 


^ 


E- 


OQ 


O 


E- 


_3 


'•^ 


fr* 


-- 


a:*^ 


U 




^ 


o 


a 




1894. 






















13032 


Sepi26. 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.02 


2.25 


0.45 


.0000 


.0110 .0098 .0012 

1 1 


.21 


.0000 .0000 


.0962 


0.8 



Odor none. The sample was collected from Souther Podunk Pond, near the surface, 250 feet 

from the shore, in connection with an Investigation for a neve water supply for Brookfield. This sam- 
ple was nearly colorless, but at times, water having a high color backs into this poud from Quaboag 
Pond, and the character of the water in the vicinity of the outlet of South Pond is affected Ihoruby. 

Microscoincal Examination. 

Diatomacese, .(4«i«WoneHa, 152; Cyclotetla,!; Fraffilaria, 40; 3/elosira, 11; Tabellaria, 8b. Cyano- 
■phycese, Anabcena,Z; Jficrocystia, 56. Algsd, Protococcus,5. Infusoria, Pcridinium, 7. Miscellaneous, 
ZooglijM, 20. Total, 360. 



Water Supply of Brookline. 

It was noted in the annual report for 1891 that the works for ob- 
taining water for the supply of Brookline from the ground near the 
Charles River at West Roxbury had been enlarged by laying a cast- 
iron pipe 24 inches in diameter from the pumping station along the 
AVest Roxbury bank of the river and across the river to the Dedham 
side. Forty-three tubular wells were connected with this pipe. 

During the summer of 1894 still more extensive additions were 
made to the collecting system by extending the pipe above mentioned 
and building branches from it, and by adding more wells. At the 
pre.'^eiit time tlic pipe has a total length, including branches, of G,620 
feet, and 178 tul)ular wells 2| inches in diameter, ranging in depth 
from 35 to 95 feet, are connected with it. The diameter of the pipe, 
including branches, ranges from 8 to 24 inches. The main pipe 
of the collecting system is connected with the pumps, so that it may 
be used as a suction pipe ; and it is also connected with the pump 
well into Avhich the water will flow from the present driven wells 
by gravity. The bottom of the pipe is about 7 feet lower than the 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 121 

BROOIvLINE. 

ordinary level of the water in the river. The pumps are placed at 
a low level, and the water in the ground can be drawn by them to 
a considerable depth below the bottom of the suction pipe. 

Chemical ExamincUion of Water from a Faucet at the Low-service Pumping 
Station of the Brookline Water Works. 

[Parts per lOO.OiM.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appearakce. 


1 ' 

11 

Ha 
1 i 


AVUOKIA. 


S 


KiTROOKS 
AS 


Oxygen 

Consumed. 


s 

■5 




a 

3 

S5 


3 


c 

3 

■5 


u 

■3 




1 


2 



e 

< 


s 

1 


m 



a 
2 


11789 


1894. 

Feb. 19 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


7.95 I 


.0020 


.0010 


.55 


.0250 

1 


.0000 


.0640 
1.0570 


4.2 


.0050 


13116 


Oct. 9 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


9.10 j 


.0010 


.0010 


.68 


:.oi8o 


.0002 


4.6 


.0050 


13334 


Nov. 19 


None. 


None. 


0.05 


9.40 


.0008 


.0028 


.68 


.0420 


.0000 


•.0663 


4.4 


.0030 


13529 


Dec. 19 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


9.60 


.0000 


.0018 


.68 


.0380 


.0000 


.0500 


4.9 


.0010 


Av 








0.02 


9.01 


.0010 


.0017 


.65 


.0308 


.0001 


.0593 


4.5 


.0035 













Odor, none; of No. 13334, becomin? faintly vegetable on heating. The samples were collected 

from a faucet at the low-service pumping station, and represent a mixture of water from the filter- 
gallery and tubular wells. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 11789. Miscellaneous, ZoogUea, 4. 

No organisms were found in the remaining samples. 

CJionical Examination of Water from the Filter-gallery and Tubular Wells of the- 

Brookline Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

o 
■3 

2 

a 
C 


.Vppearakcb. 


§ 

s 

3 > 

1 


AMUON'IA. 




c 



s 


NlTBOOKN 
AS 


•6 

it 
B 
3 

c 


r^ 

ao 
>> 

M 



s 

s 

"5 

03 




1 

a 

a 

as 


3 

! 3 
1 ^ 


■5 

•JD 


u 

a 



1 


2 


< 




1 ! 


a 

2 




1891. 


















' 








13184 


Oct. 22 


None. 


None. 


0.03 


8.30 


.0014 


.0010 


.58 


.0300 


.0000 


.0592 


4.2 


.0050 


13185 


Oct. 22 


None. 


None. 


0.01 


7.70 


.0014 


.0012 


.44 


.0000 


.0000 


.0671 


3.6 


.0020 


131S6 


Oct. 22 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


9.80 


.0008 


.0008 


.63 


.0380 


.0001 ' 


.0592 


4.6 


.0030 


Av. 








0.02 


8.43 


.0012 


.0010 


.55 


.0227 


.0000 1 


.0618 


4.1 


.0033 













Odor, none. The first sample was collected frora the eastern filter-gallery, the second from tha 

western tilter-gullery and the last from the driven wells. 



Microscopical Examination. 



No organisms. 



122 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



BROOKXrXE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Covered Reservoir of the Brookline 

Water Works. 

[PartB per 100,000.] 





5 
"5 

J 


APPEARA^•CE. 


s 

fl 


Ammonia. 


c 


KITROGBN 
AS 


1 

s 
c 

§3 

an 
>> 

o 


c 

B 




c 

s 




i 

•5 


o 
o 


£ 


o 

c 

is 
< 


1 

2 




2 




1894. 


























117S8 


Feb. 19 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


8.40 


.0004 


.0014 


.55 


.0270 


.0000 


.0720 


4.2 


.0050 


13117 


Oct. 9 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


9.30 


.0000 


.0020 


.62 


.0330 


.0000 


.0365 


4.2 


.0050 


13333 


Nov. 19 


None. 


None. 


0.04 


9.30 


.0000 


.0016 


.68 


.0450 


.0000 


.0024 


4.4 


.0000 


13530 


Dec. 19 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.03 


9.60 


.0000 


.0016 


.66 


.0400 


.0000 


.0554 


4.9 


.0000 


Av. 








0.02 


9.15 


.0001 


.0017 


.63 


.0363 


.0000 


.0566 


4.4 


.0025 






j 





Odor, when cold, none. The odor of No. 13,530 became very faintly vegetable ou heating. The 

samples were collected from the covered reservoir. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 11788. Fungi, Crenoihrix, 16. 

No. 13117. Fungi, Crenoihrix, 1. 

No organisms were found in the remaining samples. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Charles River, opposite the Filter-gallery of 
the Drooklvie Water Works at West Roxbury. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 

























g 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 








1 






tion. 








a 

3 

B 
O 


















Albuminoid 






































o 


>. 


■s 






s 






T3 


■d 


o5 


to 






S 


1 

s 


"a 


•a 

'2 


.a 


i 


o 




o 




1 3 


■a 
, c 

3 a 


o 


2 


<u 




a 
•a 
a 


SS 


C 


H 


09 


o 


H 


fc. 


Eh 


Q 


cc 


O 


'A 


2 


O 


a 




1M94. 




























13183 


Oct. 22 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.60 

1 


5.95 


2.00 


.0006 


.0180 


.0168 


.0012 


.59 


.0030 


.0000 


.6530 


1.7 



Odor, faintly vegetable, becoming also mouldy on heating. 
river, opposite the Brookline Water Works. 



-The sample was collected from the 



* Microscopical Examination. 

Diatomaceee, Aittp/ilphorn, 1; OycloUlIn, 1; Meridlon, 3; Navlcula, 2; Pinnularla, 1; Synedra, 
6; Tabeilurla, 1. Aligvu, Clonterlam, I; Zounporee, I, Fungi, Crewo^Arte, 30. Total, 46. 



Water Supply of Cambridge. 

The city of Cambridge ha.s begun the construction of a large 
storage reservoir upon Hobbs Brook in Waltham, the main tributary 
of Stony Brook. Samples of water have l)een collected monthly 
from Hobbs Brook for analysis, beginning with July, and the results 
may bo found on page 127. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 123 



CAMBRIDGE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Fresh Pond, Cambridge. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 
1 


Appearance. i 

1 


UKSIliL'K OS 

EVAPOKA- 

TION. 


Amuonia. 


c 
.64 


NITROGKS 
AS 


§ 

1 

c 
Sc 
X 








•5 
3 

3 

5- 


1 
1 


i 


"3 
o 


e 
a 

c~ 
= 5, 

o 




Albuminoid. | 


OS 

Of 

1 


S 




1 

s 


"a 


■a 

> 

1 o 

5 


•a 

■a 
1 c 

aD V 

3 Q. 


S 
•a 
a 


11589 


1894. 

Juu. 3 


Slight. 


Cons., 


0.25 


7.35 


1.90 


.0114 


.0172 


.0152 


.0020 


.0200 .0014 


.4251 


3.2 








green. 




















11708 


Feb. 5 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.30 


6.70 


2.10 


.0084 .0174 


.0142 .0032 


.65 


.0150 .0005 

1 


.4600 3.0 


11836 


Ifar. 5 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.35 


6.80 


1.85 


.0004 .0208 


.0182.0026 


.62 '.0300 .0002! .4920 


3.0 


11987 


April 2 


V. Blight. 


Cons., 


0.32 


8.65 


1.80 


.0000 .0198 


.0164 


.0034 


.66 .0280.00031.4004 3.1 








green. 














1 




1 


12140 


May 2 


Distinct. 


Cons., 


0.30' 


6.15 


1.90 


.0008 .0192 


.0158 


.0034 


.64 


.0200 .0002 


.4520 2.7 








green. 






















12309 


June 5 


Distinct. 


Cons., 


0.30 


6.15- 


1.85 


.0010 .0228 


.0194 


.0034 


.58 


.0330 .0004 


.4235 


2.9 




1 




green. 












1 












12485 


July 9 


Distinct, 
greun. 


Slight, 
green. 


0.28 


6.65 


1.85 


.0064 .0270 


.0198 


.0072 


.63 1.0100 


.0006 .4543 


2.7 


12671 


Aug. 7 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.23 


6.65 


1.90 


.0016 .0188 


.0166 


.0022 


.60 


.0030 


.0006. 3696 


2.9 


12891 


Sept. 5 


Slight. 


Blight, 
green. 


0.18 


8.50 


1.50 


.0002 


.0202 


.0150 


.0052 


.67 


,.0225 


.0005 .3388 


3.1 


13063 


Oct. 2 


Slight, 


Slight, 


0.20 


7.00 


1.50 


.0012 


.0182 


.0150 


.0032 


.74 


.0100 


.0003 .3357 


3.1 






1 green. 


green. 


























13259 


Nov. 5 


' Slight. 


Cons., 
green. 


0.40 


7.35 


1.70 


.0274 


.0168 


.0128 


.0040 


.78 


.0150 


.0008 


.3542 


3.6 


13425 


Dec. 4 


.Slight. 


Cons., 
light 


0.50 


7.75 


1.85 


.0164 


.0204 


.0154 


.0050 


.71 


.0130 


.0022 


.3657 

1 


3.5 








green. 1 
























Av. 




1 




0.30 


6.98 


1.81 


.0063 


.0199 


.0162 


.0037 


.66 


.0183 


.0007 


.4059 


8.1 






1 







Averages by Tears. 



1887* 1 




- 


0.04 


17.32 


1888 




- 


0.17 


11.11 


1889 1 


- 


- 


0.11 


9.86 


1890 


- 


- 


0.11 


8.87 


1891 


- 


- 


0.15 


7.94 


1892 


- 


- 


0.16 


7.23 


1893 


- 


- 


0.27 


8.60 


1894 


- 


- 


0.30 


1 6.98 



1.94 :|.010o .0180 
1.79 .0132.0206 
.0145.0220 



1.83 
1.41 
1.80 
1.67 
1.82 



,0170 



.0050 



;2.ii 

li.io 
I I 
;o.90i 



.0098 .0221. 0168' .0053 0.83' 



.0095 .02351. 0162, .0073 



.0086.0210 



.0161 



.0100 .0202 .0165 .0037 



0.67 
0.58 



.0266 


- 


- 


.0261 


.0007 


- 


.0334 


.0008 


- 


.0303 


.0004 

1 


- 


.0333 


.0004 


- 


.0249 


.0003 


- 


.0285 


.0006 


.4043 


.0183 


.0007 


.4059 



4.1 

3.8 
3.4 
3.2 
3.1 



* June to December. 

Note to analyses of 1894: Odor, generally distinctly vegetable; on heating, the odor generally be- 
comes stroncor ami unpleasant or grassy. The samples were collected from the pump well at the 

pumping station. For a record of heights of water in this pond at times when samples of water were 
collected fur analysis, see page 127. 



124 



STATE BOAED OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



CAMBRIDGE. 

IIic7'oscopical Examination of Water from Fresh Pond, Cambridge. 

[Number of organisrae per cubic centimeter.] 















1894 


• 














Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov.l Dec. 


Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 


4 
11589 


5 
11706 


6 
11836 


3 
11967 


3 
12140 


6 
12309 


9 
12485 


7 
12671 


8 
12891 


2 7 5 
13053 13269 13425 

! 


PLANTS. 
Diatomacese, . 

Asterionella, . 

Cyclotella, 

Franilaria, 

Meloaira, . 

iSteplmnodiscUB, 

Svncdra, . 

Tabellaria, 

Cyanophycese, 

Anabaena, 
j\pbanocap8a, 
Chniijcoccus, . 
Cbiihrocyetis, . 
OBcillaria, 

Algae, . 

Botrycoccus, . 
ClOBierium, 
O|)hiocyiium, . 
]\iuclorina, 
I'rolococcus, . 
Kaphidium, 
6ccnfdPHmii8, . 
SlauruBtnim, . 
Telraspora, 

Fungi, Crenotlirix, 




• 


2,911 

640 

210 

43 

400 

38 



1,580 









22 


pr. 
pr. 



6 

pr. 
16 





689 

11 

84 

24 

8 

2 



560 









6 



1 

2 




3 





99 

3 
64 
10 
8 


14 










2 



1 





pr. 
1 





1.007 

60 
36 

m 

70 
pr. 
134 









5 


pr. 


3 

1 
1 


5 


2,355 

420 
96 
35 

460 
44 

100 
1,200 









389 



5 

378 

3 
3 





870 

13 

136 



38 

2 

1 

480 

14 

14 





1,174 



2 





240 





252 

6S0 




92 


36 
29 


15 
12 

46 

41 


5 


821 

8 


16 



780 

14 

3 





27 



4 



22 

1 



20 

9 

8 
3 


41 


1 


40 








76 


12 
57 
7 




10 

8 
1 


1 



1 









1 





142 

16 


49 

16 


60 
1 

113 


100 


13 

17 


10 





1 

6 





457 

98 
2 

60 
202 

56 
3 

36 

5 

5 





4 





4 






13 


2,156 

040 


20 
640 
216 

44 
296 

14 






14 

87 


28 

66 

2 

1 





ANIMALS. 
Infusoria, . 

J)inobryon, 
I)lMoliryoti caneB, 
MallomoiiaB, . 
MoiiaH, 
I'eridiiiium, 
TrarhfUMiiDnaH, 
Vorll.olla, 
Vortlcella utcmH, 

Vermes, Anurea, 

Crustacea, Cyclopii 






18 






]8 



pr. 
.01 


35 





1 

32 
2 








43 


1 


22 
20 





.05 


151 

4 

140 





pr. 

4 

•2 


.01 


53 




1 



62 







7 





2 
5 





.01 


2 






2 





.07 













1 




2 






2 








1 






1 










6 




1 


3 

2 









8 




1 
1 


4 



I 

.02 


Miscellaneous, . . ■ ,01 

Acnrlna 01 

Zo'Ofiltiia pr. 


64 

.03 
64 


.01 

.01 



240 


240 


48 


48 


15 


15 


15 


16 


52 


62 


400 


400 


112 


112 








.02 

.02 



Total, 


2,051 


704 


144 


1,408 


2,845 


1,880 


076 


141 


489 


886 


485 


2,264 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 125 



CAMBRIDGE. 

C/iemical Examination of Water from Stony Brook Storage Beservoir, Waliham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





e 

o 
2 
Q 


Appearanxe. 


Kksidub on 

EVAl-onA- 
TIOS. 


1 
Ammonia. 


a 



.41 


XlTBOOKS 
AS 


■6 

i 

3 
n 

c 

a 

e 

K 








s 


c 
1 


o 
■3 



1 


B 


gl 

r 


1 


Albuminoid. | 


1 


1 




1 

o 
55 


s 


> 
1 

00 CO 

(5 


•6 

•a 

m a 


m 
a 


115S3 


IHOI. 

Jan. 2 


V. Slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.80 


6.55 


2.60 


.0006 


.0192 


.0180 


.0012 


.0430 


.0001 


.7995 


2.3 


11741 Feb. 12 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.75 


6.50 


2.10 


.0008 .0164 


.0146 


.0018 


.48 


.0350 


.0001 


.6656 


2.3 


11858 ' Mar. 7 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.68 


5.60 


1.85 


.0032.0206 


.0186 .0020 


.43 


.0230 


.0001 


.7000 


2.1 


11986; Apr. 2 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.80 


6.50 


2.35 


.0004 .0210 


.0186 .0024 


.39 


.0150 


.0001 


.7045 


1.7 


12142 May 2 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.90 


4.75 


2.00 


.0008'. 0230 


.0194 .0036 


.46 


.0100 


.0001 


i.8240 


1.7 


12317 June 5 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


1.05 


5.30 


2.25 


.0036 


.0272 


.0248 .0024 


.39 


.0150 .0000 


,.8200 


2.1 


124S0 July 9 


Distinct, 


V. Blight, 


0.80 


5.05 


1.80 


.0014 


.0266 


.0236 


.0030 


.47 


.0030 .0002 


!.5929 


2.1 






green. 


green. 
























12730 


Aug.13 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.58 


6.60 


1.90 


.0014 


.0222 


.0206 


.0016 


.42 


.0000 .0001 


.5197 


1.9 


12S96 


Sept. 6 


Distinct, 
green . 


Slight, 
green. 


0.58 


4.90 


1.65 


.0036 


.0194 


.0178 


.0016 


.44 


.0000 .0002 


.5005 


2.2 


13071 


Oct. 3 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.48 


5.25 


2.15 


.0022 '.02 10 


.0192'. 0018 

1 


.52 


.0000 .0000 


.4898 


2.3 


13268 


Nov. 7 


Slight. 


ConB., 


0.65 


5.95 


1.85 


.0036 .0210 


.0176,. 0034 


.59 


.0268 .0001 


.4928 


2.3 








green. 






















13434 


Dec. 4 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.65 


6.40 


1.90 


.0000 .0156 


.0144 


.0012 


.54 


.0.380 .0001 


.5967 


2.7 


Av. 








0.73 


5.61 


2.03 


.0018 -O''" 


.0189 


.0022 


.46 


.0174 .0001 


.6422 


?..^ 














1 







Averages by Years. 



1887* 


- 


1888 


- 


1889 


- 


1890 


- 


1891 


- 


1892 1 


- 


1893 


- 


1S94 


- 



O.Sl'j 6.21 
0.78' 5.15 


1.82 


1.93 


0.87 ; 4.59 


1.47 


0.61 ' 5.86 


2.02 


0.56 4.99 


1.86 


0.72, 6.43 


1.79 


0.G6 5.32 


1.97 


0.73 5.61 

i 


2.03 



.0049 .0347 

.0031 .0286 

I 
,0032 .0280 .0249 

.0016.0222.0182. 

i I 
.0016.0213.0183 

,0015 .0241 .0202 

,0020 .0235 .0196 

,0018 .0211 .0189 

I 



- 


1 
!.43 


.0035 


1 
j 


- 


- 


.34 


.0169 


.0002 


- 


.0031 


.38 


.0162 


.0003 

1 


- 


.0040 


.37 


.0208 


.0002 


- 


.0030 


.34 


.0163 


.0001 


- 


.0039 


:.37 


.0208 


.0001 


- 


.0039 


j.44 


.0208 


.0001; 


.6956 


.0022 


j.« 


.0174 


.0001 

1 


.6422 



2.3 
1.9 
2.2 
2.1 
2.1 



• June to November. 



Note to analyscB of 1894 : Odor, vegetable; on one occasiou, mouldy. On healing, the odor eome- 

tlracB becomes stronger. The samples wore collected from the reservoir, near the surface at thedum. 

For heights of water iu this reservoir at times when samples of water were collected for analysia, see 
page 127. 



126 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



CAMBRIDGE. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Stony Brook Storage Reservoir, 

Waltham. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 









1894. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


Jime 


July. Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, . 
Number of sample, . 


4 13 
11583 11741 


8 
11858 


4 3 
11986 12142 


6 
12317 


10 
12486 


14 
12730 


8 
12896 


3 
13071 


8 
13268 


6 
13434 


PLAt 
Diatomacese 

Asterionella 

Cyclotellu, 

I)iaturaa, 

Melosira, 

Meridion, 

Pynedra, 

Tabellaria, 

Cyanophyce 

Aunhivna, 
C'u;loBphajrii 

Algse, 

Arthrodesra 
Clilorococcu 
Closlerium, 
ProtococcuB 
Staurastrum 

Fungi, Creno 


JT3. 

86, . 

im, . 

us, . 
thrix. 


• 


3 






pr. 
3 


















6 

1 





5 


1 



1 









1 


9 





pr. 



5 
4 















28 


25 

6 
2 

3 

9 














1 


82 


2 


46 

18 
16 














32 


213 

90 
2 

1 


8 
112 






9 


1 



8 


1 


904 

3 

36 







840 

25 

23 

13 

10 

634 

20 
90 

1 

520 

3 

1 


12 


12 






14 

6 
8 

150 





3 

147 



2 


462 

248 
7 
8 



188 
11 

60 

60 


10 

3 


4 

3 

3 


81 


9 



1 
71 

72 

72 


28 





28 



1 


379 

25 
9 



1 
344 






1 




1 




2 


30 

6 

1 

3 
4 
16 

















ANIMALS 
Rhizopoda. Actinoph 

Infusoria, 

Ceratlum, 
Cllliiiod InfuBorlan, 
Dinobryon, . 
I)lni)bryoD caHes, 
KiiKltMia, 
MallomonaH, 
Peridliiium, . 
TraclielomonaB, . 
Vorllcella, . 

VermeB, . 

Polynrlbra, . 
Uollfer, 


rye, . 































































1 





















51 





no 
1 






2 


2 




77 



20 
54 

3 




2 

2 
pr. 




58 



3 
11 



38 











5 

3 










2 



2 




164 




164 














9 


4 


2 
1 

2 








1 
































1) 







MUcellaneous ZoiSKluia, 


pr. 


14 


2B 





144 








52 


56 


D 








Total 


8 


22 


63 


27 


811 


802 


1,620 


237 


755 


101 


383 


30 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 127 

CAMBRIDGE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Eohbs Brook, at Winter Street, Wallhum. 

[Parts per 100,000 ] 





1 
o 


APPKAB.VNCE. 


Kksiduf on 

KVAPORA- 
TION. 


AilJtOSIA. 


1 
£ 
o 

.39 

j.50 

.45 

.57 

.68 

|.« 

.53 


NITROOBN 
AS 


•6 
1 

M 

a 
o 
o 

c 

X 

o 






3 


1 

1 


O 

5 


"3 


s 
_o 

o to 

s 


fa 


Albuminoid. 


m 

E 


CD 




o 

a 

s 


"5 
o 


■a 

> 

5 




S 

1 

a 


12357 

12547 
12751 

12877 
13105 
13272 
13509 


1801. 

June 12 

Julyie 
Ang.l4 

Sept. 4 
Oct. 9 
Nov. 6 
Dec. 18 


' Slight. 

V. slight. 
Slight. 

! 
V. slight. 

V. slight. 

Slight. 

' V. slight 


Cons., 
brown. 

Slight. 

Slight, 
green. 

Slight. 
V. slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 


1.00 

0.30 
0.23 

0.23 
0.30 
1.30 
1.20 


6.30 

5.00 
5.45 

4.75 
6.00 
10.85 
8.40 


1.80 

1.40 
0.95 

1.25 
1.40 
3.80 
2.90 


.0000 

.0014 
.0014 

.0010 
.0000 
.0006 
.0008 


.0242 

.0146 
.0140 

.0162 
.0126 
.0380 
.0302 


.0228 

.0132 
.0134 

.0146 
.0116 
.0342 
.0278 

.0197 


.0014 

.0014 
.0006 

.0016 
.0010 
.0038 
.0024 

.0017 


.0120 

.0080 
.0100 

.0000 
.0080 
.0500 
.0480 


.0001 

.0004 
.0001 

.0002 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.6907 1.9 

i 
.3326 2.2 

1 
.23482.3 

.2387 2.1 

.27742.3 

1.29743.8 

1.0318|3.0 


Av. 








0.65 


6.68 


1.93 


.0007 


.0214 


.0194!. 0001 


.5862 


?.ft 






i 








1 





Odor, generally distinctly vegetable, sometimes also mouldy; on one occasion none. The sam- 
ples were collected from the brook. 

Microscopical Examination. 

The average number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in these samples was 143. 

Table shoiving Heights of Water in Fresh Pond and in Stony Brook Storage Reser- 
voir on the Dales when Samjiles of Water were collected for Analysis. 

[Heights are in feet above Cambridge city base.] 



FRE.SH POND. High Watbb, 1G 85. 



Height of 
Water. 



Jan. 


3, . 


Feb. 


5, . 


Mar. 


5, . 


April 




May 


2, . 


June 


5, . 


July 


9, . 


Aug. 


7, . 


Sept. 


5, . 


Oct. 


2 


Nov. 


5, . 


Dec. 


4, . 



13.42 
15.15 
10.08 
16.64 
16.79 
18.70 
16.32 
14.01 
11.63 
10.78 
11.77 
12.56 



STONY BROOK KESEKVOIR. Rollwat, 81.00. 



Jan. 2, , 
Feb. 12, 
Mar. 7, , 
April 2, 
May 2, 
Jane 5, 
July 9, 
Aug. 13, 
Sept. 5, 
Oct. 3, 
Nov. 7, 
Deo. 4, 



Heipht of 
Water. 



81.18 
81.25 
82.24 
81.27 
81.22 
81.27 
75.16 
74.44 
73.96 
71.16 
69.50 
75.00 



128 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



CAXTOX. 



'Water Supply of Canton. 



Early in 1894 the sources of supply of the town of Canton were 
enlarged by the construction of a well at Henry Springs. The well 
is located near the line between Canton and Stoughton, east of 
"Washington Street and north of York Street. It is circular in form, 
40 feet in diameter and 23 feet deep, and is provided with a roof. 
The material into which the well is sunk is gravel, overlaid with 
quicksand. The walls of the well are of brick, laid in cement mor- 
tar, with a bottom course of granite 3 feet wide. Openings were 
left in the brickwork just above the granite foundation to admit 
water to the well. The lower 12 feet of the wall is 20 inches in 
thickness, and the portion above this 16 inches in thickness to the 
surface of the ground, where the thickness is reduced to 12 inches, 
the walls being carried to a height of 3 feet above the ground. The 
new well is connected with the well at Springdale by a cast-iron 
pipe 8,960 feet in length, having a total fall from the bottom of 
the new well to the bottom of the well at Springdale of 59 feet. 
Provision has been made for taking into this pipe in the future water 
from other sources in its vicinity, if found desirable. Water was 
first used from the new well June 15, 1894. 



Chemical Examiyicdion of Water from a Faucet at the Pumping Station of the 

Canton Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000 ] 





a 


Ari'EARASCE. 


5 


Ammonia. 




NiTHOGKN 
AS 


•6 

a 








o 








^ 2 


















ii 

B 




^ 
? 


a 

•3 


S 


t^ 
-^ 


to 


2 
'S 
c 


a 




'C 


a 


2 


a 
2 


i, 


S 


H 


tn 


o 


» 


£ ■< 


O 


'A 


'"^f 


o 


» 


a 




1804. 


























12970 


Sept. 18 


None. 


None. 


0.03 


6.50 


.0000 


.0014 


.41 


.0220 


.0000 


.0038 


1.4 


.0050 



Odor, none. The namiilu waH coUecteil from u luucat at the puiiiiiliig hIhUoii, wliilu puiiipiag. 

Microscopical Examination. 
No orgaDismB. 



Wateii Supply of Chelsea. 

(Sue Boston, Mjstic Works.) 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF AVATER SUPPLIES. 129 

CHESTER. 

Water Supply of Chester. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Austin Brook Reservoir of the Chester 

Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 




Odor, faintly vegetable. The sample was collected from the reservoir, at the dam. 

Microscopical Exam inalion. 

Funf^, Crenothrix, 0, MiiBcellaneous, Zoti^/csa, 12. Total, 17. 



Water Supply of Chicopee. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Cooley Brook and the Cooley Brook Reser- 
voir, Chicopee. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

5 

o 

1 


Appearascb. 


Kesiduk on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammokia. 




1 


XlTROGEN 
AS 


•6 

i 

c 

5 
5 








1 
•a 


o 
"3 
O 


a 
o 
H 


c 

o - 




Albamlnold. 


1 


CO 




Si 

i 

»5 


I 




•a 
-a 
GO 


i 

c 

s 




1894. 


1 










1 












1 1 


11673 


Jan. 23 


V. Blight. 


Cons. 


0.30 


4.05 


0.95 


.0004 .0034' .0022 


.0012 


.11 


.0050 


.0000: .2607 1.3 


11933 


Mar. 21 


V. Slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


3.70 


1.25 


.0006 .0112 .0088 


.0024 


.08 


.0070 


.0000' .7426 0.5 


12282 


May 23 


Slight. 


Cons. 


1.00 


4.80 


1.55 


'.0080.0138.0110.0028 


.08 


.0050 


.0000 .7254 1.3 


12639 
13025 


July 30 
Sept. 25 


Slight. 

V. Blight. 


Slight, 

brown. 
Slight. 


0.30 
0.30 


4.15 
4.25 


0.80 
0.80 


.0022.0074.0058.0016 

.0010.0082 .ooes'.oou 


!.ii 

.10 


.0040 
.0040 


.0001 
.0000 


.2464 1.2 
.1886' 1.1 


13373 


Nov. 26 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.60 


4.00 


1.10 


.0014 .0108.0084 


.0024 


.13 

1 


.0000 


.0000 


.4610 1.4 


Av. 








0.58 


4.16 


1.08 


'.0014 nnoi .0079 


.0019 


Y' 


.0042 


.0000 












1 






1 





Odor, generally vegetable, on one occasion none. On heating, the odor generally becomes stronger. 

The samples were collected a.'? follows: No. 11673, from Cooley Brook, 200 feel below the dam; 

No. 11933, from Cooley Brook, 500 feet above the reservoir; and the rcmaiulng samples from Cooley 
Brook Reservoir. 

Microscopical Examination. 

The average number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in these samples was 75. The highest 
number (192) was found in May, and consisted chiefly of Zoijgloea. 



130 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



CniCOPEE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Morton Brook Bescrvoir, Chicopce. 













[Part 


s per 100,000 


] 
















1 

o 
o 


Appearakce. 


Residue on 

EVAPORA- 1 
TION. 1 


Ammokia. 


c 


.13 


NiTROOBN 
AS 


i 

a 

3 

c 



CD 

B 






■3 

1 

a 


1 

•3 


o 

o 


"3 
o 


1 

Is 

m 

O ! 

>J 1 


6 


Albuminoid. 


2 






c 

E 

a 

Sz; 


"5 
■I 


Dis- 
solved. 

Sus- 
pended 


1 


11674 


1894. 

Jan. 23 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.02 


3,60 


0.55 


.0012 


.0008 


.0006 .0002 


.0120 


.0000 


.0276 


1.1 


11934 Mar. 21 


Xone. 


V. slight. 


0.01 


3.55 


0.50 


.0002 


.0022 


.0018 .0006 


•11 


.0180. 0000 
1 


.0790 


0.6 


12283 


May 23 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.02 


4.35 


0.80 


.0014 


.0050 


.0036.0014 


.12 


.0180 .0000 


.0952 


1.3 


12640 


July 30 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.02 


3.85 


0.60 


.0000 


.0016 


.ooio'.oooe 


.12 


.OOoo'.OOOO 


.0462 


0.8 


13024 j Sept.25 


v. slight. 


Cons., 

sand. 
Slight. 


O.OS 


3.60 


0.40 


.0000 


.0030 


.0024 .0006 


.13 


.0060 .0000 


.0316 


1.1 


13374 


Nov. 26 


None. 


0.05 


3.60 


0.70 


.0002 


.0052 


.0044]. 0008 
.0023! 0007 


.13 
.12 


1.0030 .0000 
.0103 -dOOO 


.0738 
1.0594 


1.4 


Av. 








0.03 


3.76 


0.59 


.0005 


.0030 


1 1 



















Odor of No. 11674, faintly vegetable; of No. 13024, very faintly vegetalile; of the other samples, 

DODC. The odor of No. 12640 becam« very faintly vegetable on heating. The samples were collected 

from the reservoir. 

Microscopical Examination. 

The average number of organisms per cubic centimeter found In these e&raples was 13, the highest 
number (a9) being found in the September sample. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Receiving Basin at the Pumjmig Station 
of the Chicopee Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











KESIbLE ON 






NlTROQKN 


■d 









1 






Appearakce. 




TION. 


Ammonia. 


a 

■c 




AS 


S 

a 
a 






2 

i-i 


1 


1^ 

C 


■3 


~ 




Albuminoid. 


1 


■fi 






n 


•6 

> 

1 


•d 
, c 


a 

•2 


'A 


« 


H 


CO 


^ 


S 


^ 


I 


f 


5 


= a. 


e 


'A 


'A 





n 




1894. 




























12601 


July 23 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.35 


4.50 


1.35 


.0008 


.0080 


.0060 


.0020 


.,. 


.0050 


.0001 


.2849 


1.1 



Odor, fiilnily veKclable. The sample was collected from the receiving busln at the Cooley Brook 

pumping Btuiiou, and was composed of water from both Cooley aud Morton brooks. 

Microscopical Examination. 

Dlatomnceos, Naelcula, 1; Plnnularia, 1. Fungi, Crenot/irlx, 56. Miscellaneous, Zooglaa, 2. 
Total, «u. 

Water Supply of Coiiasset. — Cotiasset Water Company. 

The results of the examinations of siim[)les of water from the 
driven wells of this company made in 1894 show a hirge increase 
in the amount of iron in the water, the presence of which was noted 
in the hist annual report. As there stated, the determinations 
of turbidity, sediment and color in a sample of water of this class 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 131 



conA>;sET. 

may vary with the length of tune that the water has been exposed 
to the air after it has been drawn from the ground, since they are 
dependent upon the amount of iron which has been thereby oxidized 
and converted into an insoluble form. The results of these deter- 
minations should therefore not be interpreted as indicating the varia- 
tion in the quality of this water from month to month, but they are 
nevertheless of value as indicating a condition which the water may 
assume. 

Chemical Exammalion of Water from the Tubular Wells of the Cohassct Water 

ComjKiuy. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


APPEARiNCE. 


c 
o 

a 

3 > 

M 


Ammonia. 


oi 

c 

o 


KXTROGES 
AS 1 


e 

s 

M 

O 


m 

•5 
5 




E 

55 


2 

3 

u 


1 
•5 

c 
CO 


o 
3 


(X 


o 

c 

=1 

< 


1 
S 


5 
S 


d 
2 




1894. 


























11629 


Jan. 11 


Distinct, 


None. 


0.15 


20.50 


.0008 


.0016 


1.65 


.0200 


.0000 


.0195 


10.0 


.0620 


11688 


Feb. 2 


milky. 
Distinct, 


v. slight 


0.00 


19.40 


.0000 


.0010 


1.85 


.0200 


.0000 


.0592 


10.0 


.0300 


11851 


Mar. 6 


milky. 
Distinct, 


None. 


0.15 


19.00 


.0000 


.0020 


1.98 


.0130 


.0000 


.0424 


9.3 


.0500 


12037 


Apr. 12 


milky. 
Slight. 


Slight. 


0.30 


20.10 


.0006 


.0008 


1.79 


.0150 


.0000 


.0240 


9.6 


.1100 


12178 


May 9 


Slinht, 


V.Blight. 


0.08 


14.50 


.0000 


.0010 


1.78 


.0250 


.0000 


.0640 


6.6 


.0250 


12C42 


June 11 


i milky. 

' Distinct, 

1 milky. 

Distinct, 


v. Blight. 


0.20 


15.40 


.0006 


.0016 


1.76 


.0180 


.0000 


.0323 


8.0 


.0760 


12474 


July 5 


V.sliuhi, 


0.20 


17.90 


.0000 


.0018 


1.74 


.0070 


.0000 


.0231 


8.6 


.0600 


12739 


Aug. 13 


milky. 1 rusiy. 
Decided, Sliglu. 


0.23 


17.30 


.0010 


.0010 


1.67 


.0070 


.0000 


.0077 


7.0 


.0550 


12920 


Sept. 10 


1 milky. 1 rusty 
Distitict, 1 V. slight. 


0.20 


15.10 


.0010 


.0004 


1.65 


.0300 


.0000 


.0000 


7.7 


.0500 


13098 


Oct. 8 


' milky. 
' Distinct, 


V. slight. 


0.10 


15.30 


.0000 


.0010 


1.77 


.0150 


.0000 


.0114 


6.4 


.0700 


13270 


Nov. 7 


milky. 
, Distinct, 


Slight, 


0.30 


17.20 


.0006 


.0038 


1.82 


.0500 


.0000 


.0246 


8.4 


.1250 


13479 


Dec. 13 


! milky. 

Decided, 

milky. 


rusty. 
V slight. 


0.10 


23.60 


.0002 


.0030 


1.83 


.0250 


.0000 


.0231 


9.0 
8.4 


.1780 


Av. 








0.17 


17.94 


.0004 


.0016 


1.77 


.0204 


.0000 


.0276 


.0743 






1 






Averages by Tears. 




1887* 




. 


0.00 


15.21 


.0005 


.0016 


1.69 


.0196 




- 




. 


_ 


1888 


- 


- 


0.01 


16.20 


.0001 


.0021 


1.60 


.0311 


.0003 


- 


- 


- 


- 


18S9t 


- 


- 


0.00 


11.64 


.0001 


.0022 


1.46 


.0230 


.0U02 


- 


- 


- 


. 


18901 


- 


- 


0.00 


- 


.0000 


.0048 


1.48 


.0150 


.0003 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.16 


17.14 


.0001 


.0007 


1.64 


.0263 


.0(101 


.0415 


8.6 


.0451 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.17 


17.94 


.0004 


.0016 


1.77 


.0204 


.0000 


.0276 


8.4 


.0743 






• Ji 


ine to Dec( 


mber. 




t Ja 


tjuary t 


May 




i 


Febr 


iary. 







Note to analyses of 1894: Odor of No. 12037, dccid"d; of No. 12739, faint; of the other samples 
none. On healiiit;, the odor of tho last sample was v>-ry fulutly vegetable. The samples wore collected 
from a faucet at the pumping station, while pumping. 

Microscopical Examinalio7i. 

The averaee number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in these samples was 220, consisting 
almost wholly of Cronothris, the highest number (616) being found in the November sample. 



132 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pab. Doc. 



COHASSET. 

Chemical Examination of Water from a Tubular Test Well in Cohasset. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 







ArPEABAXCE. 


! g 


Ammonia. 




NiTKOGKN 
AS 


a 




























>, 










"O 
















V- " 
















00 


00 


CP 


s 




.a 

a 


»5 


2 


a 


o 


u 


<u 


Sr 


o 


b 


^ 




c 


a 






























55 


a 


E- 


(r. 


U 


« 


h 


<! 


ij 


fc5 


"A 


o 


m 






1894. 


























12962 


Sept. 17 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.05 


17.80 


.0006 


.0004 


3.12 


.4000 


.0015 


.0231 


4.3 


.0300 



Odor, none. The sample was collected from a tubular test -well located about 1,000 feet south- 
east of the pumping station of the Cohasset Water Company, and about 500 feet south of the railroad. 



Fungi, CrenothHx, 11. 



Microscopical Examination. 



Water Supply of Concord. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Sandy Fond, TAncoln. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





i 

o 

o 
o 

a 

a 


Appearance. 


Kksidue on 

EVAl'OKA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


c 
"E 
o 

O 

.33 
.24 
.25 

.27 


Nitrogen 
as 


i 

a 

3 
C 

o 

CJ 

c 

ti 
^> 
n 
O 






i 

2 

s 


1 

■5 


o 

I 


s 

o 


c 

o 

§•= 
o 


8 


Albuminoid. 


1 


"u 

p-i 




c 

1 

ii5 


a 


> 

5 " 


■d 


a 
•a 

W 


11643 
11748 
12042 


1804. 

Jan. 16 

Feb. 12 
Apr. 16 


None. 
V. Blight. 
V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 
V. Blight. 
V. Blight. 


0.01 
0.00 
0.05 


2.50 
1.95 
2.80 


0.85 
0.60 
1.00 


.0022 
.0026 
.0000 

.0016 


.0144 
.0180 
.0074 


.0130 
.0158 
.0062 


.0014 
.0022 
.0012 

.0018 

1 


.0030 
.0030 
.0050 

.0037 


.0000 

1 

.0000 
.0000 

.0000 


.1209 
.0804 
.1664 

.1246 


1.8 

0.2 
0.6 


Av. 








0.02 


2.85 


0.82 


.0133 


.0117 


07 













Iron, .0028. Odor of the firBt pamplo, difltlnctly vegetable and gransy; of the Hccond, faintly vege- 
table and earthy, becoming stronger and gruHsy on lieatlnfc; of llie lust siimplc, very faintly vegetable, 

becoming diHtlnctly oily on heating. The first and second samplos were collected from the pond and 

the last from a faucet on Hubbard Street. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 133 



CONCORD. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Sandy Pond, Lincoln. 

[Number of orgaoisras per cubic centimeter.] 



January. February. 



April. 



Day of examination 

Number of satnpie 

PLANTS. 
Distomaceee 

ABterionclln 

Cyclotelln 

Melosira, 

Synedra, 

Algse, 

Cblorococcns, .... 

rrotococcus 

Itaphidiuin 

Tetraspora, 

ANIMALS. 
Infusoria 

Dinobryon, 

Dinobryon cases, .... 

Jliscellaneous, Zoogloea, 

TOTAI,, 



18 
11643 



14 

11748 



17 
12042 









pr. 



66 



156 



46 
110 



Tubular Wells at the Massachusetts Reformatory, Concord. 

These wells were formerly used as a source of supply b}' the 
Massachusetts Reformatory, but no water has been pumped from 
them for several years. Pumping was begun on April 18, 1894, 
and about a million gallons are said to have been pumped from them 
previous to collecting a sample of water for analysis, the results of 
which are given below. There are 32 wells in all, H inches in 
diameter and from 40 to 60 feet deep, sunk in a sandy tract of land 
between the walls surrounding the Reformatory and the Assabet 
River. Sewage is disposed of by filtration through this sandy 
land on both sides and back of the wells and within a few hundred 
feet of them. It will be seen from an examination of the analysis 
that the water of these wells is a strong and fairly well purified 
sewajre effluent. 



134 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



CONCORD. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Tubular Wells at the Massachzisetts 

Reformatory, Concord. 

[Paris per 100,000.] 





s 
o 


Appbar,ince. 




1 


AUMONIA. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


1 




























% 








cS 




























° g 




t3 














a 




2 


1 


o 




<u 


O 
1 C 


o 


S 


1^ 


to 




c 






























"A 




'=- 


00 


U 


K 


b 


< 


O 


!^ 


Vx 


O 


m 






1894. 


> 
























12120 


Apr. 30 


None. 


V. Blight. 


0.04 


33.00 


.1200 


.0030 


6.62 


1.4250 


.0090 


.0577 


8.0 


.0180 



Averages by Years. 



1887* 


- 


- 


0.00 


17.51 


.0011 


.0020 


2.55 


.8437 


- 


- 


- 


1888t 


- 


- 


0.00 


22.31 


.0572 


.0073 


4.43 


.7550 


.0019 


- 


- 


1889t 


- 


- 


0.00 


20.71 


.0039 


.0028 


3.30 


1.1650 


.0008 


- 


- 


1894§ 


- 


- 


0.04 


33.00 


.1200 


.0030 


6.02 


1.4250 


.0090 


.0577 


8.0 



* July to October, four samples. 

\ January and February, five sampIeB. 



t May and June, four samples. 
§ April. 



Note to analysis of 1894 : The sample had a distinct odor of coal gas, which disappeared on heat- 
ing. The sample was collected from a faucet on the pump drawing water from the wells. 



Microscopical Examination. 



Fungi, Crenothrix, 1. 



Water Supply of Cottage City. — Cottage City Water 

Company. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Springs of the Cottage City Water 

(Jompxmy. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 
o 
■a 

V 

. "3 

2 
o 


Al'I-BARANCB. 




i 

S* 


Ammonia, 


c 
o 


NrntooKK 

AS 


a 

a 

09 

3 

m' 

o 


1 

a 




J5 

3 

3 

'A 


•3 

1 


I 
•3 






o 

, a 


4/ 

'A 


1 

'A 


c 
o 


12616 
12921 


11194. 

July 26 

Sept. 11 


None. 
None. 


V.sllKbt. 
None. 


0.04 
0.00 


3.70 
3.60 


.0000 
.0000 


. 0004 
.0000 


.'.14 
.82 


.0080 
.0110 


.0000 
.0000 


.0115 
.0000 


0.6 
0.8 


.0080 
.0050 



Odor, none. The HBmplcs were collected from a fancet at the pumping station. 

Microscojdcal Examination. 

No. 12616. Dlatomacesn, fiynedra, 1. Scenedeiimu», 1. Total, 2. 
No. 12921. No organiBmB. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



135 



Water SuprLY of Dalton Fire District, Dalton. 

In 1894 a new reservoir was built on Egypt Brook, just al)ove 
the old one. The average depth of the new reservoir is 8 feet, and 
its capacity is 12,000,000 gallons. 

Water Supply of Dan vers. 

Chemical Examinalion of Water Jrom Middleton Pond, Middlcton. 
[Parts per 100,000.] 







Appkakance. 




Rksiddk on 
Evapora- 


AUHONIA. 1 




NiTROOKN 
AS 


•d 
1 












tion. 


1 










O 


^ 


s 






c 
c5 




Albuminokl. | 




, 




c 

5 

s 




c 




■d 


■d 


CO 


a 

a 


o 
2 

4 


a 


1 

5 




03 




s5 


"3 


> 
i'o 


■o 

m 




2 


u 




•2 


"A 


o 


H 


CO 


O 


H 


>J 


fa 


H 


Q 


W^- 1 


O 


•A 


K 


o 


B 




1K94. 


























12828 


Aug. 27 


v. Slight, j Slight. 


0.55 


4.90 1.90 


.0000 


.0152 


.0140 


.0012 

1 


.40 


.0070 


.0000 


.4928 


1.7 



Odor, fnintly vegetable, becoming Btronger on heating. The Bample was collected from a faucet. 

Microscopical Examination. 

DIatomaceaj, ylsicrton^Wn, 2; Ci/cloiella , 4 ; Sijneilra,2; Tabellaria, 172. Cy&no\>hycese, Aiialxtna, 
5; C/iroiicoccus,\6. Fungi, Crenothrix,2. Miscellaneous, Zoogl<£a,iS. Total, 251. 



Chemical Examination of Water Jrom Swaii's Pond, North Reading. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 

o 


Appbabancb. 




ke3iduk on 
Evapora- 


AUMONIA. 




NiTBOOKN 
AS 


■d 

a 

3 
«b 
C 
O 

O 

a 






1 






tion. 












^ 

« 


1 


o 


5 


s 
o 

c s 

a to 


» 


Albuminoid. 


s 


2 

5 




a 


2 


•d 


1 
i c 


a 
C 

s 


































>5 


o 


H 


CO 


O 


6H 


1^ 


Ut 


H 


a 


«■* 


o 


» 


?5 


o 


n 




1894. 


























13177 


Oct. 22. 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.18 


3.40 


1.40 


.0004 


.0150 


.0136 .0014 


.37 


.0000 


.0000 


.4029 


1.1 



Odor, none, becoming faintly vegetable on heating. The sample was collected from the pond. 



Microscopical Examination. 

DXtLlomaceiB, Afterionella, 8; Oyctotella, 2; Xavicnla, 1; Tabfllaria, 30. Algip, Clonterium, 1; 
Zoospores, 1. Fungi, Creiiothrix, 4. Infusoria, Dinobryon, 30; Dinobryoii rases, 4; Mallomonas, 2. 
Crustacea, Cyclops, .01. Miscellaneous, Zovghta, 4. Total, 87. 



136 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



DEDn.or. 

Water Supply of Dedham. — Dedh 

Chevu'cal Examiyiation of Water from the Well of 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



AM Water Company. 

the Dedham Water Company. 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appearance. 


c 
o 

a IS 

a >• 

M 


Ammonia. 


a 

o 
O 


NiTROGKN 
AS 


•a 

a 

3 

c 

o 


c 
■2 

a 

H 




a 

3 


5 

3 


£ 
•a 

EC 


o 
o 
O 


i 


o 

c 

< 


1 
g 




1 




1894. i 


























11791 


Feb. 20 ; 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


9.20 


.0000 


.0020 


.88 


.1750 


.0000 


.0320 


4.3 


.0000 


12043 


Apr. 16 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


9.70 


.0000 


.0012 


.89 


.2000 


.0000 


.0320 


4.0 


.0010 


12414 


June 21 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


10.70 


.0000 


.0012 


.96 


.2100 


.0000 


.0262 


4.2 


.0000 


12773 


Aug. 17 


None. 


None. 


0.05 


11.00 


.0000 


.0018 


.58 


.1600 


.0000 


.0385 


3.6 


.0040 


13148 


Oct. 17 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


11.00 


.0000 


.0010 


.99 


.3000 


.0000 


.0434 


4.2 


.0020 


13534 


Dec. 20 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


9.50 


.0000 


.0030 


.85 


.1600 


.0001 


.0038 


3.9 
4.0 


.0010 


Av. 






0.01 


10.18 


.0000 


.0017 


.86 


.2008 


.0000 


.0293 


.0013 













Averages by Tears. 



1887* 


- 


- 


0.00 


10.97 


.0002 


.0012 


.97 


.2690 


- 


- 


- 


1888t 


- 


- 


0.00 


10.38 


.0002 


.0011 


.93 


.2810 


.0000 


- 


- 


1889t 


- 


- 


0.00 


9.15 


.0000 


.0020 


.93 


.1700 


.0000 


- 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.01 


10.80 


.0002 


.0054 


.93 


.2962 


.0001 


- 


4.4 


1893 


- 


- 


0.01 


10.49 


.0014 


.0073 


.91 


.2375 


.0001 


.1209 


4.3 


1894 


- 


- 


0.01 


10.18 


.0000 


.0017 


.86 


.2008 


.0000 


.0203 


4.0 



.0108 
.0139 
.0013 



* June to Decenaber. t January to May. % April. 

Note to analyses of 1894 : Odor, none. The siimples were collected from a fauct^t al llio piinii)iiig 



Btation. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from the Well of the Dedham Water Company. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 









1804. 








February. 


April. 


June. 


August. 


October. 


December. 


Day of examination, .... 
Number of sample 


22 
11701 


17 
12043 


23 
12414 


IR 
12773 


18 
1314S 


22 
13534 


PLANTS. 
Diatomaceee 

Anterlonella, 

Krngilarlu, 

Hynedra, 









800 

700 



40 


17 

4 

« 





(1 
1) 


3 

1 


2 









Total, 





800 


17 





3 






No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 137 

UUDLEY. 

Water Supply of Dudley. 
The advice of the State Board of Health to D. W. Crosby of 
Webster, relative to extending the water pipes of the Webster water 
supply into a village in the town of Dudley, may be found on page 
14 of this volume. 

Water Supply or Eastiiampton. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Easlhampton Wdter Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of Collection. 


Al'I'KARANCE. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


o 

o 


NiTKOGKN 
AS 


i 

a 
o 
o 

B 






3 

3 


M 


o 
o 
O 


2 

o 


1 


£ 


Albuminoid. 


1 

s 


o 

5 
S 




a 

'A 


I 


•d 
"I 

5 


•a 

3 O. 


00 

a 
C 

% 
n 




1894. 




























11930 


Mar.21 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.30 


3.40 


1.00 


.0004 


.0096 


.0072 


.0024 


.11 


.0030 


.0000 


.3816 


0.6 


12425 


Jiine23 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.25 


4.20 


0.75 


.0000 


.0052 


.0044 


.0008 


.10 


.0050 


.0000 


.1756 


1.6 


13040 


8ept.27 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.32, 


4.25 


1.00 


.0004 


.0066 


.0056 


.0010 


.16 
.12 


.0020 


.0000 
.0000 


.3240 


4.7 


Av. 








0.29| 


3.95 


0.92 


.0003 


.0071 


.0057 


.0014 


.0033 


.2937 


T 














Odor of the first sample, very faintly vegetable; of the second, faintly vegetable; of the third, very 

faint. The odor of all three samples was stronger on heating. The first sample was collected from a 

well at the pumping station, and the others from a faucet. 

Microscopical Examinaiio7i 

The number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in each of thCMe samples was as follows : 
No. 11930, 33; No. 12420, 94; No. 13040, 23, 



Water Supply of North Easton Village District, Easton. 

Chemical Exaitiinalion of Water from the Well of the North Easton Village District. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 
o 


Ap 


•KARANCE. 




c 


Ammonia. 




NiTBOOEK 


■d 
























s 








a 








° 2 












m 






s 


t'-^ 


■5 


c 

1 


° 


|l 


OJ 


o 
e 


e 
r 

o 


1 

s 




g5 


C 


c 


















t5 












z 


Q 


fc- 


« 


o 


« 


u. 


■< 


a? 


:z; 


o 


s 


" 




1804. 


























12375 


June 13 


None. 


None. 


0.0 


3.60 


.0000 


.0008 


.49 


.0250 


.0000 


.0154 


1.1 


.0000 


12951 


Sept. 12 


None. 


None. 


0.0 


4.10 


.0004 


.0004 


.48 


.0100 


.0000 


.0077 


1.3 


.0050 



Odor, none. The samples were collected from the well. 

Mic roscop ical Exam in alio n . 

No organisms. 



138 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ESSEX. 



Essex. 



In connection with an investigation for an additional water supply 
for the city of Gloucester, analyses were made of samples of water 
collected from the Chebacco Lakes, so-called, in Essex, Hamilton 
and Wenham, and the results are given below. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Chebacco Lake in Essex and Hamilton. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





5 

o 

O 

o 

a 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


)id. 


c 
5 


NlTKOGKN 

AS 


•d 

a 

3 

o 
c 

■A 

o 






^ 

H 


1 
■3 


% 
o 

O 


"3 


o 
o 

■J 




Albumint 


'9^ 






s 


1 


■d 




(U 

c 
•a 


1 1894. 




























11902 Mar. 15 


V. Slight. 


V. slight. 


1.00 


4.85 


1.90 


.0010 


.0230 


.0206 


.0024 


.87 


.0000 


.0000 


.8680 


0.6 


12635 


July 30 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


5.65 


2.25 


.0006 


.0190 


.0166 


.0024 


.95 


.0000 


.0000 


.7023 


0.8 


12838 


Aug. 27 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.75 


5.00 


2.00 


.0004 


.0196.0182 


.0014 


.96 


.0030 


.0000 


.6160 


0.9 


13017 


Sept. 22 


Slight. 


Blight. 


0.65 


4.70 


1.55 


.0014 


.0180.0166 


.0014 


.98 


.0000 


.0000 


.5929 


0.8 


13249 [Oot. 31 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.50 


4.80 


2.00 


.0008 


.0108 .0140 


.0028 


1.03 


.0000 


.0000 


.5467 


1.1 


13390 |Nov. 28 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


0.65 


5.00 


2.05 


.0014 


.0192 .0170 


.0016 


.96 


.0000 


.0000 


.7503 


0.9 


13577 


Dec. 31 


Blight. 


Blight. 


1.00 


6.55 


2.65 


.0004 
.0009 


.0238 
.0199 


.0224 
.0180 


.0014 
.0019 


1.58 
1.05 


.0050 


.0000 
.0000 


.9779 
.7306 


1.6 


Av. 








0.79 


5.22 


2.06 


.0011 


1.0 













Odor, vegetable. The samples were collected from the lake, near the northerly end. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Chebacco Lake in Essex and Ilamilton. 

[Number of organiHrnB ])er cubic centimeter.] 



Day of czatiiinulion, 
Number of Hutiiplu, 



Mar. Aug. Aug. Sept. Nov. Nov 



17 
11902 



PLANTS. 
Dlatomaceee, . 



AMtiTionclIn, 
'^yclotolln, 
MnloMlra, . 
M.-riillon, 
SyiieiJni, . 
Tubellarlu, 



Cyanophyceee, McriMtnopcdia, 
Fungi, CrciiothrU, . 



29 
12838 



26 
13017 



8 
13249 



28 
13390 



ISOS. 

Jan. 



2 

13577 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 139 



ESSEX. 

Microscopical Examinalion of Water from Chebacco Lake — Concluded. 

[dumber of org;iniHtn.s per cubic ccutiinoter.] 



ANIMALS. 
Rhizopodai Diillu^'ia, 



Infusoria, . 



Dinobryon, 

DiDobryoii cases, 

Eu(;lenii, . 

Monaii, 

ruridiiiiuin, 

Tintitinidium, 

Trachelomonas, 



Vermes, 



Aourca, . 
Polyarthra, 
Kotatoriaa ova, 



MtBcellaneoua, Zoogluca, 



Total, 



Mar. Aug. Aug. Sept. Nov. Nov 



133 

104 

2ti 





pr. 
pr. 



59 



56 



40 



164 



Chemical Examinalion of Water from Round Pond, Ilamillon. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





, 1 






1 


Kksidue ojj 






NiTBOGgN 


■d 









Al'PKARANCE. 




TIOS. 


Ammonia. 




AS 


s 

s 






^ 














Albuminoid. 








s 






6 ! 


;., 


^ 























p, 




« 












cii 






*© 


■d 






00 


a 


C/ 


.0 

a 

a 




3 

s 


a 

■3 


c 

•§ 


"3 


a ca 


a> 


"5 


> 

21 X 


^1 





s 


5 


5" 


« 


'A 


a 


Ci 


OB 





H 


>J 


b 


&H 





00=- 





» 


?; 





~ 


. 


1894. 




























11903 


Mar. l.i 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.40 


5.05 


2.20 


.0008 


.0232 .0206'.0O26 

1 1 


.76 


.0000 .0000 


.9440 


0.8 


12632 


July 30 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


4.3.5 


2.00 


.0000 


.0202 .0182 .0020 


.91 

1 


.0000 .0000 

i 


.8316 


0.8 



Odor, faintly vegetable, becoming stronger on heating. The samples were collected from the 

pood, near the outlet. 



Microscopical Examinalion. 

No. 11903. Dtatomaceo), Aaterionella, 1; CycloUUa, 1; Jferidion, 3; yavicula, 2; Tahellariti, 2.s. 
Algsa, Stiiurnstruvi, 1; Zn<>sporin,<^. Infusoria, I>inobri/on, 20; Dinobryon caxfs, 4; Mnuas,\; I'eri- 
di>num,6. Vcrmcfi, /io(i/er, \. Miscellaneous, .Icrtriou, .08; 7.odglitii,2. Total, 76. 

No. 12632. Diatumaceas, Axtft-iomlla, 10; Cyclotell<i,Z; Diatoma, 1; Tultellnriit, fil. Cyanophyceae, 
Merismopedia, 4. A\gas, /'andorinii, \; SUtiiroffeiiiu,i. Fungi, Crenotfirix,2. Infusoria, Oinobnjon 
cases,!; Olenodiniitm, 1; Jfonas,i; PeridiHium, 100; Trachelomonas,!. Miscellaueoua, Zt»t>y/af<i, 80. 
Total, 273. 



140 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ESSEX. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Gravelly Pond, Hamilton. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Kesiduk on 














1 


Appearakce. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

3 




















Albuminoid. 










>> 


^ 






— 
















u 


OD 




















■3 


■a 


- 


S 


M 


j3 


S 


.0 

a 

3 


S3 


3 


1 


c 




£ 


« 3) 





a 


soO 


•a 





a 


5 


IS 


c 


IZS 


a 


£h 


m 





E- 


►J 


^ 


H 


Q 


<«^ 





55 


» 





ta 




1894. 




























11904 


Mar. 15 


1 None. 


V. slight. 


0.04 


3.40 


0.90 


.0000 


.0124 


.0114 


.0010 


.76 


.0000 


.0000 


.2280 


0.5 


126.33 


July 30 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.08 


3.25 

1 


1.00 


.0000 


.0122 


.0106 


.0016 


.88 


.0000 


.0000 


.1771 


0.7 



Odor of the first sample, none; of the second, faintly vegetable, becoming stronger on heating. 

The samples were collected from the pond, near the outlet. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 11904. 'D'mioma.cceLi, Cyclotella,\; Synfidru,11\ TabeUurui, 'i. A\sio, Arthrodesmus, 1; Pro- 
lococcus, 6. Infaaoria, Dinobr'i/oti cases, 2Q; PiriiJinium,'!. Miscellaneous, Z6i6V//((;«, 16. Total, 32. 

No. 12633. Diatomaceae, Cydotella, 1; CymbeWi, 1; Navicula, 1. Cyauopliyceae, Anubixna,^; 
Chroococcus, b; Merisinopedia, i. Algae, Conferva,!; Slaurogenia,2. Iniusov'ia, Dinobryou cases, i'i; 
Peridinium, iO; P/iaciis,!. VermeB, Rotatoriaii ova, \. Miscellaneous, ZofV^/tea, GO. Total, 165. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Declc's Pond, IlamiUon, and Coy''s Pond, 

Wetiham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 





w 



S 
a 

a 


Appearance. 


JtESIDUK ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


•c 

6 

1.19 
.93 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•a 

1 

a 

B 

5 

B 







3 
3 

3 


§ 

CO 


1 


5i 


1 


a 


c — 

s 

r 




Albuminoid. 








1 

9 

'A 


3 


1 

a" 


■6 


1 


litis I 
12634 


July 30 
July 80 


V. slight. 
Distinct. 


Slight. 

Blight, 
ruflty. 


0.90 
1.50 


5.55 
5.50 


2.05 
2.10 


\ 

.0010 
.0014 


.0200 
.0276 


.0190 
.0258 


.0010 
.0018 


.0000 
.0020 


.0000 
.0000 


.77-16 
1.0258 


2.1 
1.6 



Odor of the first sample, faintly vegetable; of the second, decidedly mouldy. The first sample 

wan collected from Jk-ck's Pond, near its outlet, and the second from Coy's Poud, 100 foot from shore. 



Microscopical Examination. 

No. 12631. Dintomaceo), C^c/ote//a, 1. Cyanophyceos, i/erisTOO/jccZia, 12. A\gfB, Chlorococcua,\Z; 
Prolococcuii^O. Fungi, Crenotkrix, 24. Infusoria, Euglena, 1; 3foJian, 2; Peridinium, 3. Miscella- 
neous, Zoiitjliea, 36. 'i'otal, 122. 

No. 12634. DIatomacefo, CycloMlu, 1; Synedra, 1; Tabelluria, 1. Cyanophycetu, ./Iwaii^na, 3. 
Algic, CIdoroiMccut, 1; StanruHlnitn, 24. Fungi, Orenolhrix, 32. Infusoria, Ciliated infuHorian, 1; 
Dlnobr yon canes, bl; JSuglena,f>; Af07i,as,2; Peridinium, iS', 'rrac/ielornotiaa,24. Varuwa, Anurea,!; 
Rotifer, 1. Miacellaneous, Zoiigliea, 3. Total, 200. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 141 

ESSEX. 

Chemical Examiyialion of Water from a Tubular Well al the Cadets'' Camp Qround, 

in Essex. 

[Tarts per lOU.dOO.] 





1 


Appbabancb. 


c 


Ammonia. 




NiTBOGBN 
A8 


a 






















































|5 

3 


2 




c 

i 

■a 


o 
o 


II 


6 
2 


o 
1 c 

5a 


a 
1 

S3 


1 

2 


CO 

s 


M 


c 


c 
o 


a 


Q 


H 




tc 


O 


M 


>•< 


< 


o 


sq 


2 


O 


n 


■- 




1894. 




























12586 


July n 


None 




None. 


0.0 


3.50 


.0000 


.0000 


.83 


.0080 


.0000 


.0000 


0.6 


.0070 



Odor, none. 



No orgauJBiDB. 



Microscopical Examination. 

Water Supply of Evehett. 
(See Boston, Mystic Works.) 



Chemical Examiiialio7i of Water from a Tubtilar Test Well in Bradleij Meadow, 

Everett. 

[rarts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


Ari'EARANCE. 


1 
ft 

a;. 


Ammonia. 


e 

1 

.a 


*NlTkOGE!J 
AS 


■d 

a 

a 
O 


■5 

a 

a 




1 

a 

3 

'A 


3 
3 

3 


1 

■5 

09 


i 

5 


2 


13 

o 

a 

is 


1 

2 


O 
1 


c 

2 


13542 


1804. 

Dec. 22 


NODO. 


None. 


0.0 


18.90 


.0000 


.0032 


4.30 


.9000 


.0000 


.0000 


8.3 


.0000 





Odor, none. The sample was collected in connection with an invei*tii,'atlou for a water supply for 

Everett. 



Microscopical Examination, 



No organisms. 



142 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. 



[Pub. Doc. 



fatkhaven. 

Water Supply of Fairhaven. — Fairhaven Water Company. 
Population iu 1890, 2,919. The works are OAvned by the Fair- 
haven Water Company, and water was introduced about Feb. 1, 
1894. The source of supply is a system of twenty-six 2^-inch tubular 
wells in the valley of the Nasketucket River, near the centre of the 
town. The wells are located on both sides and in the bed of the 
river, which is a very small and shallow stream, and cover an area 
approximately 300 feet in length in a northerly and southerly direc- 
tion, by about 130 feet in width. The wells are generally about 35 
feet in depth, and are in gravelly material overlaid with a stratum of 
clay near the surface. Pumps force the water to a covered iron tank 
35 feet in diameter and 41.5 feet in height, which is supported by an 
iron trestle about 100 feet in height. Distributing mains are of cast 
iron and service pipes of lead. 



Chemical Examination of Water from, the Tubular 

Compdny. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Wells of the Fairhaven Water 





Date of 

Collection. 


AlM'KAKANCE. 


s 

a2 

o o 

m C 

= 5 
|w 


Ammonia. 


a 
la 
O 


NiTROCHN 
AS 


■s 

• a 

a 
a 

M 
>, 

K 
O 


a 
•a 

a 




1^ 

% 

B 

s 

y. 


3 


. 

1 
1 

CO 


u 

o 
o 




•6 

o 

, c 

|a 


^1 


V 


c 

2 


11767 


1894. 

Feb. 14 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


6.00 


.0000 


.0044 


.96 


.0600 


.0000 


.0880 


1.8 


.0100 


11814 


Mar. 5 


v. Blight. 


None. 


0.08 


6.60 


.0026 


.0064 


1.02 


.1150 


.0000 


.0840 


1.8 


.0500 


11963 


Mar. 28 


V.eUght. 


V. Blight. 


0.05 


6.20 


.0000 


.0032 


1.04 


.1350 


.0000 


.1155 


2.3 


.0140 


12093 


Apr. 23 


V. Blight. 


None. 


0.02 


6.20 


.0000 


.0016 


1.06 


.1100 


.0002 


.0395 


1.8 


.0120 


12333 


June 7 


V. slight. 


V.Hlight. 


0.05 


4.70 


.0000 


.0026 


.94 


.0780 


.0008 


.0693 


2.1 


.02C0 


12429 


June 24 


None. 


None. 


0.05 


6.35 \ 


.0002 


.0010 


.93 


.1100 


.0004 


.0855 


1.7 


.0110 


12.089 


July 21 


None. 


None. 


0.07 


7.50 


.0000 


.0020 


1.00 


.0980 


.0002 


.0739 


1.9 


.0060 


12085 


Bcpl. 17 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


5.90 


.0002 


.0016 


.96 


.0630 


.0001 


.0530 


1.4 


.0000 


i:i091 


Oct. 4 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


6.40 


.0000 


.0010 


.91 


.0760 


.0001 


.0513 


1.4 


.007(1 


13215 


Oct. 25 


None. 


None. 


0.10 


6.10 t 


.0004 


.0030 


1.01 


.0500 


.0001 


.1461 


1.8 


.0200 


1340.'i 


Due. 3 


None. 


None. 


0.02 
0.04 


6.20 


.0000 


.0016 


.99 


.1100 


.0003 


.0269 


1.9 


.0180 


Av.* 








6.19 


.0004 


.0024 


.98 


.0903 


.0002 


.0698 


1.8 


.0138 













* Where nacre than one nannple was collected in a month, the mean nnalyHln for that month bun been 
ilHod in inakini;; the average. 

Odor, none. The namplcH were collected from a faucet at the pumping Btation. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 11844. Fungi, Crniolhrlr, 3. No. ]1«H3. Fungi, Crimolhrix, 4. No. 13215. Fungi, Vreno. 
thrix, 1. No organlHms were found in the remaining Mumplos. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



143 



FALL. RIVER. 



Water Supply of Fall River. 



Chemical Exammation of Water from North Watux>pa Lake, 

[PartB per 100,000.] 




Oilor, diHlinclly vegetable, becoiuiug also somcwhut uupluasunt ou h(.'ating. 
collected from the lake. 



The eaiuplcB were 



Microscopical Examination. 

No. 11925. Diatomacea>, Cyc/o<€Wn,28; Tubellaria, Z. Inlueoria, iJiiiobri/oii, 100; Diiiobrt/un cases, 
170. Total, :J01. 

No. l'J044. Diatoraacea?, Aslerionrlla, 1; Cyc/otella, 34; Diutoinu, 4; Frugilarkt, 1; Navifula,\; 
Syneilru, 4; Tulielliiria, 1. A\(iiv, J rlhrodesmun,!; Clilorocotcun,4; Uosiiuirium, 1; Kfphrot:ijtium,2', 
Rap/tidiuvi, 1; Svriistriim,\; Tetrnnpora, IS. lufuBoria, JJiiiobri/on, 60; Dhiobryun cases, 230. Mis- 
cellaneoua, Zooglixa, 11. Total, 375. 



Watkr Supply of Falmouth Heights. — Falmouth Heights 

Water Company. 

Chemicdl Examination oj Water from the Wells of the Falmouth llciyhts Water 

Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Ion. 


APPBAnANCB. 




c 
o 


AUMONIA. 




lilTRUUBN 
AS 


1 








o 








= 2 






























!>, 






°o 














00 




u 


wo 




a 




o a 




o 


2i 


n 


^ 


eg 


s 




j3 

a 

s 




1 


a 

5 


i 


■o > 


i- 


1 c 

53 


3. 


1 


r 


r 


c 
■a 


§ 


'^, 


^ 


H 


CO 


o 


H 


u. 


< 


o 


s5 


» 


o 


n 






INUI. 
























lt:703 


Aug. 9 


None. 


None. 


0.05 


6.70 


.0000 


.0010 


2.36 


.0000 


.0000 


.0080 


J. 3 


.0080 



Oilor, faint. The sample was collected from a faucet at tlio Craig Houbb. 



Microscopical Examination. 



No orgauisnis. 



144 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

fitchburg. 

Water Supply of Fitcpiburg. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Scott Reservoir, Fitchburg. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

o 


ArPEAKANCE. 


Kesidoe on 

EVAl'ORA- 
TION. 


^Vmmonia. 


B 
O 

s 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•a 

a 

s 

c 

6 

a 

to 
t^ 

'A 

o 






•£ 

3 


c 
1 

an 




1 

H 


S 

C-- 

c = 

o 


b 

^ 


Albuminoid. | 


s 

'A 


s 




Si 

S 

s 


1 


■6 

'> 

io 

a" 


•a 


c 
a 




1804. 




























11637 


Jan. 5 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.15 


2.65 


0.85 


.0020 


.0236 


.0202 


.0034 


.20 


.0070 


.0000 


.2948 


0.3 


12050 


Apr. 16 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.10 


2.10 


0.70 


.0004 


.0124 


.0076 


.0048 


.17 


.0000 


.0000 


.1864 


0.0 


12545 


July 16 


Decided. 


Slight, 


0.15 


3.00 


1.40 


.0004 


.0192 


.0146 


.0046 


.15 


.0000 


.0002 


.2972 


0.3 


13145 


Oct. 16 


Distinct. 


yellow. 
Cons, 
green. 


0.15 


2.40 


1.10 


.0000 


.0212 


.0150 


.0062 


.20 
.18 


.0000 


.0000 


.3357 


0.3 


Av. 








0.14 


2.54 


1.01 


.0007 


.0191 


.0143 


.0048 


.0018 


.0001 


.2785 


? 













Averages by Years. 



1887* 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1804 



- 


0.30 


2.63 


1.01 


.0007 


.0231 


- 


- 


.15 


.0021 


- 


- 


- 


0.11 


2.31 


0.79 


.0004 


.0240 


- 


- 


.13 


.0040 


.0001 


- 


- 


0.09 


2.12 


0.62 


.0008 


.0213 


.0162 


.0051 


.13 


.0030 


.0001 


- 


- 


0.10 


2.54 


1.02 


.0010 


.0217 


.0152 


.0065 


.13 


.0059 


.0001 


- 


- 


0.13 


2.55 


1.05 


.0007 


.0140 


.0110 


.0036 


.14 


.0082 


.0000 


- 


- 


0.13 


2.78 


1.16 


.0005 


.0201 


.019S 


.0003 


.18 


.0089 


.0000 


- 


- 


0.10 


2.68 


1.30 


.0001 


.0233 


.0162 


.0071 


.17 


.0033 


.0000 


.2870 


- 


0.14 


2.54 


1.01 


.0007 


.0191 


.0143 


.0048 


.18 


.0018 


.0001 


.2785 



0.9 
0.0 
0.5 
0.4 
0.2 



* Jiint! to December. 

Note to nnuIyHCH of 1894 : Odor, dUtlnclly vogetiible, becoming grassy or pungent on lieuting. 

The Hamples were collected from the reservoir, 'i'ho lieit(lit« of wiiU^r In thin reservoir on dute« when 
sampics of water were collected for analyniH were an follows: .Taiiuury 0, 40 feet; April 10, 4l) feet; 
July 16, 25 feet; October 16, 21 feet. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 145 

FITCnBUHG. 

Microscojncal Examination of Water from Scott Reservoir, Fitchburg. 

[Number of orgaDisms per cubic centimeter.] 



January. 


April. 


July. 


October. 


18 


18 


17 


17 


116.37 


12050 


12545 


13145 


2 


215 


186 


1,956 


1 


31 


6 


236 





127 


28 


1,160 


1 


4S 


52 








9 


100 


560 





2 


4 


69 











3 











2 











2 











4 











6 











12 








4 


4 





2 





36 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, . 

PLANTS. 
Diatomaceae, . 

Asterionelia, 

Melosirn 

Synedra, .... 
Tabellaria, 

Algse, 

ArthrodeBmus, . 
Chlorococcus, . 
Dictyosphserium, 
Hyalotheca, 
Pediaetnini, 
Protococcue, 
Ilapbidium, 
Bcenedesmus, . 

ANIMALS, 
Rhlzopoda, Difllugia, 

Infusoria, .... 

Ciliated infusorian, . 
Dinobryon, 
Dinobryon casee, 

Euglena 

Glenodlnium, . 
Peridinium, 

Vermes 

Aniirca, .... 

Polyarthrn, 

liotifor 

Mlacellaneoxis, Zooglcea, 

Total, .... 



53 



359 



261 



2,126 



146 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



FITCHBTJRG. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Meeting-house Pond, Westminster. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



1894. 

11745 Feb. 12 
12049 ; Apr. 16 
12398 June 18 
12544 July 16 



12771 



Appkabanck. 



Aug. 15 
Oct. 16 1 



13518 Dec. 17 



Av. 
Av. 



1894. 
1893. 



V. slight. 
V. Blight. 
Slight. 
Blight. 

Slight. 

Slight. 
Slight. 



V. slight. 0.02 
Slight. 0.08 
Slight. 
Cons., 

darli. 
Slight, 

green 
Slight. 
Cons. 



0.10 
0.08 



0.07 



0.08 
0.05 



0.0 
0.07 



! Kesidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 



2.50 
2.10 
2.60 
2.60 

2.00 

2.50 
2.35 



2.38 
2.37 



0.80 
0.80 
1.05 
1.05 

0.65 

1.15 
0.55 



0.86 
0.88 



.a ~ s 



.0016 .0158 .0140 .0018 .19 

.0000. 0102 .0084 .0018;. 15 
.0016 .0126 .0100 .0026 .22 
.0012. 0196. 0142 .0U54: .19 



.0014 



.0000 
.0018 



.0011 
.0009 



.0126 



,0186 
,0150 



.0110 



.0158 
.0138 



,0149 .0125 
,0137 .0113 



.0016 



.0028 
.0012 



.0024 
.0024 



,14 



NiTROGBN 


TJ 


AS 


a 

3 

i 






I 




c 
o 

.1960 


.0030 


.0000 


.0070 


.0000 


.2080 


.0000 


.0000 


.2410 


.0050 


.0001 


.2279 


.0000 


.0000 


.2502 


.0000 


.0000 


.2172 


.0030 


.0000 


.1732 


.0026 


.0000 


.2162 


.0023 


.0000 


.2304 



0.6 

0.6 
0..'i 
0.8 



0.5 
0.8 



0.6 
0.6 



Odor, generally, vegetable; on one occasion also mouldy; sometimes none. On heating, the odor 

was sometimes stronger. The samples were collected from the pond, near the gate-house. The 

pond was full until about May 1, and from lliat lime went gradually down until November 6, when it 
was 6 feet below high water. 'I'lie dislance, in feet below high water, on llie dates when samples were 
collected, was approximately as follows: June 18, 0.5; July 10, 1.0; August 15, 1.8; October 10, 5.0; 
December 17, 5.5. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Meeting-house Pond, Westminster. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



1894. 



April. 



July. 



Aug. 



Day of examination. 
Number of sample, 



13 
11745 



18 
12049 



22 
12398 



17 

12544 



18 
12771 



17 
13144 



20 
13518 



PLANTS. 



DiatomacesB, . 

Cydotella, 
Meloslra, . 
Hynedra, . 
Tabellaria, 

Cyanophycese, 

Anabiiiia, 
MIcroKystls, 

Algse, . 



(;iiloroi:occnH, 

I'rotoroccuM, 

iiapliidiutii, 



Fungrl. Crcnothrlx, 



ANIMALS, 
Infusoria, ■ 
DInobryon, 
J^inobryon cases, 
KpUlyllH, . 
I'erldinlum, 



pr. 



236 

.■'.(! 
200 



AtUnelUmeout, ZoOglica, 
Total, . 



30 



68 



89 



18 



ISo. 34.J EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 147 

FITCHBURG. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Wyman's Reservoir, Fitchburg. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





d 


S. 

5 
3 


Appbarakcb. 


Kksiuub on 

EVAPOBA- 
TION. 


Ahuokia. 




NiTBOOBN 
AS 


1 

a 














a 




Albominold. 










>* 


4-» 


























CD 


u 

a 


2 
"3 

a 


1 

■a 


i 


2 






s 


« 


■0 


•0 

•a 
, c 


a 


OD 
1 


"C 


a 

V, 


c 

■s 


!?. 


a 


H 


en 


u 


H 


J 


b 


H 


Q 


30 





"A 


Yi 





33 




1H04. 




























12770 


Aug. 15 


Dletinct. 


Cons., 
yellow. 


0.85 

i 


2.95 


1.35 


.0034 


.0302 


.0254 


.0048 


.12 


.0000 


.0000 


.6483 


0.5 



Odor, faintly vegetable, becoming stronger on heating. The sample was collected from the reser- 
voir at the gale-hou.-ie, nt a (le|)th of 1 foot beneath the surface. This reservoir is not used as a source 
of water supply, although it is owned by the city, and is within the territory from which it is authorized 
to take water. 

Microscopical Examination . 

DSalomnceve, Aslerionella, 58'2; J>iatoma, I; Tabel/aria, iS. Cyanophyceas, Clathrocystiii,Z. Algee, 
liiip/iiilium, 4. Infusoria, Dinobryon cases, 19; Tintinnidium, 1. Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, 280. 
Total, 938. 



Water Supply of Foxborough Water Supply Dlstrict, 

foxborough. 

Chemical Examinalion of Water jrom the Tubular Wells of the Foxborough Water 

Supjyly District. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





§ 


Appbarancb. 






Ammonia. 




NiTBOOBN 


•d 























ci 

c 

o 

s 




1 

M 









a 

3 

>5 


•5 

s 


a 


a 


i 




£ 


2 


a 
•< 


00 

I 


1 

2 


1 




IS»t. 


























11795 


Feb. 20 


None. 


None. 


0.0 


3.10 


.0002 


.0008 


.31 


.0320 


.0000 


.0240 


0.5 


.0000 


122S4 


May 24 


None. 


None. 


0.0 


2.40 


.0002 


.0004 


.32 


.0500 


.0000 


.0117 


1.1 


.0000 


12778 


Aug. 18 


None. 


None. 


0.0 


2.80 


.0000 


.0000 


.30 


.0400 .0000 


.0000 


0.7 


.0040 


13361 


Nov. 21 


None. 


None. 


0.0 


3.50 


.0000 


.0000 


.36 


.0400 


.0000 


.0078 


0.6 


.0000 


Av. 








0.0 


2.95 


.0001 


.0003 


.32 


.0405 


.0000 


.0109 


0.7 


.0010 













Odor, none. The samples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station while pumping. 



Microscopical Examination. 



No organisms. 



148 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



FRAMING HAM. 

Water Supply of Framingham. — Framingham Water Company. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Filter-gallery of the Framingham 

Water Comjyany. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 
O 

o 

a 

O 


APPEARANCK. 


g i 
a > 


Ammonia. 






Nitrogen 

AS 


13 

B 

1 


1 




a 


2 

•e 

3 

E-c 


1 
So 


i 

o 


£ 


c 


c 
1 

s 


2 


1 




11783 
12058 
12389 
12786 
13179 
13531 


1894. 

Feb. 18 

Apr. 17 
June 19 
Aug. 20 
Oct. 22 
Dec. 19 


None. 
None. 
V. slight. 
V. Blight. 
V. slight. 
Slight. 


Cons. 

V. slight. 

V. slight. 

Slight, 

rusty. 
Slight. 

Slight. 


0.00 
0.01 
0.10 
0.03 
0.02 
0.03 


6.35 
6.70 
6.45 
6.00 
7.00 
8.00 


.0032 
.0024 
.0022 
.0000 
.0052 
.0020 


.0028 
.0022 
.0024 
.0100 
.0060 
.0024 




63 

72 
82 
88 
88 
80 


.0580 
.0400 
.0380 
.0050 
.0220 
.1460 


.0000 
.0001 
.0000 
.0002 
.0000 
.0000 


.0680 
.0491 
.0847 
.1540 
.0893 
.0323 

.0796 


2.7 
2.7 
2.5 
2.7 
3.0 
3.1 

2.8 


.0140 
.0180 
.0310 
.0180 
.OGSO 
.0140 


Av. 








0.03 


6.75 


.0025 


.0043 




79 


.0515 


.0001 


.027? 

















Averages by Years. 



_ 


1887* 


- 


- 


0.08 


5.82 


.0031 


.0124 


.43 


.0123 


- 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


1888 


- 


- 


0.10 


5.81 


.0027 


.0081 


.44 


.0308 


.0004 


- 


- 


- 


_ 


1889 


- 


- 


0.00 


6.18 


.0031 


.0050 


.56 


.0366 


.0002 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.00 


7.09 


.0020 


.00.39 


.65 


.0631 


.0001 


- 


.3.0 


- 


_ 


1891 


- 


- 


0.00 


6.25 


.0023 


.0035 


.63 


.0707 


.0001 


- 


2.S 


- 


- 


1892t 


- 


- 


0.13 


6.43 


.0051 


.0081 


.39 


.0225 


.0018 


- 


•i.n 


- 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.04 


6.07 


.0026 


.0033 


.82 


.0460 


.0001 


.1104 


2.6 


.0099 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.03 


6.75 


.0025 


.0043 


.79 


.0515 


.0001 


.0796 


2.8 


.0272 



♦ June to November. 



t Two samplos in October. 



Note to onalyHeH of 1894: Odor of No. 12780, faintly tmry; of the other HimipluH, none. 'V)w. 

Hampleii were collected from the filter-gallery. 



MicroHcopical Examination. 

The QVoraKC number of orKanlHmH per cubic cenllmetcr found In thcHe HamplcH wan 1,001, and con- 
HlHlc'd cliU^fly of ('rcnolhrlx and ZookIuib. The hlghcflt nnnihcr of tin' former waH .l.ino, in tlic October 
sample; of the lntl<rr, 4fiO, In the December sample. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF ^yATER SUPPLIES. 



149 



FRA>nXGHA»r. 

Chemical Examination oj Water from, a Faucet in South Fra7ningham, supplied 
from the Works of the Framingham Water Company. 

[PartB per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

o 

a 


Appearance. 


Residue on 

Kvnporallon. 


Ammonia. 


i 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•a 

1 

□ 

c 

o 

cU 

o 


e 

03 




a 

a 
&5 


3 
1 H 


a 
1 

T3 

to 


S 

o 

o 


1 


■a 
o 

c 

< 


1 
'A 




a 




ISOJ. 


j 
























11784 


Feb. 18 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


5.85 


.0000 


.0016 ' 


.03 


.0250 


.0002 


.0624 


2.7 


.0070 


12059 


Apr. 17 


None. 


Slight. 


0.00 


5.85 


.0012 


.0034 


.78 


.0220 


.0005 , 


.0530 


2.7 


.0050 


12390 


Jnae 19 


V. slight. 


Slight, 


0.08 


6.55 i 


.0000 


.0030 '' 


.81 


.0150 


.0003 


.1009 


2.6 


.0210 


12785 


Aug. 20 


, V.Biight. 


rusty. 
Cons., 


0.03 


i 
7.10 i 


.0000 


.0042 ' 


.78 


.0280 


.0006 ! 


.0462 


3.0 


.0400 


13180 


Oct. 22 


Siigtit. 


rusty. 
Cons., 


0.01 


6.90 I 


.0004 


.0032 


.88 


.0380 


.0000 


.0735 


3.0 


.1100 


13532 


Dec. 19 


Slight. 


rusty. 
Slight. 


0.05 


6.60 


.0004 


.0038 ! 


.82 


.0300 


.0000 

i 


.0385 


3.1 


.0100 


Av. 








0.03 


6.48 : 


.0003 


.0032 


.78 


.0263 


.0003 


.0624 


2.9 


.0322 













Odor of the last sample, distinctly unpleasant; of the other samples, none. On heating, the odor 
of No. 12^90 was very faintly tarry, and of No. 12785 faintly earthy. The odor of the last sample waa 
less strong on heating. 

Microscopical Examination. 

The average number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in these samples was 128, and consisted 
entirely of Creiiolhrix and Zoogloea. The greatest number of the former present in any mouth was 500 
in October. 



Water Supply of the State Camp Ground, Framingham. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Learned' s Porid. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 

















, 








c 


Appeakancs. 




EVAI'O RA- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


■o 






3 






TION. 








a 

a 
<• 
a 














c 
o 




Albuminoid. 


















































































.a 

s 

a 




1 

3 


a 

•3 


o 






si 


O 


> 

1 o 
go a 


•o 
1 c 
CO a 
a B. 


o 


S 


*c 


>> 


c 
1 


5<5 


Q 
1804. 


H 


OJ 


O 


E-i 


•» 


6- 


o 


X 


CJ 


as 


» 


O 


a 






























12289 


May 31 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.20 


1.30 


0.35 


.0000 


.0106 


.0090 


.0016 


.22 


Loooo 

1 


.0000 


.1001 


0.1 



Odor, nouc; on heating, faintly vegetable. The sample was collected from a faucet at the camp 

ground. 



No organisms. 



Microscopical Examination. 



150 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



PKAMIXGnAM. 

Chemical Examination 0} Wafer from the Underdrairi beneath the Sewers at 

Framinghavi. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appearance. 


o 

2,> 


Ammonia. 


a 
o 


JJlTROGKN 

AS 


•a 
1 

3 

o 


i 

c 

•s 




1 


3 

5- 


c 

1 

•3 

CO 


o 
O 




■a 

1 ! 
= 1 
< 


u 

g 


'•A 


d 
o 


- 


1894. 

Jan. 15 

Mar. 14 
Apr. 14 


Slight. 
V. Blight. 
Decided. 


Slight, 

red. 
Slight, 

red. 
Cons. 


.00 
.00 
.00 


19.40 
17.70 
20.80 


.0920 
.0760 
.0760 


.0040 
.0040 
.0000 


3.75 
3.15 
3.25 


.5650 
.5250 
.5000 


.0022 
.0033 
.0017 


.1200 
.0500 
.1000 


6.9 
6.4 
6.6 


- 


- 


May 14 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.00 


23.80 


.0760 


.0020 


3. -95 


.6500 


.0028 


.0800 


7.1 


- 


- 


June 22 


Decided. 


Cone. 


.00 


28.10 


.0760 


.0020 


4.15 


.5250 


.0018 


.0700 


7.3 


- 


- 


July 18 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.00 


26.60 


.0560 


.0050 


4.75 


.8250 


.0017 


.0900 


6.4 


- 


- 


Sept. 15 


Slight. 


Cons. 


.00 


26.50 


.0400 


.0040 


5.50 


.7000 


.0040 


.1200 


7.4 


- 


^ - 


Oct. 15 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


.00 


21.10 


.0360 


.0060 


2.95 


.4500 


.0030 


.0900 


6.6 


- 


- 


Nov. 14 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


.00 


18.80 


.0440 


.0030 


2.40 


.4500 


.0028 


.0500 


8.1 


- 


- 


Dec. 14 


Decided. 


Cons. 


.00 


19.60 


.0480 


.0030 


2.20 
3.61 


.4250 


.0050 


.0800 
.0850 


7.7 
7.1 


- 


Av . 








.00 


22.24 


.0620 


.0033 


.5315 


.0028 




i 









Averages by Years. 



_ 


1889* 


- 


- 


00 


19.70 


.0800 


.0080 


3.73 


.4750 


.0045 


- 


6.6 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.01 


19.71 


.0824 


.0073 


3.51 


.5336 


.0026 


- 


8.4 


- 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.01 


20.44 


.1029 


.0045 


3.51 


.5333 


.0019 


- 


8.0 


- 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.01 


10.32 


.0805 


.0042 


3.99 


.6667 


.0018 


- 


8.0 


- 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.02 


20.75 


.0829 


.0039 


3.84 


.6282 


.0014 


.0645 


7.4 


- 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.00 


22.24 


.0820 


.0033 


3.61 


.6315 


.0028 


.0850 


7.1 


- 



* October. 



Note to andlyscH of 1894 : Odor, generally fnlntly vogctiiblo and mouldy. The wuDploH were col- 
lected from the undcrdriiin, at ilB0\itlet. 

The «naly«lB of 18H9 whm ninde before Bownge wn« ndmlltod to the Hewers. Scvcrnl of the aniilyHCH 
made in 1890 and uU of those of subBcqueut yeuis were imido by the city of boHtou. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 151 



Water Supply of Franklin. 



fraxkltn. 
Franklin Water Company. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Wells of the Franklin Water Company. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





c 

o 


Al-PEARANCB. 




c 
o 


Ammonia. 




NlTROGKN 


■d 








o 








= S 








a 
















































1 

a 


S" 


2 

S 
1- 


c 

1 


c 

o 


3 es 

3 > 


6 


o 
, c 


s 


s 

2 


Ti 


1^ 


c 

■s 


s 






























"A 


a 


H 


CO 


O 


'^ 


Ck 


■«; 


o 


!z; 


'A 


o 


B 


JS 




1804. 


























11790 


Feb. 20 ' 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


11.50 


.0002 


.0020 


1.32 


.3750 


.0000 


.0352 


4.6 


.0040 


12386 


June 19 


None. 


None. 


0.08 


9.25 

i 


.0004 


.0016 


.91 


.1800 


.0000 


.0731 


3.4 


.0080 



Odor, none. The aaqiples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 11790. No organisms. 

No. 12386. 'D\t^\.oma.ceiG,Asterionella,l;Diatoma,\;Tabellaria,&. Fungi, Grereo^Arix, 1. Total, 15. 

Water Supply of Gardner. — Gardner AYater Company. 

Chemical Examination of Water from, Crystal Lake, Gardner. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 
o 

o 

i 

o 

o 
es 


Appearancb. 


Kesiduk on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 

i 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•o 

1 

3 

1 

e 
o 

1 






2 

.a 

3 


a 


c 

o 
3 

u 


"3 
o 


J 

o c 

O 


£ 


Albuminoid. 


CO 

I 
2 






1 

a 


a 


■d 
> 

5" 


O 


CD 

s 

a 

a 
53 




1894. 


























11615 


Jan. 9 


V. Blight. V. slight. 


0.05 


2.85 


0.95 


.0014 


.0122 .0102 .0020 

1 


.27 


.0020 


.oooo' 

1 


.1599 


1.1 


12013 


Apr.lO 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.02 


2.55 


0.80 


.0004 


.0112 


.0085 


.0024 


.29 


.0050 


.0000 


.1640 


0.8 


12536 


July 16 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.05 


2.95 


1.25 


.0010 


.0100 


.0090 


.0010 


.32 


.0020 


.0000 


.1336 


1.3 


13118 


Oct. 10 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


0.03 


2.65 


0.90 


.0006 
.0009 


.0112 
.0111 


.0098 
.0094 


.0014 
.0017 


.34 

.31 


.0000 
.0023 


.0000 


.1231 
.1464 


0.6 


Av 








0.04 


2.75 


0.98 


.0000 

1 


1 

















Averages by Years. 



1887* 


- 


- 


0.02 


2.63 


0.62 


1888t 


- 


- 


0.01 


2.60 


0.62 


1891 1 


- 


- 


0.02 


2.95 


0.85 


1892§ 


- 


- 


0.02 


2.45 


0.65 


1893 


- 


- 


0.05 


2.66 


0.82 


1894 


- 


- 


0.04 


2.75 


0.98 



0006 .0111 

I 
.0023 .0112 

.0007,-0119 

.0008 .0104 

0012 .0126 . 

.0009 .0111 



- 


- 


.21 


1 
..0019 


- 


- 


- 


- 


.22 


.0094 


.0001 


- 


.0098 


.0021 


.16 


.0073 


.0001 


- 


.0086 


.0018 


.27 


.0180 


.0000 


- 


.0105 


.0021 


.27 


.0021 


.0000| 


.1879 


.0094 


.0017 


.31 


.0023 


.oooo: 


.1464 

1 



0.7 
1.1 
0.8 
1.0 



* June to December. f January to May. X June, three samples. § March. 

Note to analyses of 1S94 : Odor of the first sample, faintly vegetable; of the third, faintly disagree- 
able; of the others, none. On heating, the odor of the first sample became stronger and unpleasant, a 
faintly vegetable odor was developed in the second cample, and the odor of the third sample became 
stronger. The samples were collected from a faucet on Tearl Street. 



152 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



GAEDXER. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Crystal Lake, Gardner, 

[Number of organiems per cubic centimeter.] 



January. 



April. 



July. 



October. 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 

PLANTS. 
Diatomacese 

Aeterionella 

Cyclotella 

Synedra, 

Tabellaria, .... 

CyanopliycesB, Microcystis, 

AlgSB, ' 

ChlorococcuB, .... 
I'rolococcus, .... 

ANIMALS. 
Infusoria 

Dinobryon 

Dinobryon cases, . 
Peridinium, .... 

Vermes, Anurea, . 

Total, 



10 
11615 



11 
12013 



17 
12536 



12 
13118 







pr. 



105 



10 



Water Supply of Gloucester. 
The reply of the State Board of Health to an application of the 
city of Gloucester relative to taking a new water supply for the city 
from the Chebacco Lakes, so-called, in the towns of Essex, Hamilton 
and Wcnham, may be found on pages 14 and 15 of this volume. 
Another application was made by the city on June 30, 1894, for 
further investigations and advice with regard to present and pro- 
spective sources of water supply ; and during these investigations 
many samples of water from present and prospective sources in 
Gloucester and from the Chebacco Lakes were analyzed. The 
analyses of the samples collected from sources in Gloucester are 
given on the following pages, and those from the Chebacco Lakes 
are given under Essex, on pages 138-140. During the summer the 
amount of iron in the water from the Gloucester sources was unusually 
hiirh for surface waters. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 153 



gloucester. 
Water Supply of Gloucester. — Gloucester Water Co-^ipany. 

Chemical Examinalion of Water from Dike's Brook Storage Reservoir. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 
1 


Appeabanck. 


Rksiddb on 

EVAPOBA- 
TION. 


Ammokia. 



.96 


NlTBOGBN 
AS 


•d 

a 

a 

a 




1 








2 
a 
E- 


c 
o 

a 

•3 


i 

} 

o 

8 


3 


a 

o 


<» 
S 


Albuminoid. 


S 
2 

2 






1 

a 
55 


1 


Dis- 
solved. 

Sus- 
pended. 


S 
a 


1894. 

11914 Mar. 26 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.60 


3.65 


1.50 


.0068 


.0194 


.0172 .0022 


.0030 


.0000 


.4456 


0.1 


12637 


July 30 


DistiDct. 


Slight. 


0.25 


3.75 


1.00 


.0010 .0168 


.0142.0026 


.97 


.0000 


.0000 


.3.542 0.5 


12841 


Aug.27 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.30 


4.25 


1.50 


.0000 .0156 


.0120'. 0036 


.92 


.0000 


.0000 


.3234 0.3 


13021 8ept.24 


Slight. 


CODB. 


0.20 


3.80 


1.20 


.0008 


.0160 


.0126 .0034 


.96 


.0000 


.0000 


.3326 0.5 


13231 Oct. 29 


Slight. 


V. Slight. 


0.60 


4.05 


1.25 


.0070 .0186 


.0168 .0028 


.98| 


.0030 


.0000 


.4312 0.2 

1 


13391 Nov. 26 

1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.68 


3.75 


1.05 


.0024 .0174 


.0150 .0024 


1.00 


.0050 


.0000 


.5084 0.2 


13573 


Dec. 31 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.85 


4.25 


1.55 


.0058 
.0034 


.0204 
.0177 


.0204 
.0153 


.0000 
.0024 


1.10 
0.98 


.0050 
.0023 


.0000 
.0000 


.5890 0.3 


Av. 








0.50 

1 


3.93 


1.29 


.4263 0.8 















Odor, generally distinctly vegetable, Bometimes mouldy, unpleasant or grassy. The samples 

were collected from the reservoir. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from Dike^s Brook Storage Reservoir. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Mar. Aug. Aug. Sept. Nov. Nov. 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 

PLANTS. 
Diatomaceee 

Synedrn 

Tabellaria 

Cyanophyceee, Merlsmopedia, 

Algee, 

Chlorococcus 

Oloeocapsa, .... 
Protococcus, .... 
Uaphldium, .... 

Fungi, Crenothrix, • . 



29 
11944 



1 
12637 



30 
12841 



26 
13021 



1 

13231 



28 
13391 



2 
13573 



96 



36 



3,040 

3,040 




600 

3 

340 

115 







1,440 





10 I ' 

! i 

1,058 1,440 42 





pr. 

42 





pr. 



154 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



GLOUCESTER. 

Microscopical Examination of Water Jrom Dike's Brook Storage Beservoir 

— Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centiraeter.] 



ANIMALS. 
Infusoria 

Chlaniydomonas, 
Cryptoraonas, . 
Dinobryon cases, 
Monas, . . . . 
Peridiniuna, . . . 
Trachelomonas, 

Vermes, . . . . 

Monocerca, 
Polyarthra, 
Rotifer, . . . . 

Miscellaneous, Zobglcea, 

Total, . . . . 



Aug. 



Sept. 



28 



B4 



44 



112 



3,113 



56 



1,068 



1,453 



44 



Chemical Examination of Water from Wallace Pond. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





i 

o 


Appearancb. 


Khsmiuk on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 


s 




NiTKOGBN 
AS 


a 

3 

a 


a 

M 








IB 

c 


1 
CO 


c 

o 
o 
O 


■3 


c 







Albuminoid. 








1 

a 


1 


Dis- 
solved. 

Sqs- 
pended. 


1 




1804. 




























11945 Sr«r.26 


Distinct. 


Blight. 


0.60 


3.70 


0.90 


.0016 


.0198 


.0170 


.0028 


1.04 


.0030 '.0000 


.3580 


0.1 


12636 July 30 


Deci(J<-d, 


Cons. 


0.90 


4.40 


1.15 


.0000 


.0262 


.0208 


.0044 


1.17, 


.0000 .0000 


.4097 


0.6 


12008 Aug. 8 


ifreen. 
Dlsilnct, 


Slight, 


0-.90 


4.85 


1.76 


.0018 


.0308 


.0206 


1 
.0102 


1.06 


.0000.0000 


.4959 


0.9 


12840 Aug.27 


green. 
DUtlnct. 


green. 
Slight, 


0.95 


5.30 


1.70 


.0004 


.0260 


.0220 


1 
.0040 


1.16 


.0000 .0000 


.4697 


0.5 


13022 Sept 24 


Hllght. 


rusty. 
Slight. 


0.70 


4.75 


1.00 


.0006 


.0310 


.0220 


1 
.0090 


,..J 


.0000 


.0000 


.6190 


0.6 


13230 Oct. 20 


DiBtlnct. 


Slight. 


0.70 


4.90 


2.00 


.0004 


.0384 


.0262 


.0132 


1.19 


.0000 


.0000 


.5236 


0.6 


13392 Nov. 26 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.70 


5.25 


1.85 


.00.10 


.0420 


.0252 .0108 


1.20 


.0030 


.0000 


.6806 


0.6 


13578 Dec. 31 

1 


Distinct. 


Blight. 


0.70 


5.20 


1.95 


.0034 
.0017 


.0416 
.0319 


.0270 .0146 
.0225 nnoi 


1.2« 
1.16 


.0050 
.0014 


.0000 
.0000 


.5,'-)44 


0.8 


Av. 








0.77 


4.79 


1.66 


.6089 


0,6 












1 





Odor, generally vegetable and unpleasant or disagreeable, becoming somewhat stronger on heating, 

and in iho IuhI sample also oily. The suniples were collected from Wallace I'ond, which Is an 

artlUciul reservoir. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 155 



GLOUCESTER. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Wallace Pond. 

[Number of organisms per cable centimeter.] 





1894. 1 


189S. 




Mar. 


Aug. 


Aug. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Hov. 


Nov. 


Jan. 


Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 


29 
11945 


1 
12636 


10 
12696 


30 
12840 


28 
13022 


1 
13230 


28 
13392 


3 

13578 


PLANTS. 
DiatomacesB, .... 

Asterinncllu, .... 
Tabellariu, .... 

Alg86, 

Hyiilotheca, .... 
Proiococcus, .... 
ZooBpores, .... 

Fungi, Crenothrix, 


33 
33 



18 

2 

16 

1 


18 

18 










19 

19 










43 
36 

7 

2 



2 

1 


132 

128 
4 

76 
4 

72 


4 


309 

308 

1 





















360 

360 










ANIMALS. 

Infusoria, 

Chliimydomonas, 
Cilialcd infiisorian, . 
CryptomoniiB, .... 
Dinobryon cases, 

MonaH, 

Peridiuiura, .... 

Vermes, . . . . 

Anuroa, 

Mo'iocerca 

Kolifer 


5B 

16 



42 









194 




2 

192 








137 






1 

136 







3 





•0 
3 

1 


1 




76 







76 







268 




100 



168 

12 

11 



1 


1 







1 







290 


2 

4 





284 







3fiscellaneou8, Zooglcea, 





152 


228 


96 











Total, 


110 


364 


156 


278 


384 


589 1 


650 



Chemical Examination of Water from a Faucet at City Hall, Gloucester, supplied 
from the Works of the Gloucester Water Compani/. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





d 

o 
O 

o 

o 

o 


AprKARANCB. 


Kesidce oh 
Evapora- 
tion. I 


AUMONIA. 




a 

i 


MlTBOOBN 
A8 


•6 

1 

a 

c 

5 

e 

to 

>> 

M 








3 


1 

■a 
o 

00 


i 

"o 

O 


3 


B 

o 

ll 




Albuminoid. 


s 


m 




1 

a 




> 
1 c 

5 


•a 
, c 

a c 


S 

a 
•2 

a 




1894. 


1 


























12638 


July 31 


\ Distinct. 


Cods., 


0.55 


4.50 


1.25 


.0014 


.0168 .0140 


.0028 


1.03 


.0030 


.0001 


.3249 


0.9 


12693 


Aug. 8 


Slight. 


rusty. 
Slight. 


0.65 


4.55 


1.35 


'.0004 


.0196 .0152 


.0044 


0.90 


.0000 


.0000 


.4058 


0.7 


13023 


Sept. 134 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


0.40 


3.90 


1.25 


.OlJO .0144 .0090 .0054 0.98 


.0000 


.OOW) 


.2064 


0.6 


13;?S9 


Nov. 26 


Slitht. 


Cons. 


0.60 


4.25 


1.45 


.0000 .01S4 .0164 .0020 1.00 


.0100 


.0000 


.4756 


0.5 


13574 


Dec. 31 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.66 


3.85 


1.45 


.0026 .0174 .0164 .0010 0.99 
.OO33I n«7sl oi-i^? nnai n.os 


.0070 
.0040 


.0000 
.0000 


.4389 
.3703 


0.5 


Av.. 








0.57 


4.21 


1.35 


0.6 












1 






! 





Odor, vegetable and occaBionally mouldy. 



156 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc, 



GLOrCESTER. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from a Faucet at City Hall, Gloucester, 
siqjplied from the Works of the Gloucester Water Company. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 1 


1895. 




August. 


August. 


September. 


November. 


January. 


Day of examination, .... 


1 


10 


26 


28 


2 


Number of sample 


12638 


12693 


13023 


13389 


13574 


PLANTS. 












Diatomacese 


20 


3 





11 


2 


Asterionella 

Frasilnria 

Meloeira 

Synedra 


4 

15 



1 





3 










9 







2 


Algse, ProtococcQs 











176 





Fungi, Crenotbrix, .... 


2,080 


28 


7 


60 





ANIMALS. 












Hhizopoda, Arcella 











1 





Infusoria 


3 


3 











Ciliated infusorian 

Eugkna 

Pendinium, 

Trachelomonas, 




3 



1 
1 


1 




















Miscellaneous, Zobgloea 





56 


632 








Total, 


2,103 


90 


639 


248 


2 



Chemical Examination of Water from Lily Pond Brook, Gloucester. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





e 

o 

? 

1 

o 

S 
« 
a 


Al'l'EAHAKCK. 


Uksiduk on 

KVAl'OllA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


c 

•c 

o 


NiTKOfiKN 
AS 


•d 

1 

3 

1 

a 
a 

5 






6 

f 


a 
§ 

CO 


i 


5 
o 


c 
o 

§1 




Albuminoid. 


'A 


'"A 




1 

is 


s 


•6 

> 

a 


■o 

3 a. 
w 


1 

09 

n 


12697 


]Sft4. 

Aug 8 


Distinct. 


Cons., 


2.20 


8.25 


3.80 


.0008 


.0512 


.0396 


.0116 


.90 


.0030 .0000 


1.78041.8 


12836 


AUK.27 


Distinct. 


rusty. 
Cons , 


2.70 


8.95 


3.!i5 


.0010 


.0578 


.0438 .0140 


1.17 


.0000 .0000 


1 
1.60160.9 


J3020 Scpt.24 


Blight. 


rusty. 
Cons. 


1.80 


7.20 


3.00 


.0011 


.0320 


.0314 .0006 


1.13 


.0000 .0000 


1.13190.8 


13232 


Oct. 29 


V.Hllght. 


Cons. 


0.90 


7.15 


2.35 


.(K)00 


.0218 


.0198 .0020 


1.44 


.0030 .0000 


.85851.3 


13396 


Nov. 26 


V. slight. 


Blight. 


1.70 


7.10 


2.65 


.0000 


.0212 


.0226 ,0010 


1.28 


.0000 .0000 


1.6400 0.9 


13576 Dec. 31 

1 


Blight. 


Blight. 


1.80 
I.8S 


6.65 


2.86 


.0008 


.02.'58 


.0234 .0024 

1 

.0301-0054 


1.36 
1.21 


.0000 .0000 
.0010 .0000 


1.0934 1.1 


Av. 








7.66 


3.10 


.0007 


.0856 


1.35101.1 










1 




1 







Odor, genornlly dlsilnctly vegetable and sometimes unpleasant. The samples were collected 

from the brook, near llic pumping station of llio (jlouci'ster Water Company. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 157 

GLOUCESTER. 

Microscopical Examination oj Water from Lily Pond Brook, Gloucester. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, . 



PLANTS. 
Diatomaceae, . 



Aeterionclla, 
Epithemia, 
Melosira, . 
Navicu a, . 
Pinniilaria, 
Byncdra, . 
Tabellaria, 



Fungi, Crenotbrix, 



Aug. 



Aug. 



10 
12697 



29 
12836 



Sept. 



26 
13020 



1 


41 





4 





4 





8 





4 





9 


1 


8 





4 


1,080 


248 



480 



ANIAfALS, 
Rhizopoda, Arcella, . 

Infusoria, . 

Ciliated iofusorian, . 
Dinobryon, 
Dinobryon cases, 
Euglcna, . 
Monas, 
Peridinium, 

Vermes, Rotifer, 
Miscellaneous, Zoiigloea, 
Total, 



856 






1 


























2 


1 



293 



481 



1 

13232 



216 



217 



28 
13396 



27 



2 

13576 



172 



158 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



GLOL^CESTER. 

Chemical Examination of Water from a Brook crossing Magnolia Avenue, South- 
tvcst of Lily Pond, Gloucester. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 

o 
O 

o 
o 

a 

a 


Appkarasce. 


Uksidi'b on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


6 

c 

o 

x; 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

3 

1 

a 
1 

5 






2 


a 

1 

•a 


c 

o 

S 


"3 
o 

H 


c 

o 

§1 


£ 


Albuminoid. 


1 

2 


5 

2 




1 

s 
S5 


"3 

O 


1 

1 o 

5 


•a 

■a 
1 c 


3 

1 

a 




1S94. 




























1269S 


Aug. S 


None. 


V. slight. 


5.00 


11.05 


6.90 


.0000 


.0436 


.0392 


.0044 


.82 


.0070 


.0000 


4.0656 


1.8 


13394 


Nov. 26 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


2.80 


9.30 


4.95 


.0006 


.0306 


.0274 


.0032 


1.18 


.0000 


.0000 


3.280o'l.4 


13581 


Dec. 31 


None. 


V. slight 


1.70 


6.65 


3.30 


.0004 


.0252 
.0331 


.0242 
.0303 


.0010 
.0028 


1.02 
1.01 


.0000 


.0000 


2.11750.9 


Av. 








a.„ 


9.00 


5.05 


.0003 


.0023 


.(1000 


3.15441.4 















Odor of the first sample, none; of the others, distinctly vegetable. The samples wore collected 

from the first brook crossing Magnolia Avenue, south-west of Lily Pond, at a point just abuve the 
avenue. The brook flows in a southerly direction, and is a tributary of a brook dischargiug into the sea 
at Kettle Cove. This is not a source of water supply for the city of Gloucester. 

Microscopical Examination. 

TSo. 12698. Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, 4. 

No. 13394. No organisms. 

No. 13581. X>\aXomace:a», A8terionella,i; Synedra,2. Total, 4. 



Chemical Examination of Water from a Brook floiving from Magnolia and 

Swamps, Gloucester. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Cedar 





1 

"5 

1 


Appearance. 


Hksiduk on 

KVAl'OKA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


a 

i 
g 

0.80 
1.36 
1.15 

1.10 


NiTROGKN 
AS 


■d 

a 

a 

I 
1 








1 


u 

o 




c 
o 

o = 

91 U 




Albuminoid. 


1 






1 


3 

o 


13 
> 


•6 
1^ 


1 


12009 
13395 
13582 


1804. 

Aug. 8 

Nov. 26 
Dec. 31 


None. 
V. slight. 
V. slight 


Blight. 

Slight. 

Cons., 
reddleh. 


6.25 
1.80 
1.50 


4.85 
7.15 
5.50 


2.25 
3.20 
2.65 


.0008 
.0002 
.0004 


.0424 
.0180 
.0174 

.0259 


.0368 
.0160 
.0160 


.0056 
.0020 
.0014 

.0030 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 

.0000 


4.8642 
1.9844 
1.3475 


1.4 
0.9 
0.8 


Av. 








3.18 


6.83 


2.70 


.0005 


.0229 


.0000 


2.7820 


1.0 



















Odor of the flrHtaamplo, none; of the second, distinctly vegetable and unpleasant; and of the third, 

very faintly veg<!table. The samples were collected from the brook near where it croHHCH Western 

Avenue. 'J'hln l)rook Is a tributary of the brook from which the Maniples in tlio preceding table were 
collected. This Is not a source of water supply for the city of Gloucester. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 12699. Dlatomaceoo, <5ync(/r«,3. lihljcopoda, /l?'tr//«, 1. MIscellaneouH, ZofVj/^/'a, 14. Total, 18. 

No, 1.3395. DIatomncea), /'^r«f///ar/a, 2. V»nn\, C'renollirU,V). 'J'otal, 12. 

No. 13082. hXtilofnacuaii, AHterl07ieUa,i; Diuloma,^. F i\n^\, Crenolhrix, i. Total, 17. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 159 

GLOUCESTER. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Norman''s Woe Brook, Gloucester. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



















il . 


— 




c 
o 
— 

1 




Appearance. 




EVAPORA- , 

TION. 1 


Ammonia. 


o 


NlTROGKN 
AS 


s 

3 
a 
S 
o 
O 
c 








6 


o 






e 




Albuminoid. 


m 


00 




c 




■o 


■a 


S 


f 






€ 


a 


i 


"3 


o 5j 


6 


« 


I o 


1 c 


hi 

o 


s 


*c 








































iz; 


Q 






CO 


o 


H 


>-) 


b. 


t- 


" 


CO 


O 


S5 


S!; 


O 


9 




1804. 




























13897 


Nov.26' V. 


slight. 


Slight. 


5.00 


12.40 7.85 


.0006 


.0496 


.0474. 0022 


1.24 


.0000 .0000 


5.04301.7 

1 1 


13580 


Dec.31 1 V 


Blight.lV. alight. 


3.60 


8.15 6.05 


.0008 


.0314 


.0288 .0026 


1.00 


.0000 .0000 

1 


3.1570 0.9 

1 



Odor, vegetable. The samples were collected from Norman's Woe Brook in Magnolia Swimp, 

about one-fourth mile below Western Avenue. This is not a source of water supply for the city of 
Gloucester. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 13397. Diatomacees, Dialoma, 1. Infusoria, Peridinium, 1. Total, 2. 
No. 13580. No organisms. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Fernwood Lake, Gloucester. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





g 


APPKARANCE. 




ItKSIDUK ON 

Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 
as 


■d 

1 

3 

c 

6 






1 
1 








tion. 












>^ 








c 
o 




Albuminoid. 






, 












1 


o 




1 


o 


■a 


o = 

00 U 


i 


"3 




■a 


c 
o 


2 


s 

r 


a 
1 




!i5 


e 


H 


S 


6 


o 

Eh 


o 


U* 


^ 


5"l^^ 


O 


» 


K 


o 


a 


189'!. 


























12694 Aug. 8 


Slight. 


Slight. 


2.10 


6.05 


2.75 


.0000 .0304 '.0270 

1 


.0034 


1.05 


.0070 


.0000 


1.1588 


0.6 


12837 Aug.2- 


Decided. 


Slight. 


2.40 


6.15 


3.40 


.0000 .03-12 .0266 

1 1 


.0076 


1.16 


.0000 


.0000 


1.1858 0.9 


13019 j Sept.24 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


2.60 


6.00 


2.40 


.0014.0354 


.0308 


.0046 


1.18 


.0000 


.0000 


.7546 0.6 


13228 Oct. 29 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.90 


5.80 


1.95 


.0074.0308 


.0278 


.0030 


1.19 


.0030 .OOOO' 

1 j 


1.1742 0.8 

1 


13388, Nov. 26' 


Slight. 


Slight. 


2.50 


7.25 


3.40 


.0030.0394 


.0262 


.0132 


1.30 


.0030.0000 


2.17300.8 


13579 Deo. 31 

1 


Slight. 


Slight. 


2.50 


7.15 


3.40 


.0054 .0364 
.0029 -0344 


.0336 


.0028 
.0057 


1.30 
1.20 


.0050 
.0030 


.0000 


1.8634 0.8 


Av. 








2.33 


6.40 


2.88 


.0287 


.0000 


1.8850 0.7 

















Odor of the first sample, distinctly vegetable and mouldy; of the second, faintly vegetable, becom- 
ing disavcrcralile aftiMHiancling one day ; of ihe third, very disagreeable; of the fourth, none; of the tifth, 
faintly vegotalilo ; and of the liiKt, distinctly veK''lable. The odor of all samples except the last was 

stronger on beating. The si.mijles were collected from Fernwood Lake, from the end of the wharf 

at Uoman's ice-houso. This is not a source of water supply for the city of Gloucester. 



IHO 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



GLOUCESTER. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Fernwood Lake, Gloticcster. 

[Ifumber of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 


1S95. 




August. 


August. 


September 


November 


November. 


January. 


Daj' of examination 


10 


29 


26 


1 


28 


3 


Number of sample, 


12694 


12837 


13019 


13228 


13388 


13579 


PLANTS. 














DiatomacesB 


198 


1,620 


357 


21 


19 


13 


Asterionella 

Diatoma 

Synedra 


2 
148 
48 


18 

2 

1,600 


332 



25 


20 

1 


18 
1 



13 




CyanophycesB, .... 








9 











Aphanocapsa, 

Coelosphaerium 











3 
6 














Algae, 


1 


2 


93 


3 


4 


2 


Dfttyosphaerium 

ProtococcuB 

Scenedesmus 

Zoospores, 






1 





2 




86 

7 




2 

1 



4 









2 


Fungi, Crenothrix, .... 


1 


3 


1 











ANIMALS 














Khizopoda, Euglypha, . 


1 

















Infusoria 


150 


224 


4 





3 


132 


Ciliated infusorian, .... 

Dinobryon 

Dinobryon cases, .... 
Eiiglena 

Peridltilura, 

Trachelomonas, .... 




2 
20 
1 
120 

7 







224 










4 














1 



1 




1 





3 
49 
10 

80 




Vermes, 


4 














1 


Polyarthra 

Rotifer, 



4 


















1 



MUcellaneout, Zoiiglcca, 


380 


52 


15 











TOTAl, 


736 


1,901 


479 


24 


26 


148 



No. 34.] EXAMIXATIOX OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



161 



GI.OUCESTER. 

Chemical Examination of Water from EaskelVs Brook, Gloucester. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





i 

% 

o 
"S 
« 

03 

Q 


Appkabasce. 


Kksidcb on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ahmokia. 


c 




Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

a 

B 

5 

c 

1 






■5 


1 
•3 

CO 


o 


1 


i 


i 

(4 


Albuminoid. | 


B 

1 
g 


1 




B 

a 
"A 







t 

il 

a 0. 


c 
•0 

a 




iKg4. 




























12695 


Aug. 8 


Decided, 


Slight, 


2.50 


8.40 


4.90 


.0008 .0924 


.0556 


.0368 


.84 


.0000 


.C003 


2.1868 


0.9 


12839 


Aug.27 


Kreen. 
Thicfe. 


green. 
Cons., 

rusty. 
Heavy. 


3.25 


8.50 


5.10 


.0000 .1056 


.0770 


.0286 


1.09 


.0030 


.0000 


2.1714 


0.5 


13018 


Sept.24 


Decided. 


3.00 


9.85 


5.50 


,0670 .156o'. 0720 


.0840 


1.04 


.0020.0000 


2.2946 0.6 


13229 


Oct. 29 


Distinct. 


Coos. 


1.70 


7.50 


3.80 


.0092.0562.0504 

1 1 


.0058 


1.09 


.0030.0000 


1.744o'l.3 


13393 


Nov. 26 


V. slight.! Slight. 


0.75 


5.70 


2.30 


.0004' .0166!. 0150 

1 1 


.0016 


1.18 


.0000 .0000 


.86510.8 


13575 


Dec. 31 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.90 


4.90 


2.00 


.0012 


.0168 .0138 


.0030 

1 


1.38 


.0000" .0000 

1 


.7045 0.6 


Av. 








2.02 


7.48 


3.93 


.0131 


.0739 -O-iV-q 


1 
.0268 


1.10 


1 
.0013 nnon 


1.6611 "8 




1 


















. 



Odor of the first sample, decidedly unpleasant; of the stcond, decidedly disagreeable; of the third, 

distinct; of the remaining samples, vegetable. The samples were collected from Haskell's Brook, 

"West Gloucester, just above the dam of Haskell's Reservoir. This reservoir had not been flowed for a 
long lime before the samples were collected. This is not a source of water supply for the city of 
Gloucester. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from HaskelVs Brook, Gloucester. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1804. 


1 1895. 




Aug. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Nov. 


Nov. 


Jan. 


Day of examination, .... 


10 


29 


26 


1 


28 


1 ' 


Number of sample 


12695 


12839 


13018 


13229 


13393 


13576 


PLANTS. 














Diatomacese 


699 


85 


54 


36 





3 


Asterionella 

Nuviculn, 

Synedra, 


19 



680 


5 

80 


8 

8 

88 






36 







3 




Cyanophyceee, .... 


3 





14 











Annba?nn, 

Ooelosphijerium, .... 


3 








6 
8 














Alg88 


1 


3 


20 


6 








Botrycoccus 

Protoodci-us 

Hapliidiuin 

Scenedesinus, 

Btaurastrum 


1 










2 
1 


4 
6 
6 
2 
2 





5 

1 
















Fungi, Crenothrix 


1 





4 





1 






162 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



GLOUCESTER. 

JJicroscopical Examination ofWater from HaskelVs Brook, Gloucester — Concliulecl. 

[Xiimber of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 


1895. 




Aug. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Nov. 


Nov. 


Jan. 


ANIMALS. 














Infusoria, 


215 


496 


902 


474 


13 


108 


Dinobryon 

Dinobryon cases 

Euglena, 

>IoDas 

Ophiocytium, 

Peruliiiiura 

Byoura, 

Trachelomonas 



120 

2 
44 

4 
36 

2 

7 



376 



4 
72 
44 




4 
2 

896 




4 
308 

2 

160 










1:5 










108 




Vermes 


43 


5 


8 


5 








Aourea, 

Polyarthra, 

Roialorian ova, 

Rotifer 


13 

19 

11 





2 

3 


8 





2 
2 

1 














Crustacea, Cyclops, .... 


.01 





.05 












Miscellaneous 


.03 





66 


80 





Acarina, 

Zooglica 


.03 







.03 
66 


.01 
80 










Total 


962 


589 


1,068 


601 


14 


111 



Water Supply of Grafton. — Grafton Water Company. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Filter-gallery of the Orafton Water 

Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 




Odor, none. The «iample« were collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 



Microscopical Examination. 



No. 12376. DIalomacceo, Tabelluria, 1. 
No. 13125. No orgaulama. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 163 

■ GR.VTTOX. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the East Branch of Bummet Brook, Grafton. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 











Kbsidub on 














c 


Appearance. 




iiVAPOBA- 


AUMONU. 




NlTBOGKN 


1 

3 

c 












TION. 




















s 




Albuminoid. | 








a 
a 


u 


3 


a 

a 

5 


C 

o 
c 


2 


o c 

O 


g 


"a 


•a 
> 


r 

m o 
3 O, 
CO 


C 

o 


1 


^ 


o 

c 


o 

a 


»5 


O 


H 


en 


C 


H 


>J 


Eb 


H 


« 


O 


iz; 


» 


o 


a 




1893. 


























10841 


Aug. ItJ 


V. Slight. 1 Slight. 


0.2* 


4.35 


1.95 


.0010 


.0134 


.0120'. 0014 


.25 


.0000 


.0000 


.2816 


1.3 



Odor, faintly vegetable. The sample was collected from the east branch of Bummet Brook, 

above the railroad, while making au investigation for a metropolitan water supply. 

Microscopical Examination. 

Dl&tomaceas, Melo8ira,T; Synedra, 4. Fuogi, Crenothrix, 9Q. Miscellaneons, Zoo^^os^j, 24. Total, 
181. 



AVater Supply of Greenfield. 
The advice of the State Board of Health to the water commii;- 
sioners of Fire District No. 1 of Greenfield, relative to increasing 
the water supply of the district, may be found on pages 16 and 17 
of this volume. Analyses of samples of water collected from the 
present reservoir and from other sources in connection with the 
investigations for an additional water supply are given below. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Glen Brook Reservoir and from the East 

Branch of Glen Brook. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 


APPEARANCE. 


Kesiuuk on 

EVAPOBA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


<a 


Nitrogen 

AS 


s 

OB 

c 
o 

u 














c 
o 




Albuminoid. 1 












n 


•^ 1 


00 


































a 


a 


3 

a 


a 

•3 




a 




a 


i 


> 

1 'c 

m X 


J 1 


o 


S 


5 




S 

1 


!»5 


Q 


Eh 


CO 


o 


H 




u. 


H 


^ 


« ! 


o 


'A 


55 


o 


n 




1894. 




























11901 


Mar 15 


I None. 


Slight. 


0.01 


3.90 


0.40 


.0000 .0058 


.0040 


.0018 


.13 


.0150 


.0000 


.0920 


2.S 


11900 


Mar. 15 


rSTone. 


Slight, 
dark. 


0.02 


2.90 


0.65 


.0000 .0088 


.0070 


.0018 


.13 


.0180 


.0000 


.1016 


1.4 



Odor of both samples, none. The first sample was collected from Glen Brook Reservoir and the 

second from Ibe ear-t branch of Glen Brook at the llcrron Farm in Leyden, at the location of a proposed 
new reservoir of the Qreenfleld Fire District, about 1 mile above the present reservoir. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 11901. Diatomacese, J/eio«fra, 2 ; Jferidion,!; yaricula,2. Total, 6. 
No. 11900. Diatomacese, Diatoma, 1; Meridian, 6; Navicula, 1. Total, 8. 



1G4 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



GREENTTELD. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Workman Brook in Golrain and from Fisk 
or Hinsdale Brook in Shelburne. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Kksidue ox 






XlTROGEN 


■s 






_o 


Appeaeakcb. 




TIOS. 


Ammonia. 




AS 


a 

3 









>, 








c 





Albuminoid. 








C 

a 










■ 


oa 


.0 

a 

3 





2 
2 


1 
•a 


1 


"0 








■3 





■0 
3 =• 


c 

'u 



2 


"C 


a 
1 


a 

03 


!zi 


« 


H 


Sri 




H 


-I 


b 


^1 


a 


cc 





» 


s 





a 




1S94. 




























11938 


Mar. 22 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.03 


4.25 


1.15 


.0008 


.0038 


.0034 .0004 


.10 


.0090 


.0000 


.1224 


2.2 


11939 


Mar. 22 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.01 


5.40 


0.70 


.0008 


.0034 


.0032 .0002 


.09 


.0050 


.0000 


.1367 


3.1 



Odor of both samples, none, becoming very faintly vegetable on heating. The first sample was 

collected from Workman Brooii, about half a mile above its confluence with the Green River; and the 
second sample from Fisk or Ilinsdale Brook, just above its confluence with Stewart Brook, about a quar- 
ter of a mile above the boundary line between Shelburne and Greenfield. 



Microscopical Examination. 

1^0.11938. Algae, Closterium, 1. Fungi, Crenothrix, 5; Molds, 1. Infusoria, Diiiobrr/on cases,!. 
Total, 8. 

No. 11939. Diatomaceas, Synedra, 1. Fungi, Crenothrix, 1. Total, 2. 



Grovel AND. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Johnson''s Pond, Groveland. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 














ItUSIUUK ON 






NiTBOGBN 


"d 


— 




1 


Ar-I'EARAXCE. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 






a 

a 
1 






3 












tion. 




















c 





Albuminoid. 
















5 


& 






c 






rsi 






■a 


■^ 




£ 


m 


c 




5 

a 




3 


.i 





3 


c 


si 


a 


io 


■0 

1 B 


^ 


£ 


S 






•A 


S 


s 


« 


5 


^ 


^ 


h 


H 


C 


a a 

CO 


6 


k; 


>^ 







1894. 




























12901 


Sept. 6 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.10 


3.65 


1.25 


.0002 


.0148 


.0128 


.0020 


.35 


.0000 


.0000 


.2618 


l.U 



Odor, faintly vegetable and mouldy. The sample was collected from the pond, 100 foot from the 

west shore, In connection with an invcdtigation for a new water sujipiy for Bradford. 



Microscopical Examination. 

I>latoniacesB, Attertonelta, 150; Synedra, 6. Cyanophycew, Microcystis, 1. 
Infusoria, I'trldlnium, 20. MioccllanoouH, Zoogloea, 32. Total, 216. 



Alga3, I'rotococcus, 1. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



165 



IIAVIOKIIILL. 



Water Supply of HAVEunrLL. 
Chemical Examination of Water from Crystal Lake, Haverhill. 

[Parts per lOO.OOO.J 





c 
o 

o 
O 

o 

a 


Appeabanck. 


Kksiddb on 

EVAPOBA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


d 

s 

1 

.a 
o 

.30 
.23 

.27 

.27 


SlTBOCK.N' 
AS 


■a 

1 

s 

a 
o 
O 
e 
ee 

X 
O 






is 

3 

a 




o 

8 


a 

3.25 
2.90 
3.00 


c 

o 

m "■ 
f 

0.90 
1.05 
1.15 


1 


Albuminoid. 


1 


CO 




1 

a 


a 
g 


•s 

> 


•a 

•o 
1 c 

ol 0) 

a o. 


00 

1 


11797 
12417 
13204 


1894. 

Fob. 21 

June 20 
Oct. 23 


V. slight. 

Slight. 

Distinct. 


Slight. 

Slight. 

Cons., 
green. 


0.10 
0.30 
0.10 


.00.38 
.0002 
.0010 


.0352 
.0156 
.0152 


.0296 
.0150 
.0134 


.0056 
.0006 
.0018 


.0020 
.0000 
.0000 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 

.0000 


.3520 
.3919 
.2820 


0.9 
0.9 
1.3 


Av. 








0.17 


3.05 


1.03 


.0017 


.0220 


.0193-0057 


.0007 


.3420 


1 

















Odor of the first sample, distinctly vegetable; of the other two, faintly vegetable, becoming stronger, 

and, in the second sample, also mouldy, on healing. The first and last samples were collected from 

the lake, and the second from a faucet at the office of the Haverhill Water Works. 

Microscopical Examination. 

The total number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in each of these samples was as follows : 
in February, 1; in June, 159; in October, 320. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Kenoza Lake, Haverhill. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 

o 
O 

o 
1 


Appeabanck. 


Kksiduk on 

EVAl'ORA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


a 
1 

.43 
.36 
.40 

.40 


Nitrogen 

AS 1 


a> 

a 

s 

CO 

I 

s 
bo 

1 






3 
3 

a 


a 
•s 

CD 


c 

o 
3 
u 


a 
g 


d 

o 

§1 
3 


1 


Albuminoid. 


m 

I 


5 




a 

3 

-A 


5 


■s 

1 3 

00 » 

5 


•a 1 
.1 

in a 
s c. 
CO 


m 
B 

•a 
a 


11793 
12419 
13201 


18ft4. 

Feb. 21 

June 20 
Oct. 23 


V. slight. 

Slight. 

Slight. 


Slight. 
V. slight. 
Cons. 


0.04 
0.05 
0.08 


3.35 
3.50 
3.35 


0.95 
0.60 
0.65 


.0034 
.0006 
.0004 


.0150 
.0132 
.0162 


.0136 
.0128 
.0132 


.0014^ 

.0004! 
.0030' 


.0020 

.0030 
.0030 

.0027 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 

.0000 


.2160 
.2218 
.2330 


1.7 
1.4 
1.7 


Av. 








0.06 


3.40 0.7.'? 


.0015 


.0148 -01.15 


.0016 

1 


.2236 


1 6 












1 









Odor of the first and last samples, distinctly vegetable ; of the second, none. The samples were 

collected from the lake. 

Microscopical Examination. 

The total number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in each of these samples was as follows : 
In February, 0; in June, 70; in October, 8. 



166 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HAVERHILL,. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Lake Saltonstall, Haverhill. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 
o 

o 

o 
o 


-Vtpeaeawck. 


Kesidub on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
1 


.61 


NlTnOGEN 
AS 


■a 
§ 

3 
C 

a 

B 

§1) 
>% 
K 







Turbidity. 


1 


o 
o 
O 


2 


= ° 

■J 


£ 


Albuminoid. 


1 

2 


5 
IS 




1 

E 

3 


o 


■6 
> 


•3 

, c 
So. 


c 

■s 

K 


11799 


1894. 

Feb. 21 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.03 


4.60 


0.85 


.0048 


.0144 


.0126 


.0018 


.0040 


.0001 


.1664 


1.8 


12420 


June 20 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.15 


5.20 


1.05 


.0018 


.0156 


.0142 .0014' 


.68 


.0000 


.0000 


.1933 


2.2 


13203 


Oct. 23 


' Slight. 


Cons , 


0.07 


5.20 


1.35 


.0008 


.0166 


.0148 .0018 


.71 


.0030 


.0000 


.1580 


2.2 








green. 








.0025 


.0155 






.67 










Av 








0.08 


5.00 


1.08 


.0139 


.0017 


.0023 


.0000 


.1726 


2.1 













Odor of the first sample, distinctly vegetable and grassy; of the second, distinctly mouldy; of the 

l.iBt, decidedly vegetable and unpleasant. The samples were collected from the lake, which is also 

known as Plug Pond. 

Microscopical Examination. 

The total number of organismg per cubic centimeter found in each of these samples was as follows ; 
in February, 0; in June, 140; in October, 835. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Lake Pejitucket, Haverhill. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Residue on 








V, 









AlTBARANCE. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




AS 


a 






S 




■2 


6 

2 


a 


i 


"5 




i 


Albuminoid. 





« 


5 


c 

5 

c 
(-, 




1 

9 





■d 

> 

is 


■d 


B 
•0 


'y. 


Q 


H 


w 


u 


H 


-) 


bi 


E- 


« 


«°- 





7^ 


!zi 





ta 




INOl. 




























12418 


June 20 


SllKht. 


V. slight. 


t).V> 


4.00 


0.90 


.0014 


.0180 


.0164 


.0016 


.41 


.0000 


.0000 


.257!) 


1.4 


1.3202 


Oct. 23 


V. Blight. 


V. Slight. 


0.05 


3.95 


1.50 


.0008 


.0188 


.0170 


.0018 


.44 


.0000 


.0000 


.2330 1.8 



Odor of the llrst Hamplc, faintly vegetable; of the second, distinctly vonetabU'. The odor of 1)olli 

sampli.-H was Ichh Rtrong on liealinK. 'I'hc saniples were collect(td from the laUi', which is also known 

QH Hound Pond. 



Microscopical Examination. 

The total number of orKanisms per cubic (•cntinH'ter found in each of Ihesc samples was as follows: 
No. 12418, 11 ; No. i:i2(»2, I.V.. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



167 



HA^rERHTLL,. 

Chemical Examination of Water from East Meadow River, Haverhill. 

[ParU per 100,000.] 





1 

o 
u 

s 1 


Appearance. 


Uesidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


1 Ammonia. 


a 
•c 

o 

o 

.28 
.30 

.36 

1 

.31 


Nitrogen j 

AS 


•a 

1 

3 

c 
eo 

K 

o 






3 

s 


s 
1 
CO 


1 
"3 


o 


a 
o 

o a 


1 
1 

i ^ 
1 


Albuminoid. 


« 
S 


1 

« 1 




4) 

i 

"A 




•a 

> 


•o 

OD 


OD 
C 


12894 
12S95 
13498 


1894. 

Sept. 5 

Sept. 5 
Dec. 17 


V. Blight. 
V. slight. 

V. slight. 


V. Blight. 
Slight. 
V. Blight. 


0.23 
0.23 
0.90 

0.45 


5.05 
6.25 
6.30 


1.00 
1.30 
2.40 


.0002 
.0016 
.0010 

.0009 


.0070 .0062 
.0064 .0058 
.0216 .0198 

.0117 mofi 


.0008 
.0006 
.0018 


.0020 
.0020 
.0050 

.0030 


.0000, 
.0000 
.0000 

.0000 

1 


.1617 
.1771 
.8624 


2.2 
2.2 
2.9 


Av. 


1 






5.53 


1.57 


.0011 


.4004 


2.4 















Odor of the first sample, distinctly vegetable, mouldy and grassy; of the second, faintly vegetable 

and mouldy; of the List, distinctly vegetable. The first sample was collected from the river, about 

I'j miles from its mouth, at Thompson's bridge; the last two samples were collected just above the 
point where the river crosses Millvale Road, about half a mile from its mouth. The samples were col- 
lected daring an investigation for an additional water supply for Haverhill. 

Microscopical Examination. 

The total number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in each of these samples was as follows : 
No. 12894, 117; No. 1289.5, 104; No. 13498, 9. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Little River and Creek Brook, Haverhill. 

[Parts per 100,000.1 





3 

o 


ArrEARANCE. 


Residite on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


■3 

m 

a 

6 

c 














g 




Albuminoid. 








S 


o 


1 


o 


« 


il 




a 


■a 
1 > 


■d 

m C 


s> 

B 
o 


hi 


S 


00 

o 
C 

7. 


































Vi 


a 


i-> 


CO 


u 


H 


ij 


b 


Eh 


a " 


Zo. 


CJ 


>5 


S5 


o 


» 




1894. 




























12893 


Sept. 5 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.55 


5.60 


1.55 


.0008 


.0112 


.0100 .0012 


.32 


.0030 


.0001 


.2849 


1.8 


l:U97 


Dec. 17 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.60 


5.55 


1.90 


.0000 


.0202 


.0180 .0022 


.39 


.0250 


.0000 


.6083 


1.9 



Odor of the first sample, distinctly vegetable and mouldy; of the second, distinctly vegetable. 

The llrsl sample was coUoolod from Little Ulver, at llosemont bridge; the last from Creek Hrook 

West Parish, at Uradlcy's mills, near its mouth. The samples were collected during an Investigation 
for an additional water supply for Haverhill. 

Microscojncal Examination. 

The total number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in each of these samples was as follows : 
No. \1%9\ 136; No. 13497, 126. 



168 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



hixgilvai. 
Water Supply of Hingham and Hull. 

Company. 



Hingham Water 



The advice of the State Board of Health to the Hingham Water 
Corapan}^ relative to taking an additional water supply for Hing- 
ham and Hull from Accord Brook and Gushing Pond in Hingham, 
may be found on pages 17-20 of this volume. Analyses of samples 
of water from the present sources of supply of the Hingham Water 
Company and of samples collected during the investigation for an 
additional supply are given below. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Accord Pond, Hingham. 

[Parts pel- 100,000.] 





B 
o 

i 

o 
O 


Appearance. 


liESIDUU ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


■g 

I 

o 

c: 






^ 


-i 






c 
.2 




Albuminoid. 


. 






u 




■d 


■d 


o 








1 


o 


•3 


M t* 


aj 


a 


> 


1 "^ 


o 


2 


•E 


^ 


c 

■2 














^ 




















iz; 


" 


H 


CO 




H 


fc, 


H 


5 


x^ 


O 


Yi 


"A 


o 


S3 




1804. 




























11926 


Mar. 20 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.25 


2.70 


0.95 


.0004 


.0122 


.0102 .0020 


.61 


.0030 


.0000 


.3476 


0.3 


12321 


June 5 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.25 


3.15 


1.15 


.0000 


.0120 


.0108 .0012 


.58 


.0030 


.0000 


.3965 


0.5 


12422 


June20 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.20 


2.95 


1.05 


.0000 


.0098 


.0082 


.0016 


.63 


.0030 


.0000 


.3627 


0.2 


13010 


Bept.lO 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


0.10 


3.50 


1.25 


.0002 


.0102 


.0080 


.0016 


.71 


.0000 


.0000 


.2310 


0.3 


13503 


Dec. 17 


v. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


0.18 


2.90 


1.15 


.0002 
.0002 


.0126 
.0114 


.0100 
.0097 


.0020 


.57 
.62 


.0030 


.0000 


.3080 
.3292 


0.3 


Av. 








0.20 


8.04 


1.11 


.0017 


.0024 


.0000 


3 













Odor of the first Hainple, faintly vegetable ; of the second, decidedly vegetable, mouldy and disagree- 
able, becoming mouldy and grassy on heating; of the third, distinctly mouldy and grassy, becoming 
vegetable on healing; of the fourth, strongly grassy ; and of the last, none. The samples were col- 
lected from the lake. 

In the early part of June complaintH were made from all parts of the town of a disagreeablo tawle and 
odor In the water supply, wliich was being furnihhed at that time almost wholly from Accord I'oiul. A 
special microscopical Invettligation whowed the presence of large numbers of the organism Aiiabtenii, 
which is thought to have caused the trouble. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



IGO 



iiixGii.or. 

Microscopical Examination of Water Jrom Accord Pond, Eingham. 

[Number of organisrae per cubic centimeter.] 



March. 



September. 



Day of examination, 
Number of eample, . 

PLANTS. 
Diatomaceee, 

ABterionella, 
Cyclotella, . 
Melosira, 
Synedra, 
Tabellarift, . 

Cyanophyceae, . 

Anabaena, . 
Merismopedla, . 
MicrocyBtis, 

Algse, . . . . 

HotrycoccuH, 
Protococcus, 
Raphidium, 

ANIMALS, 
Rhizopoda, . 

Aclinophrye, 
Arcella, 

Infusoria, 

Cryptomonas, 
Dinobryon,. 
Dinobryon cases, 
MonaH, 
Perldinium, 

Miscellaneous, Zoogioea, . 

Total, 



21 
11926 



6 
12321 



23 
12422 



21 
13010 



20 
13503 



110 



pr. 



22 



210 



27 

180 



3 



323 



170 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HTNGHAM. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Fulling Mill Pond, Bingham. 

[Farts per 100,000] 





1 
S 

o 

o 

o 
o 


Ari'EARANCE. 


Rksidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


AUMON'IA. 


c 
■§ 
S 
o 

.61 
.01 

.80 

.59 
.58 

.64 


NITKOQKN 
AS 


"2 

s 

c 

5 

g 

o 






■5 
3 


Z 
a 




o 


c 




Albuminoid. 


"3 


1 
1 


. 


a 

3 

S5 


o 


•6 

1 

5" 


•o 


•a 


11927 
12421 

12679 

13011 
13504 


1894. 

Mar. 20 
June 20 

Aug. 7 

Sept. 19 
Dec. 17 


V. slight. 
Slight. 

Decided, 

yellow. 

V. slight. 

V. slight. 


Cons. 
Slight, 

rusty. 
Cons., 

yellow. 
V. slight. 
Slight. 


0.20 
0.10 

0.18 

0.15 
0.45 


4.55 
4.55 

5.40 

5.00 
4.85 


1.25 
1.05 

0.90 

1.20 
1.20 

1.12 


.0006 
.0008 

.0526 

.0008 
.0002 


.0054 
.0036 

.0822 

.0034 
.0112 


.0038 
.0030 

.0218 

.0028 
.0094 

.0082 


.0016 
.0006 

.0604 

.0006 
.0018 

.0130 


.0220 
.0070 

.0050 

.0220 
.0250 


.0000 
.0000 

.0002 

.0000 
.0000 

.0000 


.2251 
.1186 

.2595 

.1309 
.3157 


1.3 
1.3 

1.5 

0.9 
1.4 


Av. 








0.22 


4.87 


.0110 


.0212 


.0162 


.2099 


1 3 













Odor of the first sample, faintly vegetable, somewhat unpleasant; of the second, none; of the third, 

distinct, sweetish; of the fourth, slightly vegetable and mouldy; and of the last, distinctly vegetable. 

The samples were collected from the pond. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Fulling Mill Pond, Hingham. 



I Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Day of examination. 
Number of sample, . 

PLANTS. 

Diatomacese, 

Diatomn, . . . . 
MeloHira, . . . . 
Synedra 

Cyanophyceee, Auabujna, 

AlgBB, 

ChlorococcuH, 

Polyedrlum, 

Uaphldhim, 

8ccned<!Hinu8, 

HtuuruHtrurn, 

Funerlf Crcnotbrlx, . , 

ANIMALS. 

Infusoria 

Cryptomonas, 

Dlnobryon 

Dinobryon cases, 

Macellaneout, Zobgloea, . 

Total 



21 
11927 



23 
12421 



563 



(Vugust. September. December. 



5,500 



2,900 

2,000 

9,200 

9,500 

8,000 
50 
O.W 
100 
100 



150 



21 
13011 



20 
13504 



24,350 



23 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 171 

IIINGILAJVI. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Accord Brook, Hinghavfi. 

[rarts per 100,000.] 





a 




Al'PEABANCE. 




Kesidub on 

EVAPOBA- 


Ammonia. 




JJlTROOEN 


a 

3 

a 
o 
O 






■a 

o 








TION. 






















c 

o 




Albuminoid. ] 














, 


00 










s 






B.ti 






•e 


■a 




s 


OD 


a 


•& 


.3 

a 






2 


a 


o 


"3 


CO M 


=; 


■3 




•a 1 

is ' 


5 


2 


5 


& 


a 
1 




































"A 


a 




H 


cc 




H 


hJ 


^ 


e- 


Q 


«~ 


o 


»i 


m 


o 


a 




1894. 






























116tJ-2 


Jan. 18 


V 


slight. 


V. slight. 


1.70| 


6.50 


3.45 


.0004 .0123 .0120 .0008 


.71 


.0070 


.oooo' 


1.4868 


0.9 


1-2320 


June 5 1 


V. 


slight. 


Slight. 


4.70 


7.30 


4.80 


.0006.0318 .0286 .0032 


.56 


.0050 .0000 


2.7335 


0.8 



Odor, vegetable. The saiupleu were collected from Accord Brook, which Hows from Accord 

Pood, at the point where it crosses South Pleasant Street. 



Microscopical Exaviination. 

No. 11662. Diatomacea', J/ej'iVio/j, 3; Synedra,'2. Total, 5. 

No. 12320. Diatomaceaj, Diatoma, 5; Tabellaria, 2. Fungi, CreuolUrix, 5. Total, 12. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Various Sources in Hingham, collected diir- 
ing an Investigation for an Additional Water Stqyply Jor Uingham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





e 

o 

o 

o 
U 

o 
a 

a 


Appearance. 


Kesidce on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


a 
o 
O 


Nitrogen 

A8 


•d 

i 

3 

e 
o 
o 

a 

1 

K 

o 






3 


a 
o 

a 

CO 


o 
o 
O 




B 
O 

o 


fa 


Albuminoid. 


2 


5 




a 

a 

3 
•A 


"3 
o 


•6 

> 

5" 


■g 
•o 

1^ 


m 

a 
■2 




1S04. 




























11663 


Jan. 18 


V. slight. 


Cons., 

rusty. 
Slight. 


0.10 


4.40 


1.10 


.0000 


.0034 


.0004 


.0030 


.65 


.0280 


.0000 


.1098 


1.3 


1-2318 


June 5 


V. slight. 


2.50 


5.65 


2.S5 


.0038 


.0248 


.0238 


.ooio: 


.63 


.0050 


.0000 


1.5862 


0.9 


12319 


Juno 5 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


2.80 


5.70 


3.05 


.0008 


.0398 


.0280 


.0118 


.52 


.0030 


.0000 


1.9712 


0.8 


12344 


June 11 


- 


- 


1.25 


9.60 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


.79 


- 


- 


- 


- 



Odor of the first three samples, faintly vegetable. The first sample was collected from the brook 

which feeds Fulling Mill Pond; the second, from the brook flowing into Gushing I^nd, just above the 
pond; tho third, from Gushing Pond, near the darn and 2 feet below the surface; and the last, from a 
small pond made by damming Fresh River a short distance above the point where it crosses the New 
York, New Ilaven & Hartford Railroad, close to the boundary between Hingham and Weymouth. 



Microscopical Examination. 

The total number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in each of these samples was as follow! 
No. 116G3, 29; No. 12318, 80; No. 12319, 240; No, 12344, 820. 



172 



STATE BOAKD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HIXSDALE, 

Water SurrLY of Hinsdale Fire District, Hinsdale. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Storage Beservoir oj the Hinsdale Fire 

District. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





S 
o 

o 
o 

Q 


Appearanxk. 


Kesidub on 
EvAPOnA- 

TION. 


Ammonia. 


2 

"u 
o 

O 

.03 
.06 
.08 
.09 
.10 
.10 
.07 

.08 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

1 

3 
B 

o 

e 

1 






•5 

i 

s 
H 


c 

a 

03 


o 


o 


o 

p 

1^ 


i 


Albuminoid. | 




2 




1 

3 


"3 
1 


■a 

> 

s 


1 B 

a P. 
CO 


c 
■a 

a 
Ed 


12272 
12437 
12602 
12992 
13156 
13358 
13526 


1894. 

May 22 

Jnne26 
July 24 
Sept.19 
Oct. 17 
Nov. 21 
Dec. 19 


V. slight. 

Distinct, 

yellow. 

Decided, 

green. 
Decided, 

green. 
Decided, 

green. 
Decided, 

green. 
Distinct, 

green. 


Slight. 

Slight, 

green. 
Slight, 

green. 
Cons., 

green. 
Cons. 

Slight, 

green. 
Slight, 

green. 


0.2S 
0.2S 
0.40 
0.55 
0.60 
0.40 
0.20 


2.15 
2.60 
3.60 
3.50 
4.00 
3.10 
3.00 


1.25 
1.15 

2.25 
2.60 
1.75 
1.60 


.0000 
.0002 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0006 

.0001 


.0186 
.0228 
.0242 
.0326 
.0362 
.0276 
.0178 


.0126 
.0130 
.0162 
.0166 
.0162 
.0132 
.0118 

.0142 


.0060 
.0098 
.0080 
.0160 
.0200 
.0144 
.0060 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0030 
.0030 

.0009 


.0000 
.0000 
.0001 
.0003 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.3549 
.3627 
.5659 
.5505 
.7623 
.4953 
.3850 

.4967 


0.2 
0.8 
0.9 
0.0 
0.8 
0.3 
0.5 


Av. 








0,39 


3.06* 


1.77 


.0257 


.0115 


.0001 


0,fi 













* Exclusive of No. 12602. 

Odor of the first sample, distinctly oily, becoming decidedly vegetable and unpleasant on heating; of 
the second sample, distinct; of the third sample, distinctly fragrant; of the fourth and lifth, very faintly 
vegetable; of the sixth, faintly vegetable and mouldy; of the last, none. The odor of all samples 

was stronger on heating. The first three samples were collected from a faucet, and the others from 

the reservoir. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from the Storage Reservoir of the TJinsdale 

Fire District. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 

PLANTS. 
Diatomacese, . 

ABterloriella, . 
Dcntlcula, 
Melosiru, . 
Hynedra, . 
labcllaria, 



May. July. July. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec, 



24 
12272 



2 
12437 



25 
12002 



21 
l2Wi 



18 
131.50 



22 

13358 



20 
18526 



No. 34.] p:xamination of water supplies. 



173 



HINSDALE. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Storage Reservoir of the Jlitisdale 
Fire District — Concluded. 

[Numbor of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



PLANTS— Con. 
Cyanophycese, ChroiJcoccus, 

Algse 

Closterium, . . . . 

Palmella, 

Zoospores 

Fungi, Crenothrix, . 

ANIMALS. 
Rhizopoda, Arcclla, 

Infusoria 

Ciliatod infusorian, . 
Dlnobryon cascK, . 

Euglena 

^^ona8, 

Pcrlciiuiiira, . . . . 
I'hacus, . . . . 
Tracheloraonas, 

Vermes, 

Anurea 

Polyarthra, . . . . 

liotatorian ova, 

Rotifer, 

Miacellaneoua, Zoiiglcca, 

Total 



May. 



July. 



July. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



292 ; 1,000 



288 1,000 

4 



520 



520 





652 


600 
1 

48 

3 









39 


5 








u 








• 





1 


37 


4 


1 





1 








1 





1 




















80 





119 


66 



28 



220 



52 405 1,001 



520 



Water Supply of Holbkooiv. 
(See Randolph.) 



HOLDEN. 

Several samples of water ^^ere collected from sources in Holdeu 
during the investigations for a metropolitan water sui)ply, and the 
analyses may be found tabulated under the head of " Nashua River," 
in the next chapter. 



174 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



nOLLISTOX. 

Water Suitly of Holliston. — Holliston Water Co3ipany. 



Chemical Exaininalion of Water from the Well of the Holliston Water Covq^u!/. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 


Al'PEAlLi\.NCB. 


c 
o 


Ammonia. 




NiTKOGKN 
AS 


■d 

1 






tz 


3 


^ 


c 




n 




o 




a 




J 


flD 










a 

•3 






















a 


"3 




_o 


HW 


1 


ia 


_o 




*C 




■o 

OS 


n 
2 


z; 




r- 


CO 


5 


M 


b 


< 


O 


'A 


!21 


o 


» 






1894. 


























116U 


Jan. 9 


Noue. 


None. 


0.10 


4.15 


.0000 


.0036 


.34 


.0200 


.0001 


.0842 


1.8 


.0275 


12009 


April 9 


None. 


None. 


0.05 


3.35 


.0002 


.0032 


.30 


.0300 


.0000 


.1104 


1.7 


.0100 


12555 


July 17 


V.slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.20 


4.40 


.0000 


.0044 


.32 


.0120 


.0001 


.0808 


2.1 


.0325 


13X01 


Oct. 9 


': V.slight, 
milky. 


None. 


0.05 


6.50 


.0000 


.0026 


.30 


.0000 


.0000 


.0206 


3.8 


.0170 


Av. 




1 




0.10 


4.60 


.0001 


.0035 


.32 


.0155 


.0001 


.0755 


2.4 


.0218 






1 







Odor of the (irst three samples, none; of the last, very faintly unpleasant. The oilor of the lirst 

sample was very faintly vegetable on heating, The samples were collected from a faucet at the 

pumping station. 



j\Iicrosco2)ical Examination of Water from the Well of the Holliston Water 

Company. 



[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Day uf examination, 
Number of Hamplc, 

1T..\NT8 
Diatomaceae, . 

KraBllarla, 

McloHlra, .... 

Fungi, Crenothrix, 
Miscellaneous, ZoUglcoa, . 
Total, . . . . 



January. 



10 
11014 



April. 



n 

1200U 



July. 

18 
12555 



10 
13101 



20 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 175 

no L YOKE. 

Watek SurrLY of Holyoke. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the city of Ilolyokc, 
with reiraid to Munn Brook iu the town of Granville as a source of 
additional water su[)ply for the city, may be found on pages 20 and 
21 of this volume. 



Chemical Examination of Water Jrom Whitinfj Street Storage Reservoir, Ilolyolce. 

[TartB per 100,000.] 





Date of Collection. | 


AlTKABAN'CK. 


Kksidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


AUHONIA. 




c 

_o 



.17 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 

1 

c 

1 

K 








•3 

s 


S 

s 

CO 


O 

5 




c 
_c 

to tc 




Albuminoid. 




2 




B 
s 
"A 


■3 



•d 
> 

Q 


•d 

•a 
1 c 

1^ 


09 

1 

a 

a 


11678 


1894. 

Jau.24 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.15 


5.10 


1.30 


.0000 


.0164 


.0132 


.0032 


.0150 


.0001 


.3673 


3.0 


11932 


Mar.21 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.18 


4.25 


1.15 


.0000 


.0214 


.0118 


.0096 


.16 


.0020 


.0000 


.3160 


2.6 


12270 


May 23 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.30 5.00 

1 


1.35 


.0000 


.0210 


.0148 


.0062 


.12 


.0030 


.0000 


.3744 


2.6 


12y95 


July 23 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.23 5.50 


1.50 


.0010 .OlO'O 


.0166 


.0024 


.16 


.0030 


.0001 


.3696 


3.1 


13015 


8ept.24 


Slight. 


Cous., 
earthy. 


0.45 


5.95 


1.25 


.0016 


.0290 


.0218 


.0072 


.18 


.0000 


.0000 


.3696 


3.4 


13403 


Nov.27 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.30 


4.40 


1.20 


.0018 


.0154 


.0144 
.0155 


.0010 


.16 
.16 


.0170 


.0000 


.2091 


2.5 


Av. 








0.27 


5.03 


1.29 


.0007 


.0204 


.0049 


.0067 


.0000 


.3343 


9 













Averages by Years. 
From Brook before Reservoir teas built. 



1887* 


- 


- 


0.48 


1 7.89 


1.44 


.0024 


.0204 - 


- 


.13 


.0126 


- 


- 


1888 


- 


- 


0.25 


6.63 


1.22 


.0009 


.0183 - 


- 


.10 


.0081 


.0001 


- 


lS89t 


- 


- 


0.14 


6.72 


1.02 


.0006 


.0134 .0092 


.0042 


.11 


.0054 

1 


.0001 


- 



From Reservoir. 



- 


18901 


- 


- 


0.30 


6.95 


1.60 


.0008 


.0244 


.0188 


.0056 


.15 


.0120 


.0000 


- 


3.6 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.41 


6.34 


2.05 


1.0125 


.0311 


.0253 


.0058 


.12 


.0185 


.0006 


- 


3.1 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.30 


5.57 


1.86 


1.0029 


.0294 


.0247 


.0047 


.14 


.0192 


.0001 


- 


2.8 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


o.is; 


4.67 


1.63 


'.0008 


.0251 


.0183 


.0068 


.13 


.0063 


.0001 


.3838 


2.5 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.27 


5.03 


1.29 


.0007 


.0204 


.0155 


.0040 


.16 


.0067 


.0000 


.3343 


2.9 



* June to December. 



t January to May. 



I December. 



Note to analyses of 1894: Odor, generally vegetable; on one occasion disagreeable. The sam- 
ples were collected from the reservoir. 



176 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



irOI.YOKE. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Wliitiiig Street Storage Ecscrvoir, 

Holyoke. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, . 



25 
11678 



May. 



July. 



23 
11932 



25 
12279 



24 
12595 



Sept. 



25 
13015 



30 
13403 



PLANTS. 
Diatomacese, 

Asterionella, 

Fragilaria, . . . , 

Synedra, . . . , 

CyanophycesB, Anabtena, 

Algse 

Chlorococcus, 
I'rotococcHs, 
ScenedesmuB, 
Btaurastrum, 
Zoospores, ... 

Fungi, Crenothrix, 



1,120 

1,120 



pr. 



165 

5 


160 



140 



25 



2 


584 





56 





96 





432 


1 





1 






ANIMALS 
Rhizopoda, Arcella, . 

Infusoria, . 

Dinobryon cases, 

Kuglcna, 

Monas, 

Peridinium, 

PhacuB, 

Tracbelomonas, . 

Vermes, 

Anurea, 
Polyarthra, . 
Hotatorlan ova, . 
Kotifer, 

MlBcellane<mg, Zooglusa, . 

Total, 









75 


2,258 





2,000 





1.50 








74 


lOS 








1 








2 











2 














1 





77 


3,406 



23 



281 



182 



40 






40 



32 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 177 



HOLVOBLE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from, Wright and Ashley Ponds, Eolyoke. 

[Parte per 100,000.1 





S 

I 
o 
* 


Appearance. 


Kksidlk on 

EVAI'OHA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


a 
a 

6 

.23 


NiTBOGKM 
AS 


•a 

I 

00 

a 

6 

c 

1 






a 


s 
o 

S 
"5 
oa 


O 


o 


3 


1 


Albuminoid. 


1 






a 

S5 


1 


5 


oa 


i 

c 
•2 

a 

n 


11677 


1894. 

Jan. 24 


Slight, 


Slight. 


0.10 


4.80 


1.65 


.Q036 


.0388 


.0306 


.0082 


.0050 


.0001 


.3752 


2.6 






green. 


























11931 


Mar.21 


Slight, 
clayey. 


Slight. 


0.05 


5.05 


1.00 


.0014 


.0136 .0092 


.0044 


.14 


.0100 


.0000 


.2054 


3.2 


12278 


May 23 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.08 


5.50 


1.15 


.0018 


.0184 .0160 


.0024 

1 


.15 


.0030 


.0000 


.2184 


2.9 


12594 


July 23 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.08 


5.15 


1.40 


.0000 


.0200.0184 .0016 

1 1 


.18 


.0020 


.0000 


.3142 


3.1 


13014 


Sept.24 


V. slight. 


Cons., 
sand. 


0.15 


5.15 


1.35 


.0014 


.0218 .0190 .0028 


.18 


.0000 


.0000 


.2156 


2.7 


13402 


Nov. 28 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.10 


5.20 


1.45 


.0048 
.0022 


.0166 .0140 .0026 
.0215-0170 onafi 


.16 
.17 


.0070 
.0045 


.0001 


.2378 


3.0 


Av. 








0.09 


5.14 


1.33 


.0000 


.2611 


2 9 















1 





Averages by Years. 



1887* 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 1 

1892i 

1893 

1804 



- 


0.08 


5.25 


0.89 


.0029 


.0202 


- 


- 


.13 


.0016 


_ 


_ 


- 


0.06 


4.81 


0.82 


.0024 


.0178 


- 


- 


.12 


.0054 


.0001 


- 


- 


0.02 


5.37 


0.74 


.0020 


.0201 


.0161 


.0040 


.13 


.0039 


.0000 


- 


- 


0.01 


- 


- 


.0020 


.0201 


.0151 


.0050 


1.13 


.0048 


.0000 


- 


- 


0.01 


6.10 


- 


.0046 


.0243 


.0201 


.0042 


:.13 


.0035 


.0001 


- 


- 


0.02 


5.10 


1.15 


.0008 


.0196 


.0154 


.0042 


j.l7 


.0020 


.0000 


- 


- 


0.06 


4.71 


1.21 


.0026 


.0195 


.0152 


.0043 


!.15 


.0072 


.0000 


.2466 


" 


0.00 


5.14 


1.33 


.0022 


.021 -. 


.0179 


.0036 


1.17 

1 


.0045 


.0000 


.2611 



2.9 
3.1 

3.1 
2.9 



* June to l>occniber. 



f July and October. 



X May. 



Note to analyaes of 1894 : Odor, generally faintly vegetable, becoming much stronyer and generally 
unpleasant or grassy on heating. The samples were collected from Ashley Pond. 



178 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



nOIiTOKE. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Wright and Ashley Ponds, Holyoke. 

[N'umber of orgauisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Jan. March. May. July. Sept. Nov. 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, . 

PLANTS 
Diatomacese, 

Asterionella, 
Cyclotella, . 
Diatoma, 
Fragilaria, . 
Melosira, 
Stephanodiscus, . 
Syuedra, 
Tabellaria, . 

Cyanophycese, . 

Anabsena, . 
Chroococcus, 
ClathrocysliB, 
MicrocystiB, 

Algee, 

CoBraarium, 
ProtococcuB, 
Raphidiura, 

Fungi, Crcnolhris, 



25 
11677 



23 
11931 



24 
12278 



24 
12594 



ANIMALS. 
Bhizopoda, Actinophrys, 



Infusoria, 



Ceratlum, . 
Dinobryon, . 
Diiiobryon caHOB, 
Kut,'lena, 
Mullotnonaft, 
l'(!ri<iiriiiim, 
TraclieloraonaB, . 



Vermes,. 



Polyarthra, 
Eotlfcr, 



MicellaneouB, ZocigWca, 



Total, 



961 



50 


150 





6 











21 





78 








1 


200 





9 



361 





1 


360 



1,846 



464 



122 



690 



114 


3 
1 


40 


68 

2 



126 









86 


25 


28 


100 








2 





2 


1 


4 






242 



80 
154 



13014 



24 
121 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



179 



HUDSON. 



Water Supply of Hudson. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Gates Point, Berlin. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





3 

o 

o 

o 
« 


ArPKAUAKCE. 


Kksiuue on 

KVAI'ORA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 




c 


.25 


Nitrogen 

A3 


i, 
s 

« 

c 



B 

So 
>. 
y. 



.1927 






3 

a 
9- 


c 
o 

s 

at 


U 

o 

5 




i 

O 


b 


Albuminoid. 





00 




c 

a 


1 


•6 
> 

5 


■a 
i = 


c 
•0 

a 


llCll 


1894. 

Juu. 9 


V. Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.05 


lAb 


0.80 


.0058 


.0130 


.0102 


.0028 


.0020 


.0000 


0.6 


11708 


Feb. 5 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.02 


2.30 


0.90 


.0032 .0120 .0102 


.0018 


.21 


.0000 


.0000 


.1280 


0.5 


11845 


M:ir. 6 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.01 


1.80 


0.60 


.0048 .0120 .0106 


.0014' 


.16 


.0030 


.0000 


.1760 


0.2 


11989 


Apr. 2 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.03 


2.10 


0.60 


.0026 .0142 .0114 


.0028 


.21 


.0030 


.0000 


.1309 


0.8 


12202 


May 14 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.05 


2.05 


0.70 


.0006 


.0146J.0120 


.0026 


.20 


.0000 


.0000 


.1373 


0.5 


12322 


June 6 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.03 


2.50 


0.95 


.0006 


.0158 


.0132 


.0026 


.22 


.0000 


.0000 


.1525 


0.9 


12529 


July 13 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.03 


2.45 


1.25 


.0000 


.0132 


.0122 


.0010 


.26 


.0000 


.0000 


.1070 


0.5 


12700 


Aug. 9 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.08 


2.35 


1.00 


.0004 


.0182 


.0150 


.0032 


.20 


.0000 


.0000 


.1332 


0.7 


12917 


Sept.ll 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.05 


2.65 


0.90 


.0004 


.0172 


.0142 


.0030 


.19 


.0020 


.0000 


.1386 


0.0 


13103 


Oct. 9 


Slight. 


Slight, 
green. 


0.05 


2.25 


0.85 


.0000 


.0164 


.0130 


.0034 


.24 


.0000 


.0000 


.1254 


0.5 


13309 


Nov. 14 


Slight. 


Slight, 
green. 


0.05 


2.10 


0.70 


.0000 


.0140 


.0116 


.0024 


.22 


.0000 


.0000 


.1677 


0.6 


13506 


Dec. 18 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.08 


2.25 


0.75 


.0006 
.0016 


.0168 
.0148 


.0152 
.0124 


.0016 
.0024 


.23 
.22 


.0000 
.0008 


.0000 
.0000 


.1525 
.1452 


0.8 


Av. 








0.04 


2.27 


0.83 


0.6 





















u 


ivera 


ges by Years. 
















- 


1887* 


- 


- 


0.06 


3.17 


0.71 


'.0014 


.0150 


- 


- 


.21 


.0064 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1888 


- 


- 


0.06 


2..')5 


0.69 


.0015 


.0158 


- 


- 


.19 


.0055 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


1889 


- 


- 


0.03 


2.14 


0.58 


.0020 


.0189 


.0139 


.0050 


.19 


.0048 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


1S90 


- 


- 


0.02 


2.82 


1.04 


.0023 


.0161 


.0124 


.0037 


.21 


.0054 


.0000 


- 


1.2 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.04 


2.52 


0.90 


.0011 


.0150 


.0117 


.0033 


.20 


.0074 


.0000 


- 


0.9 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.05 


2.45 


1.01 


.0040 


.0178 


.0146 


.0032 


.23 


.00.39 


.0000 


.1965 


0.6 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.04 


2.27 


0.83 


.0016 


.0148 


.0124 


.0024 


.22 


.0008 


.0000 


.1452 


0.6 



* June to December. 



Note to analyses of 1894 : Until October the odor was gencriilly faintly vegetable; in May the odor 
was distinctly oily on heating; in the last three samples the odor was much stronger and \mplpasant or 
disagreeable. The samples were collected from the pond. 



180 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

HUDSON. 

Microscopical Examinalion of Water from Gales Po7id, Berlin. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 















1S94. 














Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, . 


10 


5 


7 


5 


15 


7 


14 


10 


12 


10 


15 


20 


Number of sample, 


11611 


11708 


11845 


11989 


12202 


12322 


12529 


12700 


12917 


13103 


13309 


13506 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomacese, 


1 





14 


564 


48 


22 


13 


20 


15 


128 


701 


1 


Asterionella, 
Fragilaria, 
Melosira, 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, . 








1 









14 




U 


360 

204 
pr. 
pr. 


46 



1 

1 

pr. 






20 




u 

o 


7 




20 







ii 

10 


47 

24 
4 
50 


240 
10 

350 
80 
21 






1 




Cyanophycese, . 














1 


67 


6 


48 


80 


5 








Anabasna, 
Aphanocapsa, 
Merismopcdia, 
Microcystis, . 






























1 


54 
4 

9 


2 



4 





20 

28 




80 






1 

4 
















AlgSB, .... 











76 


93 


187 


5 


10 


2 


11 


10 





Arthrodesmus, 
Chlorococcus, 
Protococcus, 
Raphidium, . 
Staurastrum, 























2 

74 




3 



30 

60 




4 

156 

20 





4 


1 




10 












s 



3 




i 


6 

1 









Fungi, Molds,. 











50 



























ANIMALS. 
Rhizopoda, Diillugia, 

Infusoria, 



Dinobryon, . 
DInobryon cases, 
Miillomonas, . 
Monas, . 
Perldinium, . 
TraclielomoniiM, 
Vorllcella, . 



Vermes, . 

Anurca, 
Polyarthra, . 
Uotatorian ova. 



1 


pr. 














65 


7 


7 


20 


103 


10 


4 


pr. 














58 




4 





100 


1 











10 


pr. 








pr. 














2 


4 


3 


8 


pr. 


2 


1 


1 


pr. 


2 


pr. 

















3 


1 








pr. 





I 


1 














(1 


1 








pr. 














u 








1 








16 



pr. 

!»•• 

pr. 











15 


22 





12 

















1 


1.1 


9 








u 





2 


1 


n 





1 






46 


28 
pr. 
10 
1 
] 
pr. 



MitcellaneouH, ZoiigloBa, . 





1 





32 





40 


40 


60 


11 


126 








TOTAI, 


67 


8 


21 


742 


246 


327 


80 


155 


181 


816 


724 


6 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF AVATER SUPPLIES. 181 



IIUDSOK. 

Table showing/ Heights of Water in Outcs Pond once Each Month during 1S94. 

[nigb-water mitrk is 14 feet.] 



Datk.— 1894. 



Feet. 



Jan. 15 10. T 

Feb. 15, 11.0 

Miirch 1.^, 11.4 

April 15 I 11.7 

May 15 | 11.0 

June 15 11.7 



July 15, 
Aug. 15, 
Sept. 15, 
Oct. 15, 
Nov. 15, 
Dec. 15, 



Datk. — 1894. 



Feet. 



10.7 
10.1 
9.3 



8.9 
8.8 



Water SuprLY of Hull. 

(See Hiiujham.) 



AVater Supply of Hyde Park and Milton. — Hyde Park 

Water Company. 

The replies of the State Board of Health to inqniries of the school 
committee of Hyde Park with reference to the quality of the water 
supplied by the Hyde Park Water Company may be found on pages 
21-23 of this volume. 

The works of this company for obtaining a supply of water from 
the ground near the Neponset River were again enlarged in 1894 by 
sinking 6 tubular wells north-east of the starch fiictory well men- 
tioned in previous reports. The new wells are located in a line 
nearly parallel and very close to the southerly side of the location 
of the New York & New England Railroad, and average about 45 
feet apart in the line. The wells are 6 inches in diameter and vary 
very little in depth, averaging about 40 feet. The well at the south- 
westerly end of the line is 350 feet from the river, and that on the 
north-easterly end of the line about 250 feet from the river. Owing 
to a sharp bend in the river at this point, the intermediate wells are 
more distant from it than those on the ends. Each well is said to 
be provided with a strainer from 10 to 14 feet in length, making the 
distance from the surftice to the point where water may enter the 
well about 25 feet. The advice of the State Board of Health to the 
Hyde Park Water Company with reference to the use of water from 
these wells may be found on pages 23 and 24 of this volume. (See 
also Milton.) 



182 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HYDE PARK. 

Chemical Examinatio7i of Water from the Wells of the Hyde Park Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





f 
1 


APPKARASCK. 


B 


Ammonia. 


a 
1 
6 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 

1 

a 

00 

a 

M 







c 

a 


■5 

.a 

3 

H 


1 
•5 




% 
b^ 


2 



,.S 

< 


'a 
'A 


5 


a 
2 

M 




1894. 
























11628 


Jan. 


9 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


8.90 


.0026 


.0010 


1.26 


.0850 


.0004 


.0647 


3.8 


.0070 


11760 


Feb. 


14 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


9.10 


.0000 


.0078 


1.18 


.1200 


.0002 


.0680 


3.8 


.0150 


11873 


Mar. 


■9 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.04 


7.30 


.0078 


.0042 


0.99 


.0780 


.0001 


.0696 


3.0 


.0490 


12061 


April 


17 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


8.65 


.0012 


.0014 


1.03 


.0850 


.0000 


.0546 


3.4 


.0075 


12221 


May 


15 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


8.45 


.0016 


.0024 


0.99 


.1000 


.0000 


.0663 


3.4 


.0040 


12396 


June 


19 


None. 


None. 


0.05 


8.70 


.0008 


.0014 


1.05 


.0600 


.0000 


.0947 


3.5 


.0040 


12565 


July 


17 


None. 


None. 


0.04 


9.00 


.0026 


.0030 


1.23 


.1000 


.0000 


.1140 


3.5 


.0090 


12736 


Aug. 


13 


None. 


None. 


0.05 


11.80 


.0044 


.0064 


1.32 


.1000 


.0000 


.0924 


4.3 


.0150 


12966 


Sept. 


17 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.05 


13.00 


.0058 


.0080 


1.90 


.0950 


.0000 


.1232 


4.6 


.0300 


13134 


Oct. 


15 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.08 


11.40 


.0090 


.0048 


2.05 


.0680 


.0001 


.1803 


4.9 


.0290 


13345 


Nov. 


19 


|V. slight. 


Cons., 

dark. 
Slight. 


0.03 


10.00 


.0058 


.0032 


1.74 


.0700 


.0000 


.1053 


4.0 


.0270 


13493 


Dec. 


17 


None. 


0.01 
0.03 


9.80 


.0066 


.0032 


1.69 


.0500 


.0001 


.0731 


4.4 


.0140 


Av 








9.68 


.0040 


.0039 


1.37 


.0843 


.0001 


.0880 


3.9 


.0175 













Averages by Years. 



1887* 

1888 

1889t 

1890^ 

1891§ 

189211 

1893 

1894 



0.00 


6.07 


.0004 


.0012 


0.82 


.0099 


- 


- 


- 


0.00 


6.06 


.0001 


.0023 


0.75 


.0641 


.0002 


- 


- 


0.00 


6.76 


.0001 


.0019 


0.68 


.0596 


.0001 


- 


- 


0.02 


9.30 


.0006 


.0023 


0.88 


.0550 


.0002 


- 


4.2 


.0.03 


9.10 


.0000 


.0040 


0.96 


.0675 


.0002 


- 


3.0 


0.00 


7.20 


.0004 


.0035 


0.99 


.0600 


.0004 


- 


3.0 


0.02 


8.02 


.0081 


.0032 


1.19 


.0879 


.0002 


.0976 


3.7 


0.03 


9.68 


.0040 


.0039 


1.37 


.0843 


.0001 


.0880 


3.9 



.011'. 
.017i 



♦ June to December. 
§ June unci September. 



t January to May. 

II Two Hamplcs In July. 



I February iirul Augimt. 



Note to analyncH of 18'J4: Odor, until Heptcinber, iiodo; In Heplciiiljor, iliHllrictly mouldy; in 
October, very faintly muHly ; In November, faintly vegetable; In Decemlior, faintly eurlhy. On heating, 
a very faintly mouldy odor was developed in the sauiple collected in Kebiiiary, and the odor of the last 

four HamplcH wan le»B strong or dlHappearcd. The samples were collected from a faucet at the 

pumping HtatloD. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 183 



ITYDE PARK. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Wells of the Hyde Park Water 

Company. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, . 
Number of sample, . 


11 

11628 


15 
11760 


13 

11873 


18 
12061 


16 
12221 


22 
12396 


18 
12565 


15 
12736 


18 
12966 


17 
13134 


22 
13345 


18 
13493 


PLANTS. 
Fungi, Crenothrix, 








106 


70 


10 


5 





708 


32 


54 


70 


Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, . 








18 

















238 


22 








Total, .... 








124 


70 


10 


5 








944 


54 


54 


70 



Chemical Examinaiion of Water from Faucets in Hyde Park supplied from the 
Wells oj the Hyde Park Wale?'' Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 


Appbabancb. 




Q 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


"3 








o 






IS 








a 

s 


























s 




^ 




oS 




•d 








£ 


X 




1 

3 


5 


"3 
3 


a 

1 
■3 


o 




£ 


o 


1 
o 


S 
2 




g5 


■5 
a 


§ 


Sf. 


Q 


H 


CO 


U 


» 


^ 


< 


O 


S 


» 


o 


» 






18»l. 


























13037 


Sept. 27 


None. 


None. 


0.05 


11.70 


.0056 


.0042 


2.30 


.1000 


.0004 


.0680 


4.2 


.0050 


13038 


Sept. 27 


V. slight. 


Slight, 
brown. 


0.05 


12.00 


.0036 


.0040 


2.30 


.1000 .0002 ' 


.0704 


4.3 


.0300 


13039 


Sept. 27 


None. 


None. 


0.05 


12.10 


.0004 


.0034 


2.30 


.1000 i.OOOO 

1 1 


.0920 


4.7 


.0100 



Odor of the first sample, very faintly mouldy; of the other two, none. The first sample was 

collected from a faucet at Frost's Pharmacy; the second from n faucet Inside the post-otlice building at 
Clarendon Hills; ami the last from a faucet in a house on Business Street. 



Microscopical Examination. 

No. 13037. Fungi, Crz-KO^/iW.]?, 1. Miscellaneous, Zoo/^tod, 3. Total, 4. 
No. 13038. Fungi, Crenothrix, 168. 
No. 13U39. Miscellaneous, Zoiiglcea, 6. 



184 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HTDE PARK. 

Chemical Examination of Water from a Faticet in Milton, supplied from the Wells 
of the Eyde Park Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

1 

V. o 

a 


Appkarakce. 


c 
c 

§1 


Ammonia. 


c 
o 

13 
o 


:Nitbogen 

AS 


1 

n 

00 

o 


c 
■a 

K 




s 


■3 

3 


c 
e 
B 
■5 


o 


'^ 


2 

o 

< 




y* 


a 
o 




1894. 


























11617 


Jan. 9 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


8.45 


.0006 


.0016 


1.27 


.1050 


.0000 


.0320 


3.4 


.0025 


11720 


Feb. 6 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


9.10 


.0000 


.0026 


1.20 


.0980 


.0000 


.0640 


3.6 


.0000 


11885 


Mar. 13 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


8.10 


.0000 


.0020 


1.04 


.0900 


.0000 


.0440 


3.0 


.0070 


12008 


April 9 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


6.40 


.0000 


.0014 


1.03 


.0800 


.0000 


.0320 


3.0 


.0050 


12168 


May 8 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.03 


7.50 


.0000 


.0012 


0.97 


.1200 


.0000 


.0590 


3.0 


.0320 


12354 


June 12 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


9.00 


.0000 


.0028 


1.05 


.0750 


.0000 


.0346 


3.2 


.0160 


12515 


July 11 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


8.00 


.0000 


.0030 


1.11 


.0750 


.0000 


.0716 


3.3 


.0090 


12733 


Aug. 13 


None. 


None. 


0.08 


9.80 


.0004 


.0032 


1.38 


.1140 


.0000 


.0577 


3.7 


.0100 


12908 


Sept. 10 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


10.20 


.0000 


.0026 


1.67 


.1000 


.0000 


.0154 


4.0 


.0050 


13093 


Oct. 8 


None. 


None. 


0.01 


12.20 


.0000 


.0042 


2.36 


.0500 


.0001 


.0722 


4.4 


.0020 


13269 


Nov. 7 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


10.60 


.0006 


.0052 


2.52 


.0800 


.0001 


.0577 


4.2 


.0060 


13410 


Dec. 3 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


9.40 


.0002 


.0022 


1.89 


.0780 


.0000 


.0577 


3.8 


.0100 


Av. 








0.02 


9.06 


.0002 


.0027 


1.46 


.0888 


.0000 


.0498 


3.6 


.0086 













Odor, none, excopt in November, when it was distinctly musty. In January the odor was faintly 

vegetable on heating, and in October distinclly mouldy. The samples were collected from a faucet 

in the office of the Milton Water Company. 



Microscopical Examination oj Water from a Faucet in Milton, supplied from the 
Wells of the Eyde Park Water Gomp)any. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1804. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


April. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, . 
Number of Bample, . 


10 
11017 


7 
11720 


14 

11885 


10 
12008 


9 
12168 


14 

12354 


12 
12516 


14 
12733 


12 
12908 


9 
13093 


8 
13209 


3 
13110 


PLANTS. 
Dlatomaceee, Meiosira, 

Fungri, Crenothrlx, . 







600 



92 


8 
34 


Q 
760 



52 



152 



















4 


MUceltaneotit, Zooglaa, . 








1 


24 





4 




















Total 





600 


93 


66 


760 


66 


162 














4 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



185 



HYDE I'AUK. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the New Hix-inch Tabtdar Wells of the 
Hyde Park Water Company. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

a 


APPKARAN'CK. 


5 

X 


Ammonia. 


s 
o 

6 


SITROGES 
AS 


■6 

1 

00 

1 


09 

09 

f 




c 

X) 

a 

a 


5 

3 


1 

•3 
CO 


i 

o 
O 


2 


■6 
o 

ii 

< 


a 


00 


c 
2 




1804. 














• 










12380 


June 


U 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


4.85 


.0000 


.0004 


0.66 


.0700 


.0000 


.0115 


1.6 .0000 


12450 


June 


30 


None. 


None. 


0.01 


6.10 


.0000 


.0000 


0.70 


.0630 


.0000 


.0000 


2.7 


.0080 


12530 


July 


13 


None. 


Slight. 


0.02 


8.10 


.0004 


.0010 


0.78 


.1200 


.0000 


.0000 


2.3 


.0090 


12588 


July 


20 


None. 


None. 


0.04 


8.30 


.0016 


.0000 


1.03 


.1500 


.0000 


.0000 


2.9 


.0050 


12630 


July 


30 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.00 


8.20 


.0000 


.0008 


1.18 


.1500 


.0002 


.0323 


2.2 


.0040 


12642 


July 


31 


None. 


None. 


0.03 


15.20 


.0000 


.0000 


1.19 j 


.4000 


.0002 


.0015 


5.0 


.0030 


12668 


Aug. 


7 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


9.30 


.0000 


.0014 


1.42 


.0800 


.0003 


.0231 


3.4 


.0050 


12735 


Aug. 


13 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


12.30 


.0000 


.0034 


1.50 


.2200 


.0008 


.0308 


3.0 


.0230 


12791 


Aug. 


20 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.02 


11.50 


.0004 


.0022 


1.72 


.2000 


.0010 


.0308 


3.5 


.0030 


12829 


Aug. 


27 


Nouc. 


V. slight. 


0.03 


13.50 


.0000 


.0016 


1.90 


.2000 


.0014 


.0154 


3.8 


.0140 


12882 


Sept. 


4 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.02 ' 


11.10 


.0000 


.0026 


1.20 


.2000 


.0014 


.0308 


3.8 


.0050 


12959 


Sept. 


14 


None. 


None. 


0.05 


13.00 


.0000 


.0020 


2.80 


.0800 


.0025 


.0539 


4.3 


.0030 


12S90 


Sept. 


19 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.05 ; 


12.90 


.0000 


.0040 


2.61 


.1650 


.0023 


.0423 


3.8 


.0050 


13016 


Sept. 


24 


V. slight. 


None. 


0.03 1 


13.50 


.0004 


.0020 


3.12 i 


.0500 


.0022 


.0269 


4.3 


.0020 


13035 


Sept. 


26 


None. 


None. 


0.02 1 


13.00 


.0000 


.0052 


3.20 


.0250 


.0100 


.0520 


4.4 


.0030 


13248 


Oct. 


31 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.01 \ 


12.80 


.0004 


.0060 


2.91 


.1050 


.0008 


.0731 


4.3 


.0010 


13285 


Nov. 


8 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


11.60 


.0002 


.0028 


2.75 


.1100 


.0008 ' 

1 


.0741 


4.0 


.0030 



Odor of No. 12630 and of Nos. 12668 to 12882, distinctly vinous; of No. 12990, distinctly vinous, 
becoming mouldy on standing; of Nos. 13016 to 13285, musty or mouldy. The odor of Nos. 13016 and 
13248 became disagreeable on heating. The remaining samples had no odor. The wells are num- 
bered in line from the south-west toward the norlh-eaHt. The first sample was collected from well No. 
2, the second from well No. :i, and the third from a tap on a pump drawing water from both of these 
wells just after a pumping test of about sixteen and one-half liours' duration had been made; Nos. 
12588 and 12030 were also collected from a tap on the pump while pumping from these two wells; 
No. 12G42 was collected from well No. 1; Nos. 12668 to 12882 and No. 12990 were collected while 
pumping from wells Nos. 1, 2 and 3; No. 12959 was collected from well No. 4; No. 13016 from 
well No. 5; No. 13035 from well No. 6. The remaining samples were collected from a faucet in 
the pumping station while pumping from the sis wells together. 



Microscopical Examination . 

No. 12450. Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, 5. 

No. 12530. Miscellaneous, Zooghm, 24. 

No. 12588. Fungi, Creiiothrir, 54. Miscellaneous, Zotiglata, 18. Total, 72. 

No. 12791. Fungi, CrenoMrtx, 1. Miscellaneous, Zo(5(;&ta, 7. Total, 8. 

No. 12959. Miscellaneous, ZoogUxa, 3. 

No. 12990. Fungi, Orno</in.r. 9. Miscellaneous, ZwVi/^trt, 51. Total, CO. 

No. 13016. Miscellaneous, Zooyltta, 3. 

No. 13035. Infusoria, /'eridiiiium, 2. Miscellaneous, Zoogkea, 2. Total, 4. 

No organisms were found in the remaining samples. 



186 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



HYDE PABK. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Ncponsct River at Hyde Park. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





s 
o 
s 

o 

s 

O 


Appeaeascb. 


Kesidle on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
1 


Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

c 
o 

M 

o 






■3 

3 


1 

■3 

So 


o 
O 


5 

o 

Eh 


£1-1 

■3 


Em 


Albuminoid. | 


1 
2 






a 

a 
S5 




5" 


. 1 
•o 1 

3 a. 






1894. 




























11627 


Jan. 9 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


6.50 


2.80 


.0030 


.0188 


.0166 


.0022 


0.92 


.0160 


.0001 


.8993 


1.7 


11759 


Feb. 14 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.90 


6.30 


2.15 


.0018 


.0228 


.0208 


.0020 


0.99 


.0180 


.0001 


.9584 


1.8 


11872 


Mar. 9 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.80 


4.35 


1.60 


.0006 


.0202 


.0178 


.0024 


0.56 


.oor.o 


.0000 


.7960 


0.9 


12060 


Apr. 17 


V. Blight. 


Slight, 
rusty. 


0.90 


4.45 


1.80 


.0008 


.0206 


.0192 


.0014 


0.65 


.0000 


.0000 


.8580 


1.3 


12220 


May 15 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


1.60 


10.55 


3.35 


.0104 


.0432 


.0354 


.0078j 


1.82 


.0030 


.0001 


1.2753 


3.4 


12395 


Jane 19 


Distinct. 


Heavy, 
rusty. 


2.00 


10.40 


2.80 


.0056 


.0428 


.0346 


.0082 


1.50 


.0030 


.0000 


1.2281 


2.5 


12564 


July 17 


Slight. 


Cons., 
rusty. 


0.90 


12.00 


2.50 


.0064 


.0334 


.0226 


.0108 


2.59 


.0030 


.0001 


.7839 


4.0 


12734 


Aug.13 


V. slight. 


Cons., 
green. 


0.78 


12.90 


2.10 


.0502 


.0376 


.0304 


.0072 


2.56 


.0000 


.0000 


.6691 


4.0 


12965 


Sept.17 


Decided. 


Heavy, 
rusty. 


0.65 


20.25 


4.00 


.0384 


.0976 


.0498 


.0478 


4.06 


.0000 


.0001 


.8624 


7.0 


13133 


Oct. 15 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


1.30 


13.15 


3.75 


.0148 


.0404 


.0384 


.0020 


2.06 


.0060 


.0010 


1.3114 


4.4 


13344 


Nov. 19 


Slight. 


Cons. 


1.50 


8.50 


3.05 


.0020 


.0278 


.0240 


.0038 


1.10 


.0080 


.0002 


1.3455 


2.7 


13492 


Dec. 17 


Slight. 


ConB. 


1.30 


6.75 


2.40 


.0004 
.0112 


.0272 


.0234 


.0038 


0.84 
1.64 


.0120 
.0062 


.0001 


1.0164 


2.1 


Av. 








1.14 


9.68 


2.69 


.0360 


.0277 


.0083 


.0002 


1.0008 

1 


3 








1 





Averages by Tears. 



- 


1887* 


- 


- 


l.lfl 


8.35 


2.30 


.0053 


.0400 


- 


- 


0.99 


.0080 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1888 


- 


_ 


1.02 


6.77 


2.27 


.0030 


.0324 


- 


- 


0.83 


.0095 


.0002 


- 


- 


- 


1891 1 


- 


- 


1.48 


10.34 


8.45 


.0190 


.0510 


.0413 


.0097 


1.16 


.0065 


.0003 


- 


3.3 


- 


1892t 


- 


- 


0.90 


13.30 


2.85 


.0260 


.0324 


.0286 


.0038 


2.31 


.0090 


.0012 


- 


4.4 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


1.16 


7.70 


2.49 


.0151 


.0320 


.0254 


.0066 


1.19 


.0154 


.0005 


.9548 


2.4 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


1.14 


9.68 


2.69 


.0112 


.0360 


.0277 


.0083 


1,64 


.0062 


.0002 


1.0003 


3.0 



♦ June to December. 



f AugUHl and Keptember. 



I July. 



Note to analyHeH of 1894: Iron, .0222. Odor, decidedly musty or mouldy, and frequently also dis- 
agreeable. The samplcH were collected from the river, opposite the works of the Mydc Park Water 

Company. The river Is not used directly as a source of water supply. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



187 



HYDE PARK. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Nejtonset River aC Hyde Park. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 







1894. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. .Sept. 


Oct. 


1 
Nov.! Dec. 


Day of examination, . 
Number of sample, 


11 
11627 


15 13 
1175911872 


18 
12060 


16 

12220 


22 
12395 


18 
12564 


15 18 

12734 12965 

1 


17 
13133 


22 18 
1334413492 


PLANTS. 
Diatomaceee, . 

Mclosira, . 
Navicnia, 
Synedru, . 
Tabellaria, 

Cyanophycese, Osciila 

Alg88 

Closterium, 
Conferva, 
Protococcus, . 
BcenedeemuB, . 
Selenaetrum, . 
Spirogyra, 

Fungi, ... 

Crenothrix, 
Molds, . 


ria, . 


1 



pr. 



1 












20 

20 



3 



1 














5 


5 


1 




1 




pr. 



pr. 




78 

78 
pr- 


13 


2 
5 
6 













1 


1 


3 


1 
2 




2 




2 




1,520 

1,520 



2 



2 




2 




2 



1,440 

1,440 



116 





116 





13 

4 
5 

3 

1 

256 

256 



28 




28 


5 

20 

3 
1 
10 


6 

3 

2 
1 


3 



3 


3 

8 

1 




1 

6 


160 

160 



71 



6 

64 

1 

4 

1 





1 




2 

2 



21 

10 


11 













44 

44 



14 





13 

1 

1 











10 

10 



ANIMzVLS. 
Rhizopoda, Arcella, 

Infusoria, . 

Ciliated infusorian, 
CryptomonaB, 
Dinobryon, 
Kuglcna, . 
Monas, 

Parama>cium, . 
Peridinium, 
Phacus, . 
Trachclomonas, 

Vermes, Kotifer, 






3 



3 



pr. 








6 



4 



2 








3 

pr. 


1 


2 







2 







1 



1 









5 



1 





2 

2 




2 

14 

2 


4 
4 
2 


2 






3 

1 







2 




1 








1 









32 

1 
4 

15 
2 

4 
5 
1 

4 




2 





1 






1 
3 




1 





1 






















I 


Afiacellaneous, Zooglcoa, 


22 


36 


30 


17 


1S6 


2,060 . 1,240 


2,160 


2,240 


780 


92 


92 


Total 


46 


60 


112 


83 


1,686 


3,540 


1,628 


2,217 


2,450 


863 


168 


118 



188 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

ips^wicii. 

Water Supply of Ipswich. 

The works are owned by the town, and were completed in the 
latter part of 1894. The source of supply is a storage reservoir on 
Dow's Brook, very near its junction with Bull Brook, to be supple- 
mented when necessary with water from Bull Brook. The water is 
pumped at a pumping station near the reservoir to a distributing 
reservoir on Town Hill and to the village. 

The storage reservoir has an area of about 17.5 acres and» a 
capacity of about 55,000,000 gallons. Its maximum depth at high 
water is 20 feet and its average depth 9.6 feet. The reservoir was 
very thoroughly prepared for the storage of water by the removal 
of soil, mud and vegetable matter from the area to be flowed. 

Dow's Brook has a water-shed of about 600 acres, consisting 
largely of pasture land, but there are several formhouses in the 
vicinity of the reservoir, and, though the population per square mile 
is small, it may have a greater influence upon the quality of the 
water of the reservoir than if scattered more widely over the whole 
water-shed. 

Bull Brook has a rapid fall for some distance above where it joins 
Dow's Brook, and at a point about 900 feet above the junction of 
the brooks a small dam has been constructed from which a 12-inch 
vitrified pipe has been laid to convey water from above this dam into 
the storage reservoir on Dow's Brook. The water-shed of Bull Brook 
above the dam contains but few inhabitants, but a large portion of 
the area is swampy land, causing the water to have a high color. 
By the construction of the dam a portion of this swampy land near 
the dam is said to be flowed. 

The distributing reservoir is rectangular in shape, 180 feet long 
by 100 feet wide at the foot of the slopes, and about 237 feet by 
157 feet at the top of the slopes inside. It is 19 feet in depth from 
the top of the embankment, and when filled to a depth of 16 feet 
contains a little more than 3,000,000 gallons of water. The slopes 
are lined with a 6-inch layer of coarse gravel, upon which is laid a 
stone paving about 12 inches in thickness. The bottom is covered 
with a O-inch layer of concrete, which extends up beneath the gravel 
and paving on the slopes for a portion of the way, then hori/ontally 
to a masonry core wall in the embankment about the reservoir. 
Distributing mains arc of cast iron, service pipes are of lead. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 189 

IPS'WICH. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the town of Ipswich 
relative to this source of water supply may be found on pages 24-26 
of this volume. 

Analyses of samples of water collected during the investigation 
for a water supply may be found on page 179 of the annual report 
for 1893. 

Lakeville. 

Analyses of samples of water collected from Assawompsett and 
Elder's ponds may be found under Taunton, and from Great Quit- 
tacas, Little Quittacas and Long ponds under New Bedford. 



Water Supply of Lancaster. 

The town of Lancaster purchased the works of the Lancaster 
Water Company in 1893, but still continues to obtain its supply 
of water from the Clinton Water Works. 

Water Supply of Lawrence. 

The city of Lawrence has been supplied during the year with the 
Merrimack River water filtered through the sand filter, first used in 
September, 1893, and fully described in the last annual report of 
the State Board of Health, pages 543-560. The tables which follow 
contain analyses of the unfiltered Merrimack River water, and of the 
filtered water at the pumping station and at the distributing reser- 
voir. The results of more extended chemical and biological exami- 
nations of the water before and after filtration may be found in a 
subsequent portion of this report. 



190 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LATTREXCE. 

Chemical Examinalioii of Water from the Merrimack River above Lawrence, 
Opposite the Intake of the Laiorence Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





O 
o 

a 


Appbakance. 


Rksidde on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


6 


NiTROQKN 
AS 


•d 
3 

3 
OD 

6 
g 

X 








3 


S 

a 






i 
Is 






Albuminoid. | 


2 
g 


1 




a 

s 
•A 


1 


is 


•a 



•a 

1 s 

m V 

5^ 


<n 

c 




1894. 




























11647 


Jan. 17 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.35 


4.00 


1.45 


.0036 


.0128 


.0108 


.0020 


.24 


.0090 


.0002 


.4835 


1.3 


11753 


Feb. 14 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.30 


2^95 


1.30 


.0064 


.0148 


.0136 


.0012 


.25 


.0150 


.0001 


.4320 


1.4 


11893 


Mar. 14 


Distinct. 


Cons., 
earthy. 


O.55I 


2.85 


1.10 


.0010 


.0178 


.0160 


.0018 


.12 


.0100 


.0001 


.5640 


0.6 


12055 


Apr. 16 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.42 


3.50 


1.35 


.0018 


.0154 


.0128 


.0026 


.20 


.0030 


.0001 


.4501 


0.8 


12232 


May 16 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.48 


3.35 


1.00 


.0054 


.0172 


.0142 


.0030 


.17 


.0050 


.0002 


.4680 


1.1 


12406 


June 20 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


0.48 


3.55 


1.35 


.0090 


.0198 


.0156 


.0042 


.19 


.0030 


.0001 


.4605 


1.3 


12574 


July 18 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.30 


3.00 


1.00 


.0082 


.0160 


.0132 


.0028 


.26 


.0040 


.0003 


.4004 


0.9 


12760 


Aug.l5 


Distinct, 
green. 


Slight, 
green. 


0.25 


3.95 


1.35 


.0106 


.0176 


.0144 


.0032 


.28 


.0040 


.0002 


.2926 


1.1 


12995 


Sept.l9 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


0.18 


4.00 


1.15 


.0104 


.0156 


.0122 


.0034 


.28 


.0030 


.0001 


.2579 


1.3 


13164 


Oct. 17 


, Slight, 
1 milky. 


Slight, 
brown. 


0.23 


3.95 


1.60 


.0072 


.0172 


.0140 


.0032 


.22 


.0040 


.0000 


.4463 


1.4 


13354 


Nov. 21 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.50 


4.45 


1.65 


.0056 


.0184 


.0160 


,0024 


1.27 


.0080 


.0001 


.5460 


1.6 


13523 


Dec. 19 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.37 


3.90 
3.70 


1.30 


.0040 
.0062 


.0172 
.0167 


.0164 
.0141 


.0008 


1.25 

;.23 


.0070 
.0063 


.0001 
.0001 


.4427 
.4370 


1.4 


Av. 




1 




0.37 


1.30 


.0026 


1 ? 






! 







Averages by Years. 



1887* 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 



0.47 


4.82 


1.24 


.0027 


.0211 


- 


- 


.22 


.0097 




- 


0.30 


3.68 


1.08 


.0026 


.0180 


- 


- 


.18 


.0094 


.0002 


- 


0.30 


3.09t 


0.87t 


.0030 


.0176 


,0144 


.00.32 


.17 


.0072 


.0003 


- 


0.38 


4.19t 


1.48t 


.0046 


.0168 


,0132 


.0034 


.17 


.0089 


.0001 


- 


0.27 


3.79 


1.32 


.0040 


.0152 


.0121 


.0031 


.18 


.0110 


.0001 


- 


0.43 


4.12 


1.47 


.0042 


.0181 


.0152 


.0029 


.18 


.0106 


.0001 


- 


0.42 


3.86 


1.48 


,0057 


.0181 


.0141 


.0040 


,20 


,0081 


.0002 


.5295 


0.87 


3.70 


1.80 


.0062 


.0167 


,0141 


.0026 


.23 


.0063 


.0001 


.4370 



i.<;§ 
1.3 
1.4 
1.1 
11.2 



♦ .June to NovtMiibr-r. t Jniiuiiry to Miiy. \ Aiii?iiHt to Doc<?mber. § .Inly to Di-'cotiibor. 



NoTB to (initlyHL'fl of 1894: Odor, vei;etablo and rnuHty. The HaciiplcM were collected from Iho 

river, opposite thi; Intake of the Lawrence water works, about 1 foot beneath the surface. For n 
record of the fjuiintlly of water flowing in the river on dates when siimples of water were collected for 
analysis, sec page 194. For a comparison of the analyses of the river water at liOwell and Lawrence 
for a series of yeiirs, see " Merrimack River " lu the chapter on " Exainirialloii of Klvers." 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 191 

I^AWKEXCE. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Merrimack River above Lawrence, 
02)posite the Intake of the Lawrence Water Works. 

[Number of organlsiris per cubic centimeter.] 















1894. 














Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept 


Oct 


JIov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, . 


19 


. 


15 


18 


17 


22 


19 


16 


21 


18 


22 


20 


Number of saoiplf, . 


11647 


1175311893 


12055 


12232 


12406 


12574 


12760 


12995 


13164 


13354 


13523 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomacese, 


8 


18 


54 


46 


107 


394 


86 


289 


67 


42 


17 


4 


Asterionella, 

Epittiemia 

Fragilaria, .... 

Melosira 

Navicula, .... 

iSynedra 

Tabellaria, .... 







8 







5 
13 



5 
1 

3 
3 
42 
pr. 


16 
13 


2 
15 



14 



10 

1 

88 
4 


4 



6 
1 
376 
7 






2 
84 



1 

95 

1 
192 



1 




52 
14 







1 

40 
1 


3 
1 

10 

3 








2 
2 


Cyanophycese, 
Cliroucoccua, 





























6 








Algse 

















60 


47 


168 


25 


9 








Clilorococcus, 
Hyalotheca, .... 
I'rotococcus, 
Haphidiurn, . . . 

Tctraspora 

Zoospores 










































0. 

59 


1 



30 




16 

1 




168 





6 
1 



18 






8 


1 


















Fungi, Crenothrix, 


4 


2 


2 


1 


9 


1 


6 





40 


n 


3 





ANIMALS. 


























Bhlzopoda, Arcella, . 








pr. 








1 








2 











Infusoria 


3 








2 


10 


4 


25 


9 


4 


4 


5 





Dinobryon 

Dinobryon cases, 

Monas, 

IVrldlniuni, .... 
Tinlinnidium, 
Trachelonioims, . 
Vorllcella, .... 




3 

























2 







10 








3 
1 







9 
10 

3 


3 


1 
2 
3 

2 
1 





4 








2 

1 


1 




3 

I 
















Vermes, 

















1 


1 


3 


1 











Anuren 

Rotifer 






















1 



1 




3 


1 















Mitcellaneoua, Zoiigloca, . 


204 


52 


22 


18 


IS 


10 


176 


184 


88 


300 


72 


72 


TOTAl 


219 


72 


78 


67 


141 


471 


341 


663 


227 


383 


97 


76 



192 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LA^VREXCE. 

Chemical Examination of Filtered Water from the Force Main at the Pumjnng 
Station of the Lawrence Water Wo7'ks. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 

o 
<a 


Appearanck. 


Kksidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


2 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

a 

s 
tt 

B 
O 

o 

C 

a 

o 






6J 

s 


S 

0) 


o 


O 


o 

3 


6 


Albuminoid. | 


1 


?< 




a 

3 


1 


i 

1 o 

s • 


■a 

a 

■a 

, c 


1 




1894. 




























11648 


Jan. 17 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.30 


6.40 


1.20 


.0108 


.0048 


.0046 


.0002 


.32 


.0400 


.0003 


.3271 


3.1 


11754 


Feb. 14 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.28 


5.43 


1.60 


.0066 


.0108 


.0096 


.0012 


.30 


.0280 


.0001 


.3880 


2.2 


11894 


Mar. 14 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.48 


5.95 


1.25 


.0116 


.0118 


.0104 


.0014 


.24 


.0300 


.0003 


.3896 


3.0 


12057 


Apr. 16 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.38 


4.45 


1.50 


.0044 


.0108 


.0090 


.0018 


.21 


.0120 


.0000 


.3705 


1.7 


12233 


May 16 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.40 


5.70 


1.55 


.0058 


.0102 


.0082 


.0020 


.26 


.0300 


.0001 


.3182 


2.1 


12408 


June 20 


Distinct, 


Slight. 


0.45 


6.85 


1.25 


.0104 


.0102 


.0084 


.0018 


.29 


.0350 


.0002 


.2579 


3.2 


12575 


July 18 


milky. 
Slight, 


Slight. 


0.12 


6.50 


1.60 


.0106 


.0092 


.0080 


.0012 


.26 


.0380 


.0010 


.2325 


3.0 


12761 


Aug. 15 


milky. 
None. 


V. slight. 


0.25 


6.90 


1.45 


.0060 


.0054 


.0054 


.0000 


.38 


.0400 


.0002 


.1655 


3.3 


12996 


Sept.l9 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.25 


6.00 


1.50 


.0074 


.0082 


.0072 


.0010 


.35 


.0380 


.0000 


.1463 


2.9 


13165 


Oct. 17 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.40 


6.05 


1.30 


.0116 


.0082 


.0070 


.0012 


.37 


.0300 


.0000 


.2425 


3.0 


13355 


Nov. 21 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.73 


6.95 


1.40 


.0176 


.0098 


.0080 


.0018 


.36 


.0300 


.0001 


.3549 


3.2 


13524 


Dec. 19 


V. Blight. 


None. 


0.60 


6.05 


1.30 


.0208 
.0103 


.0132 
.0094 


.0116 
.0081 


.0016 
.0013 


.30 
.30 


.0200 


.0001 
.0002 


.2987 
.2910 


2.7 


Av. 








0.39 


6.10 


1.41 


.0309 


•' 8 




1 









Odor, generally vegetable, sometimes none. The samples were collected from a faucet in the 

check-valve just beyond the pump, and represent water from the river which has passed through the 
sand tiller, mingled with a small amount of ground water. 



Microscojjical Examination of Filtered Water from the Force Main at the Ptimping 
Station of the Laxorence Water Works, 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1804. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


.Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination 


19 


15 


15 


18 


17 


22 


19 


10 


22 


18 


22 


20 


Number of sample, .... 


11648 


11754 


11894 


12057 12233 


12408 


12670 


12761 


12906 


13165 


13355 


13524 


PLANTH. 


























Dlatomaceee, Hynedra, 


pr. 


pr. 











180 




















Fung:!, Orenothrix 


2 


2 


3 


28 


320 


76 


66 


120 


60 


78 

126 


856 



48 


MUcellaneoun, ZoQglcca, . 





1 


7 





48 


94 


136 


200 


20 





Total, 


2 


8 


10 


28 


868 


850 


202 


820 


SO 


204 


866 


48 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



193 



LrAWTlENCE. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Distributing Reservoir of the Lawrence 

Water Works. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

o 

o 
U 

o 
C 


Appkarakck. 


Kksiduk on 
Evapora- 
tion 


AUMONIA. 


6 

3 

■E 
o 
"a 
O 

.24 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■a 

1 

s 

1 

3 
I 

o 






•5 
2 

3 


c 

a 

'5 


1 

o 
O 


I 


a 

O 3 
CO <* 

O 




Albuminoid. 


s 






c 

o 

a 

3 

"A 


2 

o 


•6 


1 c 
1^ 


CO 

C 

cs 


11649 


1894. 

Jan. 17 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.33 


5.00 


1.35 


.0028 


.0062 


.0054 


.0008 


.0200 


.0002 


.3887 


2.2 


11755 


Feb. 14 


None. 


V. Blight. 


0.25 


5.25 


1.55 


.0028 


.0110 


.0088 


.0022 


.27 


.0250 


.0000 


.3520 


2.2 


11895 


Mar. 14 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.30 


5.05 


1.15 


.0028 


.0104 


.0088 


.0016 


.24 


.0200 


.0002 


.3760 


2.3 


12056 


Apr. 16 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.30 


5.05 


1.25 


.0018 


.0094 


.0076 


.0018 


.23 


.0250 


.0001 


.3276 


2.1 


12234 


May 16 


V. Blight. 


Cons. 


0.33 


4.75 


1.40 


.0020 


.0092 


.0080 


.0012 


.19 


.0280 


.0000 


.3471 


2.2 


12407 


June 20 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.43 


5.00 


1.25 


.0026 


.0102 


.0100 


.0002 


.22 


.0280 


.0000 


.3896 


1.9 


12576 


July 18 


None. 


V. Blight. 


0.15 


4.50 


1.40 


.0030 


.0096 


.0084 


.0012 


.28 


.0370 


.0003 


.2464 


2.1 


12762 


Aug.15 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.15 


5.05 


1.15 


.0014 


.0076 


.0074 


.0002 


.34 


.0200 


.0001 


.1925 


2.1 


12997 


Sept.l9 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.10 


5.25 


1.40 


.0014 


.0092 


.0078 


.0014 


.36 


.0270 


.0000 


.1617 


2.2 


13166 


Oct. 17 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.15 


5.15 


1.50 


.0010 .0070 


..0062 


.0008 


.32 


.0270 


.0000 


.2583 


2.2 


13350 


Nov. 21 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.40 


5.60 


1.65 


.0040 .0100 


.0086 


.0014 


.32 


.0200 


.0001 


.3666 


2.5 


13525 


Dec. 19 


None. 


V. Blight. 


0.20 


5.20 


1.15 


.0090 .0112 
.0029 nnqs 


.0102 
.0081 


.0010 

.0012 

i 


.32 
.28 


.0180 
.0246 


.0002 
.0001 


.2772 
.3070 


2.3 


Av. 








0.26 


5.07 


1.35 


2.2 

















Odor, faintly vegetable or none, becoming stronger on heating. The satnpleB were collected from 

a faucet at the gate-house, and represent water Uowing out of the reseiToir. The reservoir is supplied 
with filtered water. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from the Distributing Reservoir of the Law- 
rence Water Works. 

[Number of organismB per cubic centimeter.] 













1894. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination 


19 


15 


15 


18 


17 


22 


19 


16 


21 


18 


22 


20 


Number of aample 


11649 


11755 


11895 


12056 


12234 


12407 


12576 


12762 


12997 


13166 


13356 


13525 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomaceee, .... 


pr. 


pr. 


2 


85 


6 











6 


2 


1 


1 


Melosira, 

Syncdia 

Tabellaria 







pr. 





2 




76 
9 



3 
S 

















6 





2 





1 




1 




194 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LAAVREXCE. 

Microscopicab Examinaiion of Water fj'oni the Distributing Reservoir of the Law- 
rence Water Works — Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Apr. 



May. 



July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


212 


180 


560 


460 


210 







180 




560 







460 





1 


1 


2 



PLANTS — Con 
Algse 

Botrycoccus, . 
Chlorococcus, 
Protococcus, . 

Fungi, Crenothrix, . 

ANIMALS. 
Infusoria, 

Mallomonas, . 
Monas, ... 
Trachelomonas, . 

Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, 

Total, . 



76 



48 3 15 



2 



12 56 



80 



3 80 



62 4 220 



189 572 



476 63 



Volume of Water flowing in the Merrimack River at Lawrence on the Dates when 
Samples of Water were collected for Analysis. 





Volume flowing in tub 

Mkkbimack KIVKU IK 
Cubic Fret i-br Skcond. 


IJATB. 


Vdl.UMB FLOWINO IN TllK 

Mkuuimaoic KIVKU IN 
Cdhic Fkkt I'KK Second. 


Datk. 


Uatc of 
Klowdurlnt,' 

Elcvc-ii 

Hours of the 

Day. 


Hato of 1 
KIow (luring 
the Whole 
Twenty- 
four Hours. 


Kate of 
Flowdurlnf? 

Eleven 

Hours of the 

Day. 


Rate of 
Flow during 
the Whole 
Twenty- 
four Uoura. 


1)901. 

Jan. 17 


4.900 


4,050 


lS94-Con. 
July 18 


3,655 


2,622 


Fob. 14 


5,950 


5,100 


Aug. 15 


2,608 


2,038 


March 14, . 


20,390 


19,040 


Sept. 19, . 


3.888 


2,218 


April 10 


12,830 


11,920 


Oct. 17, . . • . 


5,625 


3,589 


May 16, . 


4,290 


3,380 


Nov. 21 


5,595 


3,038 


June 20, . 


3,600 


2,680 


Dec. 19 


6,635 


4,033 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 195 



Water Supply of the Leicester Water 

Leicester. 



leicester. 
Supply District, 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Wells of the Leicester Water Supply 

District. , 











[Parte pel 


100,000.] 
















d 
o 

s 


Appearance. 


d 
l> 


Ammonia. 


c 

i 
6 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

a 

s 

«0 

s 

£5 

M 
>? 

o 


00 

a 

•3 




c 

o 

a 

s 
&5 


■5 
2 

3 


1 

■3 


1 

o 

6 


1 


2 
o 

< 


CO 

03 


1 






1894. 


























11920 


Mar. 19 


V. slight. 


None. 


0.10 


4.60 


.0000 


.0018 


.19 


.0380 


.0000 


.1422 


1.6 


.0300 


12383 


June 18 


1 Kone. 


None. 


0.10 


4.65 


.0002 


.0010 


.21 


.0500 


.0000 


.1263 


1.4 


.0050 


12982 


Sept. 18 


None. 


None. 


0.04 


6.50 


.0000 


.0004 


.23 


.0600 


.0000 


.0077 


2.2 


.0000 


13320 


Nov. 16 


None. 


V. alight. 


0.17 


10.20 


.0000 


.0044 


.24 


.0570 


.0001 


.1755 


4.7 


.0220 


Av. 








0.10 


6.49 


.0001 


.0019 


.22 


.0513 


.0000 


.1129 


2.5 


.0143 













Odor, none. The samples were collected from a faucet in the village. 

Microscopical Examination. 

An InsignificaDt number of organisms was found in each of these samples. 



Chemical Examination oj Water from Burncoat Po7id and from Cedar Meadmu 

Pond. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





a 
o 


ArPEARANCK. 


Rbsidur on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


AMMONIA. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 

a 

a 

c 

o 
O 






tA 








o 




Albuminoid. 
















^ 


a 

a 


o 

S 

a 


2 
"3 

a 


a 

•a 


c 

o 
o 


5 


O B 

r 


t 


« 


> 


■a 
1 c 


o 


1 


OB 


1 c 


00 

C 


K 


n 


H 


X 


u 


6h 


tu 


E- 


Q 


00 


O 


K 


z; 


1 o 


EC 




1804. 






























13216 


Oct. 26 


Decided, i Heavy, 


0.30 


8.15 


1.85 


.0148 .0608 


.0178 


.0430 


.36 


.0030 


.0001 


.4503 


3.2 








earthy. 
























13217 


Oct. 25 


Distinct. 


Cons., 
earthy. 


1.40 


4.50 


2.15 


.0082.0368 


.0290 


.0078 


.27 


.0000 


.0000 


1.7702 


1.9 



Odor, faintly vegetable ; of the second sample, also moaldy. The first sample was collected from 

Burncoat Pond, at its outlet, and the second sample from Cedar Meadow Pond. The samples were 
collected while making an examination of possible sources of water eupply for the city of Worcester. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 13216. Total number of organisms, 840, chiefly Diatomacese. 
No. 13217. Total number of orgauiems, 22, chiefly Diatomacea'. 

For results of examinations of samples of water collected from Kettle Brook in Leicester, see 
Worcester. 



196 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LEOMINSTER. 



Water Supply of Leominster. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Hayties Reservoir, Leominster. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

o 

1 

o 


Appearance. 


Rksidue OS 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


o 

6 

.14 


NiTnOQEN 
AS 


'3 

B 

s 

s 
o 
O 

a 
o 






H 
3 

3 


1 

•a 


u 

o 
o 

o 


"5 
o 


c 
_o 

o c 
m to 


i 


Albuminoid. 


1 






o 

a 

s 




5" 


•d 

CD '^ 


OQ 

c 
B3 


11668 


1894. 

Jan. 22 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.25 


3.35 


1.75 


.0120 


.0202 


.0182 


.0020 


.0030 


.0002 


.5174 


0.5 


11918 


Mar. 19 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.18 


2.30 


1.25 


.0174 


.0198 


.0148 


.0050 


.16 


.0020 


.0000 


.3278 


0.2 


12280 


May 23 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


0.25 


2.77 


1.55 


.0000 


.0250 


.0186 


.0064 


.12 


.0000 


.0000 


.3744 


0.2 


12591 


July 23 


Decided, 


Cons., 


0.35 


3.25 


2.25 


.0106 


.0538 


.0278 


.0260 


.16 


.0040 


.0001 


.5683 


0.2 


12998 


8ept.l9 


green. 
Decided, 


yellow. 
Cons., 


0.30 


3.35 


2.10 


.0006 


.0514 


.0234 


.0280 


.18 


.0000 


.0000 


.4312 


0.6 


13352 


Nov. 21 


green. 
Distinct. 


green. 
Slight. 


0.35 


3.10 


1.85 


.0204 
.0102 


.0378 


.0256 


.0122 


.16 
.15 


.0030 


.0000 


.5577 
.4628 


0.3 


Av. 








0.28 


3.02 


1.79 


.0347 


.0214 


.0133 


.0020 


.0001 


n.R 






i 1 





Averages by Years. 



- 


1887* 


- 


- 


0.58 


3.61 


2.00 


.0040 


.0647 


- 


- 


.13 


.0084 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1888 


~ 


- 


0.36 


2.80 


1.42 


.0023 


.0352 


- 


- 


.12 


.0075 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


1889 


- 


- 


0.27 


2.35 


0.94 


.0010 


.0426 


.0254 


.0172 


.11 


.0034 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.21 


2.86 


1.66 


.0003 


.0500 


.0210 


.0290 


.11 


.0063 


.0001 


- 


0.6 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.24 


2.80 


1,48 


.0005 


.0482 


.0231 


.0251 


.10 


.0097 


.0001 


- 


0.2 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.32 


2.98 


1.72 


.0050 


.0462 


.0244 


.0218 


.14 


.0028 


.0001 


.5001 


0.4 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.28 


3.02 


1.79 


.0102 


.0347 


.0214 


.0133 


.16 


.0020 


.0001 


.4628 


0.3 



• Juno to December. 



Note to analysfH of 1894 : Odor, generally dlHtinctly vegetable ; on heating, somctinicB grassy or iIIh- 

agrcenble. The saitipleH were collected from the reservoir near the gate-house, at a depth of about 1 

foot be/icath the Hurfuce. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



197 



LiEOMINSTEK. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Haynes Reservoir^ Leominster. 

[Number of organlBing per cubic centimeter.] 



Mar. 



May. 



July. 



Sept. 



Day of cxiiminution, 
Number of Bampie, . 

I'L.VNTS 

Dlatomaceee, 

Aatcrionella, 

Diatoma, 

Meloeira, 

N.ivi<Mi!n, 
Syntdia, 
Tabellaria, . 

Cyanophyceee, . 

Anab»na, . 
Aphanocapsa, 
ChroococcuH, 
Clathrocyetls, 
Ccelospliairium, . 

AlgSB, 

ArthrodcamiiR, . 

ChlorococcuB, 

CloBterium,. 

Ilyalotheca, 

Opbiocytium, 

Pedlastrum, 

Polyedriura, 

ProtococcuB, 

Ilaphidium, 

BccDcdeRmuB, 

Stauraatrum, 

Fungi, Crenothrix, 



24 
11668 



20 
11918 



25 
12280 



24 
12591 



12998 



22 
13.352 



223 

19 


70 


34 
100 



782 

40 


50 


92 
GOO 

360 




360 




902 

580 


164 
3 
3 

152 

442 
11 
4 
4 

420 
3 

404 



136 







16 

11 

50 

112 

48 

32 



1,368 
664 
54 
656 

12 
2 

784 






7S4 

98 




8 

30 



30 

22 



2,655 
348 



2,240 
67 

32 




32 


49 
1 

2 

10 






36 




ANIMALS. 
Rhlzopoda, Arcolla, . 

Infusoria, 

Ciliated infuRoriaii, 
Dinoliryon, . 
Dinobryon cases, 
Euglena, 
MallomonaB, 
Peridlnium, 
Tintlnnldlum, . 
Trachelomoiias, . 
Uroglenn, . 

Vermes, 

Amirea, 
Monocorca, . 
Polyarthra, . 
Kotatorlaii ova, . 

Crustacean rcraalns. 



160 




3 

144 

1 

1 

11 



179 
1 
1 

138 


38 
1 





372 



368 


2 
2 



1 

1 






3Rscellaneoua, Zooglooa, 



Total, 



180 



489 



1,690 



60 



1,837 



2,288 



2,767 



198 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



I.EOMi:sSTEE. 

Chemical Examinaiioji of 



Water from Morse Reservoir, Leominster. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 


Appearance, 




Residck on 
Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




NiTROOKN 


■d 

s 

1 

u 

B 

o 






o 

%-• 
o 








tion. 




c 
o 

s 








1 

3 
Eh 


1 

J3 


o 
o 


"3 


c 
o 

it 

3 




Albuminoid. 


1 


'b 

§ 




.a 

a 

a 


o 


-6 


■d 

■a 

ag, 
■Ji 


c 




1894. 




























11667 Jan. 22 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.25 


3.10 


1.90 


.0120 


.0192 


.0166 .0026 


.14 


.0030 


.0002 


.4819 


0.2 


11919 Mar. 19 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


0.30 


1.70 


0.80 


.0006 


.0112 


.0078 


.0034 


.12 


.0000 


.0000 


.3831 


0.2 


12281 May 23 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.30 


2.30 


0.55 


.0000 


.0118 


.0102 


.0016 


.08 


.0050 


.0000 


.3432 


0.2 


12590 July 23 


Distinct, 


Cons. 


0.28 


2.30 


1.20 


.0012 


.0186 


.0142 


.0044 


.16 


.0000 


.0001 


.3965 


0.2 


12999 Sept.l9 


green. 
Distinct. 


Ileavy, 


0.50 


2.95 


1.25 


.0000 


.0266 


.0158 


.0108 


.27 


.0020 


.0000 


.3272 


0.3 








green. 


























13353 


Nov. 21 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.53 


3.20 


0.95 


.0020 


.0140 


.0122 


.0018 
.0041 


.25 
.17 


.0000 


.0000 
.0001 


.4992 
.4052 


0.3 


Av. 








0.36 


2.59 


1.11 


.0026 


.0169 


.0128 


.0017 


n '' 













Averages by Years. 



- 


1887* 


- 


- 


0.32 


2.57 


0.74 


.0010 


.0117 




- 


.12 


.0028 




- 


- 


- 


1888t 


- 


- 


0.13 


1.98 


0.58 


.0001 


.0065 




- 


.09 


.0036 


.0000 


- 


- 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.40 


2.73 


1.36 


.0009 


.0175 


.0135 


.0040 


.16 


.0032 


.0001 


.5150 


0.5 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.36 


2.59 


1.11 


.0026 


.0169 


.0128 


.0041 


.17 


.0017 


.0001 


.4052 


0.2 



• June to December. 



t February to May. 



Note to analj'Hes of 1894 ; Odor, generally tlintinclly vegetable, Boraeliines also grassy or unplonsaiit ; 
on one occasion, none. The samples were collected from the reservoir. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Morse Reservoir, Leominster, 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Jan. Mar. May. July. Sept. Nov 



Day of examination. 
Number of sample, . 

PLANTS. 
Diatomaceee, 

ARterlonclla, 
DIatoma, 
MelOHlrn, 
Nuvlcula, 
HtophunodlHCUB, . 
Hynijdra, 
. Tubellarla, . 



24 
11607 



20 
llOl'J 



25 
12281 



24 

12r.90 



20 

12999 



119 



22 
]33r,3 



224 



80 





S 





7 





3 











11 


224 


10 






No. 34.] EXAMINATIOxV OF WATER SUPPLIES. VJi) 

LEOMINSTKU. 

Microscopical Examinatio7i of Water from Morse Reservoir^ Leominster — 

Concliidod. 

[Number of orgnniflmB per cubic centimeter.] 



PT.ANT8 — Con. 
Cyanophyceee, (Jlathrocj'etis, 



Algee, 

Oosniarium, 

FrolococcuH, 

Kai)bidium, 

StauniBtruni, 

Stauro^cnia, 



Fungi, Otonotbrii, 



1894. 



pr. 







May. 



142 

1 

.■51 

>J0 

1 

13 



July. 



Sept. 



1 i 



Nov. 



ANIMALS. 



Rhizopoda, 

Arcella, 
DllHugia, 



Infusoria, 



filiated Infusorial), 
Dinobryon, . 
Dinobryon cascB, 
Mallonionas, 
I'eiidinium, 
Tintinnidium, 
'rrachelonioiias, , 
Uroglona, . 



Vermes, 

I'olyartlira, . 
Uotatorlan ova, . 

MisctUaneous, Zooglcca, 

Total, 



226 

1 
38 
10 

l&S 





64 



244 



160 



101 



424 
610 



200 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LEXrS'GTON. 

Water Supply of Lexington. 



Lexington Water Company. 



In 1894 this company enlarged the capacity of its works for sup- 
plying the town by the construction of a storage reservoir on the 
upper portion of Vine Brook, just below Middle Street, which was 
completed near the end of the year. The reservoir has a capacity 
of about 14,250,000 gallons, and, if raised an additional foot by 
flash-boards, of about 16,000,000 gallons. Its area is about 5^ 
acres, and its water-shed, including the area of the reservoir, is 
about .30 of a square mile. An additional ground-water supply 
was also developed during the construction of the dam of this 
reservoir and the laying of the pipe from the dam to the pumping 
station, which has been availed of by turning it into this pipe. 



Chemical Examination of Water from a Faucet at the Pumping Station of the 
Lexington Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 

o 
O 
o 

o 
a 


Appearance. 


Kbsii) 

KVAI 
TI( 

o 


UK ON 
ORA- 

C 


Ammonia. 


1 
o 

s 

o 
.43 


NiTROGKN 
AS 


•2 

a 

3 

C 
o 
U 

O 






B 


1 

•3 


1 


1 
(^ 


Albuminoid. 


00 

I 


9, 




o 

1 

s 


■(3 

o 
Eh 


•a 

a 


•a 

-S 
1 c 

a p. 


a 
•a 


11793 


I804. 

Feb. 20 


v. Slight. 


V.slight. 


1.40 


10.65 


4.40 


.0018 


.0308 


.0270 


.0038 


.1400 


.0002 


1.6800 


4.3 


12208 


May 21 


None. 


Slight. 


0.55 


9.70 


3.65 


.0012 


.0092 


.0078 


.0014 


.79 


.1360 


.0001 


.4134 


4.3 


12844 


Aug.2S 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.08 


9.15 


1.40 


.0000 


.0040 


.0032 


.0008 


.44 


.0500 


.0000 


.0847 


4.3 


1.3340 


Nov. 20 


v. slight. 


None. 


1.35 


14.40 


5.70 


.0010 


.0320 


.0.300 


.0014 
.0018 


.09 
.59 


.2500 
.1440 


.0002 


1.8720 


5.6 


Av 








0.85 


10.98 


3.79 


.0012 


.0190 


.0172 


.0001 


1.0125 


4,6 













Odor of the first two snmplcB, fnlnlly vcgctnhle; of the olhcrH, none. A vcKotiihIo odor wns 
developed in the Inst Hiimplc on hfiitinK* 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



201 



LEXINGTON. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from a Faucet at the Pumping Station of the 
Lexington Water Comp)any. 

[Number of orgauiMms per cubic ceutimeter.] 





1894. 




February. 


May. 


August. 


November. 


Day of exaDiinatioD 

Number of sample, 


22 
11793 


23 
12268 


30 
12844 


22 
13340 


PLANTS. 
Diatomaceae, Diatoma 

Fungi, Crenothrix 







42 


2 
2 



92 


Miscellaneous, Zoogluja 





24 








Total 





66 


4 


92 



Water Supply of Lincoln. 

(See Concord.) 

Water Supply of Longmeadow. 
The iidvice of the State Board of Health to the town of Long- 
meadow, rehitive to taking the water of Cooley Brook in Longmeadow 
as a source of water supply, may be found on pages 25 and 26 of this 
volume. The analysis of a sample of water collected from the brook 
is iriven below. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Cooley Brook. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





s 
o 

1 


ArPBARANCE. 


Rksidcb on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


■6 
o 

a 

a 
m 

s 

5 














B 
o 




.Vlbumiiioid. 
















00 


£1 

B 

a 


o 
S 


3 


1 


i 


5 


Q 

■J 


9 


5 


1 

21 m 


•d 

•a 

1 c 

"5? 


c 


S 
1 


m 


c 
Si 

>. 

X 


C3 


>5 


3 


EH 


CO 


o 


H 


b 


H 


a 


m°- 


U 


85 


y, 


o 


3; 




INOI. 


























131S2 


Oct. 22 


None. 


Slight. 


0.05 


5.25 


1.00 


.0000 


.0026.0018 

1 


.0008 


.17 


.0180 


.0000 


.0987 


2.9 



Oilor, very faintly vegetable, disappearing on heating. Tlie sample was collected from the brook. 

Microscopical Examination. 

Dlatoniaccro, Diutoma, 1; 2>^aviaila, 1; Siftiedra, 1. Fungi, CrenothriJ-, 88; MoUl)>, 1. Total, 92. 



202 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LOWELL. 



Water Supply of Lowell. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Merrimack River above 
the Intake of the Loiuell Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



Loivell, ojyposite 





c 
o 

o 

U 

o 

a 

Q 


Appbarancb. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


o 
.19 


NiTROGKN 

AS 


i 

5 
O 

o 






■3 


i 


o 
o 
O 


1 


a 
o 

c — 
o 




Albuminoid. | 


1 


'^ 




a 


« 
g 


1 

to O 

5" 


■6 
•a 

a a. 
to 


•s 

W 


11639 


1894. 

Jan. 16 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.35 


3.40 


1.25 


.0020 


.0106 


.0084 


.0022 


.0050 


.0001 


.4033 


1.4 


11749 


Feb. 13 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


0.30 


3.80 


1.40 


.0034 


.0136 


.0108 


.0028 


.17 


.0120 


.0000 


.4064 


1.1 


11879 


Mar. 13 


Slight. 


Cons., 
earthy. 


0.50 


2.95 


1.15 


.0006 


.0140 


.0116 


.0024 


.12 


.0120 


.0000 


.5584 


0.5 


12067 


Apr. 17 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.40 


2.60 


0.85 


.0010 


.0128 


.0104 


.0024 


.17 


.0030 


.0001 


.4267 


0.6 


12227 


May 15 


Slight. 


• 
Cons. 


0.50 


3.10 


1.25 


.0056 


.0140 


.0106 


.0034 


.16 


.0090 


.0001 


.4446 


0.9 


12392 


June 19 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.43 


3.35 


1.30 


.0034 


.0158 


.0100 


.0058 


.15 


.0030 


.0002 


.3965 


1.1 


12557 


July 17 


Distinct. 


Blight. 


0.30 


5.40 


1.40 


.0040 


.0124 


.0098 


.0026 


.23 


.0050 


.0003 


.3319 


1.3 


12767 


Aug.l5 


Slight, 
green. 


Blight, 
green. 


0.20 


3.20 


0.75 


.0026 


.0130 


.0106 


.0024 


.20 


.0050 


.0001 


.2464 


1.1 


12987 


Sept.lS 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.18 


3. GO 


1.45 


.0050 


.0128 


.0110 


.0018 


.20 


.0020 


.0000 


.2464 


1.1 


13149 


Oct. 16 


Blight. 


Slight. 


0.20 


3.60 


1.50 


.0042 


.0138 


.0122 


.0016 


.18 


.0020 


.0000 


.4008 


1.4 


13336 


Nov. 20 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.43 


4.00 


1.50 


.0026 


.0160 


.0148 


.0012 


.21 


.0080 


.0002 


.5382 


1.3 


13507 


Dec. 18 


Blight. 


Slight. 


0.37 


3.65 


1.35 


.0060 
.0034 


.0126 
.0135 


.0106 
.0109 


.0020 


.16 

.18 


.0100 


.0001 
.0001 


.3827 
.3990 


1.4 


Av. 








0.35 


3.55 


1.26 


.0026 


.0063 


1.1 

















Averages by Years. 



1887* 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1804 



* June to December. 



- 


0,44 


4.29 


1.16 


.0021 


.0158 


- 


- 


.17 


.0084 


- 


- 


- 


0.30 


3.42 


0.97 


.0016 


.0160 


.0133 


.0027 


.16 


.0099 


.0002 


- 


- 


0.28 


2.05t 


0.84f 


.0018 


.0149 


.0120 


.0023 


.14 


.0071 


.0002 


- 


- 


0.30 


3.57t 


1.54^ 


.0014 


.0128 


.0104 


.0024 


.13 


.0111 


.0001 


- 


- 


0.29 


3.43 


1.23 


.0017 


.0129 


.0100 


.0029 


.13 


.0137 


.0001 


- 


- 


0.39 


3.61 


1.36 


.0021 


.0141 


.0113 


.0028 


.14 


.00'J2 


.0001 


- 


- 


0.33 


3.39 


1.18 


.0026 


.0149 


.0120 


.0029 


.17 


.0083 


.0001 


.4437 


- 


0.35 


3.. 05 


1.26 


.0034 


.0136 


.0109 


.0026 


.18 


.0063 


.0001 


.3990 



1.4 
1.2 
1.3 
1.1 
1.1 



t January to May. 



i September to December. 

-The saiiiploM were 



NoTK to aiiulyMuM of 1894: Odor, generally diMtinctly vcgutublc or iiiouMy. 
collected from the river, ultoul 1 foot beneutli tliu Hiirface. 

Kor a comparison of the analyses of the river at Lowell and Luwronce lor a series of years, see 
" .Merrimack Klver " in the ciiapter ou " Kxaiiiiuatiou of lllvers " in a subscijueiit portion of tliis rci)ort. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



203 



LOWELL. 

Microscopical Examinalion of Walcr from the Merrimack River above Lotvell, 
opposite the I/Uake (f the Loivell Water Works. 

[Number of orgaoisms per cubic centimeter.] 

















1804. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination 

Numlier of Hiimple, .• . 


IS 
11639 


14 

11749 


14 

11879 


18 
12067 


17 
12227 


22 
12392 


18 
12557 


18 
12767 


20 

12987 


18 
13149 


22 
13336 


20 
13507 


PL- 

Diatomaceee, 

AHterioiK'lla, 

Diatoniu, 

Kpitlifinia, 

Fnigihiria, 

Melosira, 

Navicuhi, 

Pinnularia, 

Synedra, 

Tabelluria, 

Algse. . 

Chlorococcus, 

Closteriiim, 

Cosmariuui, 

Hyalotliuca, 

I'rolocDccus, 

llaptiidiuiu, 

Sccneilesniue, 

Staurogeiiia, 

Fungi, 

Crenotiirix, 
Molda, . 


VST 


8. 






27 





20 


7 











u 


5 

5 



19 



3 


16 




u 









18 



18 


21 



3 


4 
2 
9 












1 
1 




36 

11 



3 

10 



10 




















109 

17 




3 


84 
5 

42 





37 

5 


36 

36 



172 

7 



4 


1 

162 

8 

19 


7 



10 



3 

3 



106 






1 

100 
5 

445 

2 



440 

3 


1 

1 




195 





23 





4 

156 

12 

320 




45 
272 

3 








312 

5 
7 


19 



1 



256 

24 

167 

80 

8 
5 
37 
37 



7 

7 



16 


2 


4 


10 


13 

5 






8 

44 

44 



14 

6 





2 
6 


1 


1 







3 

3 



5 









5 



















ANIMAL 

Rhizopoda, Arcclla 

Infusoria, 

Oryptomouas, 
Dinobryon, . 
Dinobryoii cases, 
Monas, , 
I'eridiuiuin, . 

Vermes, . 

Polyarthia, . 
Rotifer, . 


8. 
























pr. 







pr. 











1 






1 



u 






12 


6 
6 












5 

4 





\ 







6 

1 






1 
1 



1 




8 


5 

1 
2 

2 




















5 

2 




2 



















1 


1 




















4 



4 









Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, . 


160 


80 


56 


44 


128 


720 


76 


300 


40 


260 


72 


80 


Total, 


192 


117 


79 


92 


320 


922 


638 


815 


533 


354 


90 


89 



204 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LiOWEIiL.. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Tubular Wells in the Valley of River 
Meadoiu Brook, a Short Distance above Plain Street. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 
2 

a 


Appearance. 


= 


cS 


Ammonia. 


c 


5 


Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

a 

gs 

K 



c 
■a 
a 

m 




1 

a 
•A 


■5 

3 


3 
■3 


o 

■3 





2 


c 


1 


"E 

S 






1894. 


























11640 


Jan. 


16 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


7.50 


.0000 


.0008 


.55 


.0950 


.0000 


.0000 


2.6 


.0000 


11750 


Feb. 


13 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


6.55 


.0000 


.0008 


.49 


.0750 


.0000 


.0160 


2.5 


.0000 


11880 


Mar. 


13 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


6.70 


.0000 


.0018 


.48 


.0750 


.0000 


.0320 


2.6 


.0035 


12068 


Apr. 


17 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


6.75 


.0022 


.0006 


.56 


.0600 


.0000 


.0320 


2.6 


.0040 


12228 


May 


15 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


6.80 


.0008 


.0014 


.48 


.0580 


.0000 


.0374 


2.3 


.0100 


12393 


June 


19 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


7.10 


.0000 


.0000 


.54 


.0500 


.0000 


.0423 


2.6 


.0085 


12558 


July 


17 


None. 


None. 


0.03 


7.00 


.0004 


.0014 


.57 


.0400 


.0001 


.0177 


2.5 


.0140 


12743 


Aug. 


14 


None. 


None. 


0.04 


7.40 


.0000 


.0018 


.53 


.0580 


.0002 


.0331 


3.0 


.0050 


12988 


Sept. 


18 


None. 


None. 


0.05 


7.60 


.0000 


.0006 


.64 


.0400 


.0002 


.0154 


2.9 


.0050 


13150 


Oct. 


16 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.04 


8.10 


.0000 


.0018 


.59 


.0400 


.0003 


.0118 


3.1 


.0120 


13337 


Nov. 


20 


None. 


None. 


0.04 


8.30 


.0000 


.0036 


.56 


.0380 


.0007 


.0234 


3.8 


.0140 


13508 


Dec. 


18 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


8.30 


.0000 


.0014 


.55 


.0300 


.0004 


.0038 


3.6 


.0250 


13540 


Dec. 


21 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.00 


8.00 


.0004 


.0034 


.60 


.0300 


.0003 


.0308 


3.5 


.0100 


Av.* 








0.02 


7.33 


.0003 


.0014 


.55 


.0549 


.0002 


.0232 


2.8 


.0078 













* Where more than one earaplc was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has been 
used in making the average. 

The odor in Jiiiio was faint; iu July and August, distinct; at other times, none. The samples 

were collected from a faucet at the pumping station while pumping. These wells are locally known 
as the " Cook " wells. 



Microscopical Examination. 

A very small number of (yrenolhri.v was found in the samples collected in May, July and October 
and on December 24. Hrnall iiumberH of Zoiiglu^a were found iu the September and October Hami)le8. 
No ort'iiiilHiim wi^rc^ found In Ibo reiiiaiTiiug HainpleK. 



No. 34. J EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 205 

JLUDLOW. 

Water Supply of Ludlow. 
(See Springfield.) 

Water Supply of Lynn and Saugus. 

In the latter part of 1893 the city of Lynn exercised the authority 
granted it by the Legislature to take the water of the Saugus River 
as an additional supply, and during 1891: water has been from time 
to time diverted from the river either directly to the city or to the 
existing ponds and reservoirs. The water is drawn from the river 
at the outlet of Howlett's Pond, and thence flows throuixh a short 
canal to the canal already in use for conveying water from the 
Ilawkes and Penny Brook sources. 

The Saugus River at Howlett's Dam has a drainage area, as 
determined from the topographical map of the State, of 1(3.64 square 
miles, and upon this area there is estimated to be a population of 
11,800, equivalent to 709 per square mile of drainage area. At the 
upper end of Howlett's Pond, a tributary from Wakefield joins the 
river. At the head of this tributary is Crystal Lake, practically all 
of the water of which is taken by the Wakefield Water Company 
for the supply of Wakefield and Stoneham. Upon the remaining 
3.08 square miles of water-shed of the brook there is a population 
of about 3,726, equal to 1,210 per square mile. Near the head of 
the main stream, in Wakefield, is Lake (^uannapowitt, having a 
water-shed of 4.35 square miles. Upon the water-shed of this 
lake there is a population of about 5,854 in the towns of Reading 
and Wakefield, equal to 1,346 per square mile. 

Between the outlet of Lake (^uannapowitt and Howlett's Dam 
the river flows much of the way through extensive meadows and 
swamps, which probably have an area of as much as one square 
mile, and in its course through this region receives two tril)utaries 
from the north, — Beaver Dam Brook and a brook flowing from 
Billing's Pond. Exclusive of the water-sheds of all the trii)utaries 
mentioned, the area of water-shed tributary to the main stream 
between the outlet of Lake Quannapowitt and Howlett's Dam is 
about 4 52 square miles. 

Beaver Dam Brook drains an area of 1.76 square miles above a 
point about a quarter of a mile north of the Newburyport branch of 



206 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

liXXX .\Jy'D SAUGFS. 

the Boston & Maine Railroad. The drainage area contains the 
small village of Lynnfield Centre. Filling's Pond at its outlet 
drains an area of 2.05 square miles, which contains very little 
population. It is an artificial reservoir, formed many years ago by 
flooding a level meadow to a depth of 4 feet. Its area is about 85 
acres and its average depth about 3 feet. 

With regard to the quality of the water of the.Saugus River, the 
State Board of Health, in a communication to the Lynn Water 
Board (annual report for 1893, pages 25-28), expressed the opinion 
that the Saugus River, at the point from which the city of Lynn 
now takes the water, receives so much polluting matter from the 
towns of Reading and Wakefield as to render it an unfit source from 
which to take a water supply, unless the water is very thoroughly 
purified by filtration. 

In June the water of Walden Pond was drawn off and wasted into 
the Saugus River, to give an opportunity to remove the soil from 
the bed of the pond in the vicinity of the dam. About 11 acres 
were cleaned, and some peaty deposits of considerable depth were 
covered with sand and gravel. An arm of the pond containing 
about 12.8 acres, where the water was shallow, was separated from 
the main portion by a dam across its lower end, constructed with 
soil removed from the bed of the pond immediately below. A pipe 
provided with a gate was laid under the dam. The pond remained 
empty at the end of the year. 

In the following tables, in addition to the results of examinations 
of samples of water from the four ponds, as in previous years, may 
be found the results of examinations of samples of water collected 
from the Saugus River at Ilowlett's Dam, and just above the point 
where it is joined by the brook from Wakefield, and from a faucet 
in the city. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



207 



LYNN AND SAUGUS. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Breed's Pond, Lynn. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

o 

O 

o 
a 


Al-PKAtt.VNCK. 


Kksidue on 

KVAPO RA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 





Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

s 

= 



c 






3 

E-i 


1 

•3 
CO 


u 

o 
o 


■3 
1 


a 


c5 
c 

r 




Albuminoid. 


1 






3 




■i 

> 

5" 


■3 

3 0, 

05 


00 

s 

= 
"2 

a 




1801. 
















• 












11599 


JaD. 3 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.90 


4.90 


2.05 


.0020 


.0352 


.0286 


.00H6 


.70 


.0140 


.0001 


.5905 


1.1 


11733 


Feb. 7 


DiBtiuct. 


Slight. 


1 
0.50 


3.80 


1.30 


.0102 


.0212 


.0188 


.0024 


.64 


.0030 


.0003 


.4672 


0.8 


11861 


Mar. 7 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.60 


3.35 


1.45 


.0034 


.0182 


.0158 


.0024 


.46 


.0050 


.0000 


.5880 


0.6 


IJOOO 


Apr. 5 


Slight. 


Blight. 


0.60 


3.70 


1.40 


.0014 


.0192 


.0164 


.0028 


.56 


.0030 


.0001 


.5236 


0.8 


1J160 


May 7 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.55 


3.75 


1.65 


.0006 


.0270 


.0240 


.0030 


.50 


.0000 


.0000 


.6265 


0.8 


123-J6 


June 6 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


0.63 


3.95 


1.60 


.0008 


.0202 


.0168 


.0034 


.50 


.0030 


.0000 


.5390 


0.5 


1J503 


July 10 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.55 


3.25 


1.25 


.0000 


.0174 


.0156 


.0018 


.62 


.0000 


.0000 


.5428 


0.8 


ri688 


Aug. 8 


Distinct, 


Slight, 


0.53 


3.65 


1.35 


.0010 


.0258 


.0180 


.0078 


.58 


.0000 


.0000 


.5020 


1.3 


12924 


Sept. 11 


green. 
Slight, 


greeu. 
Slight. 


0.70 


3.60 


1.45 


.0008 


.0220 


.0194 


.0026 


.57 


.0020 


.0000 


.4389 


0.9 


1310S 


Oct. 9 


green. 
Slight. 


Slight. 


0.65 


3.70 


1.45 


.0014 


.0232 


.0200 


.0032 


.54 


.0000 


.0000 


.4446 


0.9 


13291 


Nov. 12 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.70 


3.40 


1.15 


.0032 


.0178 


.0104'. 0014 


.62 


.0030 


.0000 


.4914 


0.8 


13404 


Dec. 10 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.90 


4.20 


I..55 


.0032 


.0232 


.0190 
.0191 


.0042 
.0034 


.65 

! 
.58 


.0050 
.0032 


.0000 


.5621 


1.1 


Av 








0.65 

1 


3.77 


1.47 


.0023 


.0225 


.0000 


.5264 


0.9 











Averages by Years. 



1887* 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 



0.51 


3.70 


1.32 


.0006 


.0217 


- 


- 


.44 


.0024 


- 


- 


0.48 


3.71 


1.42 


.0029 


.0227 


- 


- 


.45 


.0053 


.0001 


- 


0.45 


3.09 


1.02 


.0007 


.0208 


.0165 


.0043 


.41 


.0035 


.0001 


- 


0.42 


3.62 


1.51 


.0014 


.0196 


.0155 


.0041 


.41 


.0052 


.0001 


- 


0.35 


3.35 


1.37 


.0009 


.0156 


.0131 


.0025 


.40 


.0080 


.0001 


- 


0.43 


3.65 


1.38 


.0004 


.0220 


.0177 


.0043 


.49 


.0055 


.0000 


- 


0.05 


3.61 


1.41 


.0039 


.0214 


.0181 


.0033 


.55 


.0054 


.0001 


.6102 


0.65 


3.77 


1.47 


.0023 


.0225 


.0191 


.0034 


.58 


.0032 


.0000 


.5261 



1.1 

0.8 
1.0 
1.1 
0.9 



♦ June to December. 



Note to nualyscs of 1894: Odor, generally distinctly vcgotablo and frequently also unpleasant or 
grassy. The samples were collected from the pond near the gate-house, about 1 foot beneath the sur- 
face. 



208 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LYNX A>ri) SAUGUS. 

Alicroscopical Examination of Water from Breed's Pond, Lynn. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 







1894. 




Jan 


Feb. 


5Iar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept 


Oct. 


Nov. Dec. 


Day of examination, . 
Number of sample, 


4 
11599 


8 
11733 


8 6 

11861 12000 

1 


8 
12160 


7 
12326 


11 
12503 


10 
12688 


13 
12924 


10 
13108 


13 
13291 


11 

13464 


PLANTS. 
Diatomacese, . 

Asterionella, . 

Melosira, 

Tabellaria, 

CyanophycesB, 

Aaabxna, 
Tetrapedia, . 

AlgSB 

Chlorococcus, 
I'rotocuccus, . 
liapliidiuin, . 
Htiiurustrura, . 
Zoospores, 

Fungi, Crenolhrix, 


• 















































18 

18 








2 





2 




363 

296 
20 
47 






14 


12 


2 




1,352 

352 



1,000 






116 


18 
26 
72 






3,144 

144 



3,000 






76 

33 

29 

14 





2 


116 





116 

5 



1 





1 





168 





168 

io 

10 


37 


22 
10 
5 





416 

280 



130 

16 


16 

75 


10 
62 

1 
2 

3 


160 

68 



92 

5 

5 


10 




10 


u 



40 

30 
2 

8 














1 


21 

16 

5 


















ANIMALS. 
Bhizopoda, 

Actinophrys, . 
Euglypha, 

Infusoria, 

ChlamydDtuonas, 
Cryptoinonas, 
Diriobryon, 
Dinobryoii cascH, 
I'^iiijluiia, . 
M:illumO[iaH, . 
Monas, . 
i'oridiniuiii, 
'rintitiiildium, 
TracbclomonaB, 

Vermes, . 

Aniirea, . 
I'olyarlhra, 
liollfer, . 









13 


3 

u 





10 










4 

2 
2 

46 

4 


'28 
9 



4 

1 








pr. 

pr. 


15 



1 


3 




pr. 













379 





244 

124 



8 
1 
2 



1 

1 


(J 


1 


1 

527 


u 



520 



2 


4 



1 

1 




1 







37 





23 

10 

2 
1 

1 




1 




1 







65 





00 



1 


3 

1 





1) 










20 
u 







10 
H 

5 

1 

2 







3 








3 
















73 




68 




1 















21 



1 




10 


1 



3 

1 
1 










1 







1 













JfUcellaneout, ZoSglcca, 


4 


7 


7 


10 


5 








440 


10 


48 

200 


68 

131 





Total 


17 


67 


42 


767 


2,002 


3,260 


187 


680 


023 


22 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



209 



LYXN AND SAUGUS. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Birch Pond, Lynn. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





d 

o 

1 


Appearance. 


Kksidck on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 

i 

£ 

g 














^ 




Albuminoid, j 








B 


O 
o 

a 


•5 

•e 

9 


e 
1 


c 

o 
■3 







c — 

c c 


6 
2 


a 


■d .13 
io ig 


6 

a 
•E 


1 


1 
In 


6 

1 


00 

s 

B 

■s 


S5 





=^ 


CB 





H 


I-" 


b. 


H 


Q 00°- 





Z, 


SQ 





S3 




1M94. 




























11598 


Jan. 3 


Dietinct. 


Slight. 


0.75 


4.60 


1.90 


.0084 


.0254 


.0208 


.0046 


.65 


.0100 


.0001 


.4454 


0.9 


11732 


Feb. 7 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.80 


4.45 


1.85 


.0258 


.0314 


.0228 


.0086 


.67 


.0150 


.0003 


.6760 


1.1 


11860 


Mar. 7 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.75 


4.15 


2.00 


.0094 


.0284 


.0262 


.0022 


.60 


.0070 


.0001 


.6600 


0.8 


11999 


Apr. 5 


Distinct. 


Cons., 


0.68 


3.75 


1.45 


.0024 


.0338 


.0242 


.0096 


.51 


.0030 


.0001 


.5582 


0.8 








green. 
























12159 


May 7 


Blight. 


Cons. 


U.48 


2.55 


1.20 


.0008 


.0258 


.0216 


.0042 


.61 


.0030 


.0001 


.5970 0.8 


12325 


June 6 


Distinct, 
green. 


Cons. 


0.70 


4.40 


1.75 


.0026 


.0254 


.0222 


.0032 


.60 


.0000 


.0000 


.5813 0.8 


12502 


July 10 


Distinct, 
green. 


V. slight. 


0.55 


3.85 


1.85 


.0006 


.0248 


.0216 


.0032 


.55 


.0000 


.0000 


.55821.0 


12687 


Aug. 8 


Distinct. 


Slight, 
green. 


U.5U 


4.00 


1.60 


.0008 


.0276 


.0238 


.0038 


.56 


.0000 


.0000 


.55051.1 


12923 


Sept.ll 


Distinct, 
green. 


Slight, 
brown. 


0.60 


4.25 


1.70 


.0024 


.0254 


.0216 


.0038 


.53 


.0020 


.0000 


.4851 1.3 


13107 


Oct. 9 


Slight. 


Cons., 
green. 


0.90 


4.15 


1.90 


.0018 


.0330 


.0262 


.0068 


.54 


.0030 


.0001 


.6913 0.8 


13290 


Nov. 12 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.30 


7.45 


3.20 


.0044 


.0586 


.0368 


.0018 


.68 


.0300 


.0002 


1.1700 2.1 


134G3 


Dec. 10 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


1.10 


6.05 


2.10 


.0042 
.0053 


.0304 


.0228 
.0242 


.0076 
.0050 


.76 
.57 


.0180 


.0001 
.0001 


.6853 


1.7 


Av. 








0.75 


4.47 


1.88 


.0292 


.0076 


.6299 


1.1 











Averages by Years. 



- 


1887* 


- 


- 


0.67 


4.02 


1.61 


.001,6 .0289 




_ 


.43 


.0044 


_ 


_ 




- 


1888 


- 


- 


0.33 


3.48 


1.40 


.0026 .0287 


- 


- 


.45 


.0082 


.0001 


- 


_ 


- 


issa 


- 


- 


0.23 


2.96 


1.14 


.0014 .0236 


.0190 


.0046 


.41 


.0048 


.0001 


_ 


_ 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.36 


3.67 


1.35 


.0013 .0227 


.0179 


.0048 


.42 


.0088 


.0001 


_ 


1.0 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.42 


3.26 


1.30 


.0005 


.0241 


.0183 


.0058 


.40 


.0065 


.0001 


- 


0.7 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.48 


3.73 


1.56 


.0016 


.0299 


.0227 


.0072 


.47 


.0092 


.0001 


_ 


1.0 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.75 


4.21 


1.63 


.0062 


.0299 


.0218 


.0081 


.61 


.0059 


.0001 


.6286 


1.0 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.76 


4.47 


1.88 


.0053 


.0292 


.0242 


.0050 


.67 


.0076 


.0001 


.6299 


1.1 



• June to December. 

Note to analyses of 1894: Odor, distinctly vegetable and frequently also unpleasant; on heating, the 

odor i» stronger. The samples were collected from the pond near the gatehouse, 1 foot tioncath the 

surface. 



210 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



L<\^'X AND SAUGUS. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Birch Pond, Lynn. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Apr. 



May. 



July. 



Aug. 



Sept. 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 



4 
11598 



11732 



PLANTS. 
Diatomacese, . 



Aetcrionella, 

Cyclotella, 

Melosira, 

Kynedra, 

Tabeliaria, 



Cyanophycese, Anainvna, 



Algae, 



Arthrodesmus, 

Botrycoccus, 

ChroiJcoccuB, 

Closterium, 

Protococcus, 

Rapliidium, 

BtauraHtrum, 

Zoospores, 



Fungi, Crenotbrix, 



ANIMALS 
Infusoria, 

Chlamydomonas, 
Dinobryon, . 
Dinobryon cases, 
Kii^lcna, . 
Miillomonas, . 
MoriikH, . 
I'erldiiiiurn, . 
'I'raohclomonas, 
Vortlcclla, 



Vermes, 

Anurca, . 
I'olyartlira, 
Kotiitorlaii ova, 
Rotifer, . 



i/iscellaneout, Zooglcea, 



Total, 



10 



12 



261 

12 
1.52 

70 



20 
1 





6 
11999 



7 
12325 



11 10 
12502 12687 



237 



212 





1 

24 



1,150 

324 

2 



64 

760 



1,080 

11 
5 


1,064 



189 




128 

1 
30 


28 



13 
12923 



80 



2,463 


720 
1,680 



60 
3 





4 
800 

2 

1 
1 




11 


1,441 


307 














3fi0 








1,080 


10 


1 








3 























260 


7 


1 


32 








.5 








2 

















o 





















10 
13107 



1 

13290 



11 

13463 



24 



296 2,716 2,063 



1,287 



108 88 



1,630 678 421 



108 



438 



10 


85 








II 








1 


1 





1 





.I 





2 


80 


1 


4 














II 


II 











II 









16 96 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 211 



LYXN AyiD S AUG US. 

Chemical Examination oj Water from Walden Pond, Lynn. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of Collection. 


ArPEARANCE. 




Kehidck on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


a 



.54 


NiTHOOF.N 
AS 


■d 

1 

s 

a 

5 

a 

be 





c 

a 

a 


3 

s 
H 


s 
1 


"3 





B 




a3 

k. 
In 


Albumlnc 
•d 

1 il 


)ia. 

•d 

3 0. 

to 


1 


1 




c 

d 

X 


11601 


1891. 

Jan. 3 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.40 


5.40 


2.95 


.0004 


.0340 


.0304 


.0036 


.0000 


.0000 


1.3845 0.9 


11735 


Fob. 7 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


1.10 


4.55 


2.30 


.0126 


.0284 


.0236 


.0048 


.51 


.0030 


.0001 


1.0680 O.G 


11803 


Mar. 7 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.63 


2.80 


1.20 


.0126 


.0228 


.0198 


.0030 


.32 


.0030 


.0000 


0.50400.3 


12002 


Apr. 5 


Distinct. 


Cons., 


0.70 


3.25 


1.85 


.0010 


.0360 .0230 


.0130 


.44 


.0030 


.0000 


0.48740.3 


121G2 


May 7 


Slight. 


green. 
Cons. 


0.90 


3.40 


1.60 


.0070 


.0306 .0232 


.0074 


.43 


.0000 


.0000 


1 
0.6560 0.3 


12328 


June 6 


Decided 


Heavy, 


0.90 


4.30 


2.45 


.0000 


.0560 


.0240 


.0320 


.58 


.0000 


.0000 


0.63060.3 






green. 


green. 
















.47 






1 


Av. 








0.94 


3.95 


2.06 


0056 


0346 


0240 


.0106 


.0015 


.0000 


0.7884 O-.1 





















Averages by Years. ' 



- 


1890 


- 


- 


1.00 


4.98 


2.53 


.0292 


.0432 


.0351 


.0081 


.34 


.0057 


.0001 


- 


1.1 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


1.21 


4.32 


2.20 


.0058 


.0615 


.0403 


.0212 


.34 


.0091 


.0001 


- 


0.7 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.90 


4.81 


2.50 


.0094 


.0626 


.0383 


.0243 


.41 


.0116 


.0001 


- 


0.6 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.92 


4.33 


2.40 


.0066 


.0470 


.0309 


.0101 


.44 


.0047 


.0001 


.7954 


0.7 


- 


1894 * 


- 


- 


0.94 


3.95 


2.06 


.0056 


.0340 


.0240 


.0106 


.47 


.0015 


.0000 


.7884 


0.5 



* January to Jane. 



Note to analyses of 1894: Odor, goncrally dinliuctly vegetable and unpleasant. The samples 

were collected from the pond near the gate-houae, 1 foot beneath the surface. This reservoir was drawn 
off in June, aud remained empty at the end of the year. 



212 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LYNX ^VJTD SAUGUS. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Walden Pond, Lynn. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



January. 



February. 



April. 



May. 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, . 

PLANTS. 
Dlatomacese, 

Asterionella, 
Mel08ira, 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, . 

Cyanophycese, . 

Anabicna, . 
ClatVirocystifl, 
Ctclosphserium, . 

Algae, . . . . 

Cosraarium, 

Dictyosphaeriura, 

Eudorina, . 

Protococcus, 

Staurastrum, 

Tctraspora, 

Fungi, Crenothrlx, 

ANIMALS. 
Infusoria, . 

Cryptotnonas, 
Dinobryon, . 
Dinobryon cases, 
MallomoiiaH, 
Monas, 

Pcridinium, . 

TrachclomonaH, . 

Vermes, 

Monocerca, . 
Polyarlhra, . 
Rotatorlan ova, . 
Uollfor. 



Crustacea, Daphnia, 



5 
11601 



8 
11863 



4,832 

4,800 

30 



2 



208 

3 


200 





800 

600 






640 

1 
22 



41 

500 

10 



309 



110 
."52 

1 
30 
1.36 



pr. 
.05 



399 

18 

1 

360 





20 

pr. 



1,386 


760 
400 

2 

1 
220 

3 



28 



MliceAUineouH, Zoiiglwa, 



Total, 



25 



364 



418 




6,435 



1,399 1,900 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 213 



LTXX AND SAUGUS, 

Chemical Examination of Water from Glen Lewis Pond, Lynn. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





.2 

i ' 

o 

M 

Q 


Appkarasce. 


Kesiduk on 

EVAPOBA- 
TIOS. 


Ammoxia. 


a 
o 
(J 

.50 


NlTROOBN 
AS 


1 

I 

a 

M 

o 






3 

J3 

3 


a 


u 
o 


o 


c 
o 

•3 i 


fa 


Albuminoid. | 




2 ' 




1 

s 


2 


•a 
> 


03 "■ 


s 

C 
a 

a 


11600 


1804. 

Jan. 3 


Distinct, j Slight. 


0.80 


4.65 


2.00 


.0004 


.0528 


.0264 


.0264 


.0000 


.0000 

1 


.8096 


0.8 


11623 


Jan. 10 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.80 


4.45 


1.85 


.0010 


.0278 


.0216'. 0062 


.54 


.0000 


.0001 


.7566 


0.6 


11734 


Feb. 7 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.70 


3.95 


1.85 


.0240 


.0354 


.0228 .0126' 


.49 


.0030 


.0001 


.7000 


0.9 


11862 


Mar. 7 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


0.65 


3.05 


1.00 


.0440 


.0240 


.0210 


.0030 


.34 


.0030 


.0001 


.4120 


0.5 


12001 


Apr. 5 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


0.20 


2.15 


0.90 


.0022 


.0284 


.0172 


.0112 


.37 


.0030 


.0000 


.2980 


0.0 


12161 


May 7 


Distinct. 


Cons., 
green. 


0.65 


3.15 


1.50 


.0026 


.0320 


.0198 


.0122 


.39 


.0000 


.0000 


.5904 


0.2 


12327 


June 6 


Distinct, 
green. 


Cons., 
green. 


1.20 


3.95 


2.15 


.0254 


.0436 


.0272 


.0164 


.41 


.0070 


.0002 


.7161 


0.3 


12504 


July 10 


Decided, 


Cons., 


1.20 


3.85 


2.15 


.0000 


.0562 


.0316 


.0246 


.48 


.0000 


.0000 


.7762 


0.3 






green. i green. 


























12C89 


Aug. 8 


Decided, Slight, 
green. green. 


1.30 


4.75 


2.50 


.0014 


.1268 


.0370 


.0898 


.45 


.0000 


.0000 


.7161 


0.8 


12925 


Sept. 11 


Distinct, Cons, 
green. 1 


1.30 


4.00 


1.80 


.0060 


.0720 


.0480 


.0240 


.45 


.0020 


.0000 


1.0087 


0.8 


13109 


Oct. 9 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


0.80 


• 4.45 


2.90 


.0082 


.0574 


.0434 


.0140 


.44 


.0000 


.0002 


.7676 


0.5 


13292 


Nov. 12 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.80 


3.95 


2.20 


.0132 


.0396 


.0362 


.0034 


.47 


.0070 


.0001 


.7878 


0.5 


134G5 


Dec. 10 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.62 


3.90 


1.85 


.0010 
.0107 


.0384 
.0495 


.0280 
.0297 


.0104 
.0198 


.44 
.44 


.0030 
.0023 


.0001 
.0001 


.6868 


0.3 


Av.* 




1 


0.85 


3.81 


1.89 


.6869 


5 






1 





Averages by Years. 



- 


1890 


- 


1 
0.76 


4.84 


2.21 


.0412 


.0445 


.0327 


.0118 


.36 


.0063 


.0001 




I.O 


- 


1891 


- 


■0.63 


3.90 


1.75 


.0328 


.0484 


.0324 


.0160 


.34 


.0124 


.0002 


- 


0.6 


- 


1892 


- 


0.62 


3.95 


1.95 


.0127 


.0475 


.0332 


.0143 


.40 


.0193 


.0002 


- 


0.6 


- 


1893 


- 


.0.04 


3.81 


2.14 


.0112 


.0729 


.0329 


.0400 


.42 


.0040 


.0002 


.6048 


0.6 


- 


1894 


1 - 


0.85 


3.81 


1.89 


.0107 


.0495 


.0297 


.0198 


.44 


.0023 


.0001 


.6869 


0.5 



* Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analyelB for that month haa 
been used in making the average. 



Note to analyses of 1894 : Odor, generally decidedly vegetable and frequently also unpleasant. : 

The samples were collected from the pond near the gate-house, 1 foot beneath the surface. 



214 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



JLXXX ANTD SATJGUS. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Qlen Lewis Pond, Lynn. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Jan. 


Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Jlay. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 


5 
11600 


11 

11623 


8 
11734 


8 
11862 


6 
12001 


8 
12161 


7 
12327 


11 
12504 


10 
12689 


13 
12925 


10 
13109 


13 
13292 


11 

13405 


PLANTS. 
Diatomacese, . 

Asterionella, 
Melosira, . 
Tahellaria, 

Cyanophycese, 

Anabaena, . 
ChroococcuB, 
Clatbrocystis, . 
Ccelosphffirium, 
Microcymtis, 

AlgSB 

Cloeterium, 
Conferva, . 
Oosmariura, 
Eudorina, . 
Pediastrum, 
Protococcus, 
Kelenastrum, 
Btaurastrura, 

Fungi, Crenothrix, 


10 

4 

6 


20 



20 



2 




1 
1 









1 

1 



9 


9 




pr. 



pr. 









42 

42 



5 



5 



3 



pr. 


3 






424 

44 

380 



7 



6 

1 

323 

3 




320 



5 


t,354 

2,040 

312 

2 

6 



6 



99 



1 




90 

2 




4,720 

3,400 

1,320 



38 

2 

36 



104 

1 

100 





1 



2 

4 


16 

16 



4 





2 


264 

6 

108 
1 
3 

10 


48 

1 


28 



28 



1,536 



16 
1,520 


1,614 




30 



1,584 










2,601 

1,600 

1 

1,000 


1 





1 






3 


1,404 



1,400 

4 

78 




74 
4 


368 

168 


30 
2 

78 
90 

28 


180 

T 
172 

1 

28 




14 


14 

83 

56 





23 
4 


168 


29 



29 



4 



2 

2 

38 

36 




1 



1 
2 
















3 

3 












ANIMALS. 
Infusoria, . 

ChlamydomonaB, 

Cryptoinona«, . 

I)ir)obryot), 

Dinobryon cascH, 

K Helena, . 

Glonodlnium, . 

MonnH, 

Peridinlum, 

TracbeloriionaH, 

Volvox, 

Volvox BporocygtH, . 

Vermes, 

Monooerca, 
I'olyartlira, 
Uotatorlun ova, . 

Crustacea, . 

Cyclopa, . 
Daphnia, . 


154 

7 
40 

6 
10 





8 
80 

4 
pr. 















27 



1 

12 



pr. 

14 
















33 




14 
1 


2 

16 











































151 


10 

124 


3 
14 
















2,086 





2,080 

4 

2 




3 


3 









42 





28 

2 

1 

s 
3 







.04 

.02 
.02 


2 







(1 













.02 

.02 



1 











1 




1 

1 




.02 

1) 

.02 


80 









80 



6 

4 

2 







178 







2 

176 









.02 



.02 


27 









27 









.03 

.03 



6 





1 





1 

4 



1 




1 







ifi»ceUaneoi(», Zoiiglosa, 











68 





25 


50 








120 








Total, 


186 


87 


88 


827 


2,610 


6,980 


377 


8,180 


2,607 


1,964 


767 


100 


10 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 215 

T.YNN AND SAUGUS. 
Chemical Examination of Water Jrom the Saugus River, at HowlelCs Dam, Saugus. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 













Hksiduk on 






Nitrogen 


•o 






o 

1 

o 


APrEARANCE. 




TION. 


Ahuonia. \ 




AS 


a 

B 

a 

Q 














§ 




Albuminoid. 














' 




u 












aH 






•a 


•a ' 




S 


n 


c 




a 

a 


o 


3 

3 


1 


o 


"3 


2s, 


S 


s 


> 


■a 


o 


2 


% 


1 


c 

•H 

a 


'A 


» 


^ 


to 


O 


H 


>A 


b 


H 


O 


w'=" 


O 


S5 


Ya 


o 


a 




1894. 




























11794 1 Feb. 20 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


1.10 


6.35 


2.40 


.0030 .0216'. 0194 .0022 


.59 


.0050 


.0002 


.9600|2.9 


11865 i .Mar. 7 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.80 


5.05 


2.30 


.0006 .02281.0202 .0026 


.55 


.0150 


.0002 


.81041.8 


12004 


Apr. 5 


Slight. 


Cons., 
yellow. 


0.60 


5.80 


2.20 


.0008 .0196 .0162 .0034 


.65 


.0130 


.0001 


.5813 2.1 


12164 


May 7 


Slight. 


Cods. 


1.80 


6.80 


3.05 


.0018 .0324 .0298'. 0026 


.69 


.0050 


.0002 


1.2972 2.3 


12330 [June 6 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.50 


6.85 


8.35 


.0014 .0308 .0290 .0018 


.58 


.0030 


.0000 


1.08652.2 


li.'JOr) July 10 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.90 


9.20 


2.60 


.0000 .0312 .0276 .0036 


1.19 


.0000 


.0001 


.7854 4.0 


12092 i Aug. 8 


Slight. 


Cons., 


1.10 


11.75 


4.90 


.0.348. 0316 .0284 .0032 


1.80 


.0300 


.0100 


.5837 4.7 








brown. 








1 










12929 


Sept.n 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


11.50 


3.35 


.0062 .0346 .0292 .00.54 


1.40 


.0220 


.0025 


.5852 5.6 


13113 


Oct. 9 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.68 


13.05 


4.85 


.0028 .04101.0298' .0112 


2.04 


.0050 


.0020 


.6901 [6.0 


13295 


Nov.12 


V. slight. 


Cons., 


1.60 


9.00 


3.90 


.0012 .0398;. 0362 .0036 


.76 


.0030 


.0001 


1.7160|3.5 








brown. 








1 
















13467 


Dec. 10 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.70 


10.15 


4.05 


.0090 


.0356 


.0330 
.0272 


.0026 

1 


1.04 
1.03 


.0220 
.0112 


.0003 
.0014 


1.3860 


3.8 


Av. 








1.16 


8.68 


3.36 


.0056 


.0310 


.0038' 

1 


0.9529 


"^ 5 













Odor, generally decidedly vegetable and frequently also unpleasant, grassy or mouldy; on heating, 
the odor ia somewhat stronger. The samples were collected from the Saugus River at Hewlett's Dam . 



Microscopical Examination of Water from the Saugus River at HotvletCs Dam, 

Saugus. 

[Number of organiwms per cubic centimeter.] 





















1894. 














Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, . 


22 


8 


6 


8 


7 


11 


10 


13 


11 


13 


11 


Number of sample, . 


11704 


11865 


12004 


12164 


12330 


12506 


12692 


12929 


13113 


13295 


13467 


PLANTS. 
























Dlatomaceee, 


8 


2 


20 


11 


31 


7 


68 


74 


467 


25 


26 


Cyclotelln, 

DiiUoniu, 

Fragllnria, 

Mclosira, 

Mcridion, 

Navlcula, 

Nitzschiii, 

Syncdru, 

Tnbi'llaiin, 








1 

i 

7 
pr. 









1 
1 







1 
1 


3 
1 

10 
4 






1 


10 



1 
10 









0. 

2 
18 








1 


6 



1 
2 
6 

2 
5 

62 





2 



72 




400 





60 
7 



2 
1 

3 

7 
3 
7 
2 





4 
18 

1 
3 



Cyanophyceee, 

Clnlhrocystis, ... 











8 




















Algee 














10 








6 








BotrycocciiH, ... 
Scencdesmiis, ... 




















10 












6 










Fungi, Crenolhri.\, . .6 


130 


4 


64 


52 


14 


92 


56 


2 


16 


1 



216 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



LYXX ^VXD SAUGTJS. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Saugus River at EowletVs Dam, 

Saugtis — Concluded. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


ANIMALS. 
























Infusoria 


1 


4 








2 


67 





4 


4 





8 


Dlnobryon cases, 

Euglcna 

Periilinium 

Truchelomonas, . 





1 





4 



















2 


60 

2 
5 









3 

1 






1 

3 








S 





Miscellaneous, Zoogkea, . 


5 





8 


4 





6 


360 


64 


116 








Total 


20 


136 


32 


79 


93 


104 


520 


198 


595 


41 


35 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Saugus Eiver at the TAnc between Saugus 
arid Wakefield, and just above the Point where it is joined by the Wakefield 
Branch. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 

o 
CJ 
*>* 
o 
a 

I 


Appearance. 


Rksidueon 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


6 

c 

_o 

s 

O 
.69 


NiTROQBN 
AS 


•d 

I 

a 

c 
o 

B 

es 
>1 

o 






a 


1 

•3 


o 
o 


o 
H 


e 
o 

§1 

X CO 




Albuminoid. 


1 

i2 






a 

3 

»5 






•d 
a Q, 


a 
1 

a 


11602 


1804. 

Jan. 3 ' 


V. slight. 


V. Slight. 


1.20 


7.50 


2.85 


.0008 


.0208 


.0244 


.0024 


.0020 


.0000 


I.l.'?49 


1.8 


11731 


Feb. 7 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.65 


4.75 


1.80 


.0012 


.0142 


.0124 


.0018 


.57 


.0120 


.0001 


.O-WO 


1.0 


11866 
12005 
12165 


Mar. 7 
Apr. 4 
May 7 


V. Blight. 

Slight. 

Slight. 


Cons , 

brown. 
Cons., 

brown. 
Cons. 


1.10 
0.40 
1.90 


6.75 
5.00 
6.85 


2.55 
1.30 
3.10 


.0014 
.0008 
.0010 


.0244 
.0136 
.0314 


.0218 
.0112 
.0286 


.0020 
.0024 
.0028 


.55 
.59 
.74 


.0030 
.0130 
.0030 


.0000 
.0000 
.0001 


.9720 

.3690 

1.3053 


2.3 
1.8 
2.2 


1233*1 


June 6 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.45 


6.80 


2.85 


.0020 


.0296 


.0280 


.0016 


.50 


.0070 


.0000 


1.1011 


2.3 


12507 


July 10 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.20 


8.60 


3.00 


.0018 


.0282 


.0276 


.0006 


.79 


.0000 


.0001 


.1)001 


3.8 


12690 
12926 
13111 


Aug. 8 
Sept.ll 
Oct. 9 


Slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 


Blight, 

brown. 
Slight, 

browu. 
Slight. 


1.00 
0.90 
0.90 


9.30 
10.00 

8.55 


3.00 
3.40 

3.45 


.0048 
.0036 
.0006 


.0340 
.0286 
.0310 


.0284 
.0256 

.0258 


.0050 
.0030 
.0052 


.24 
.00 
.70 


.oo;!o 
.0000 

.0000 


.0000 
.0001 
.0000 


.7007 
.6237 
.7539 


4.4 
5.1 

4.7 


13293 


Nov.12 


V. slight. 


Blight 


1.50 


9.00 


4.00 


.0018 


.0396 


.0372 


.0024 


.75 


.0000 


.0000 


1.7316 


3.4 


13468 


Dec. 10 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


1.90 


10.40 


4.65 


.0002 
.0017 


.0436 
.0288 


.0412 
.0200 


.0024 
.0027 


.70 
.62 


.0020 
.0038 


.0000 
.0000 


1,7710 
1.0063 


4.6 


Av. 








1.18 


7.71 


3.00 


3,?, 













Odor, generally dlsUnclly vegetable, Bomotlmcs also mouldy or unpleasant; on limiting, the odor 

Is generally stronger and more fre(|iicntly mouldy. The Harnph^H wore collected from the HaugiiH 

Ilivcr, at a road crossing at the upper end of Ilowlelt's I'ond, just above the point whore the river Is 
joined by thi- WiikfMeld branch. 



No. 34.J EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 217 



L,YNN AND S AUG US. 

Microscopical Examination oj Water Jrom the Saucjus River at the Line between 
Sauyus and Wakefield, and just above the Point where it is Joined by the Wake- 



field Branch. 



[Number of orgaiiiama per cubic centimeter.] 







1894. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Date of examioation, 


5 


8 


g 


6 


8 


T 


11 


10 


13 


11 


13 


11 


Number of sample, . 


11602 


11731 


11866 


12005 


12165 


1-2331 


12607 


12690 


12926 


13111 


13293 


13468 


ri.ANTS. 


























DiatomacesB, 


2 


6 


12 


33 


17 


79 


3 


5 


36 


5 


9 


3 


Asterionella, 

(.'ymbella, 

Kin •,'ibii'ta, 

Mulosirii, 

Mcridioii, 

Navicula, 

yyiiedra, 

Tubellaria, 










2 








4 

2 



3 





7 

1 
1 





9 

1 
20 
3 




5 



5 
7 


20 





3 

56 









1 

2 



4 






1 



2 
1 
20 
10 

3 






1 




2 
2 






3 

1 
1 
4 







2 

1 



Algae 

















97 




















I'rotococcus, 
Slaurastrum, 






















90 

7 



























Fungi 








80 


20 


140 


32 


3 


52 


136 


357 


4 





Orenothrix, . 

MolUs 










58 
22 


20 



140 



32 



3 



52 



136 



356 

1 


4 







* ANIMALS. 


























Infusoria, 


1 


pr. 


14 


7 


1 


3 








1 


1 





31 


Dinobrj'on, . 
Dinobryoii cases, 
Peridlniura, . 
Trachelomonas, . 





1 




pr. 
pr. 


2 

12 






3 



4 





1 







3 















1 







1 










27 
3 

1 



Miscellaneous, Zooglooa, . 


4 


4 


32 








10 





52 


28 


9 








Total 


7 


10 


138 


60 


158 


221 


6 


109 


201 


372 


13 


34 



218 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [rub. Doc. 



LYNX AND SAUGUS. 

Chemical Examination of Water from a Faucet in Lynn, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 
5 

o 
U 

o 

S, 

a 


APFEARAKCB. 

i 


KESinUE ON 

EVAPOSA- ' 

HON. 


Ammonia. 


c 

6 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 

i 

3 

c 

a 

a 
O 






2 
"a 

3 


1 


1^ 

o 
"3 
O 


o 


c 

.2 

o = 


6 


Albuminoid. | 








c 

£1 

S 

3 
!2i 


o 

hi 


•a 
> 




C 

1 




1894. 




























11624 


Jan. 10 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.80 


4.55 


2.65 


.0094 


.0248 


.0228 


.0020 


.49 


.0060 


.0003 


.7917 


0.6 


11736 


Feb. 7 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.80 


4.65 


2.35 


.0120 


.0290 


.0270 


.0020 


.47 


.0120 


.0002 


.8080 


0.8 


11864 


Mar. 7 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.75 


4.35 


2.00 


.0026 


.0220 


.0184 


.0036 


.51 


.0100 


.0000 


.6424 


1.1 


12003 


Apr. 5 


None. 


Slight. 


0.83 


4.95 


1.85 


.0008 


.0188 


.0170 


.0018 


.62 


.0120 


.0000 


.6083 


l.G 


12163 


May 7 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


5.70 


2.75 


.0000 


.0204 


.0190 


.0014 


.67 


.0120 


.0000 


.8405 


1.7 


12329 


June 6 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.00 


5.10 


2.30 


.0006 


.0230 


.0194 


.0036 


.51 


.0070 


.0000 


.7399 


1.4 


12505 


July 10 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.60 


4.30 


1.70 


.0004 


.0186 


.0172 


.0014 


.67 


.0000 


.0001 


.6529 


1.5 


12691 


Aug. 8 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.75 


4.85 


1.50 


.0004 


.0204 


.0182 


.0022 


.58 


.0050 


.0000 


.5159 


1.1 


12928 


Sept.ll 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.55 


4.05 


2.00 


.0000 


.0216 


.0202 


.0014 


.53 


.0000 


.0000 


.4466 


1.3 


13110 


Oct. 9 


1 Slight. 


Cone. 


0.60 


3.85 


1.45 


.0002 


.0196 


.0172 


.0024 


.55 


.0000 


.0000 


.4241 


0.9 


13294 


Nov. 12 


|V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.70 


4.05 


1.35 


.0008 


.0240 


.0214 


.0026 


.64 


.0070 


.0001 


.5632 


1.4 


13466 


Dec. 10 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.73 
0.76 


4.75 


1.50 


.0000 
.0023 


.0168 


.0152 
.0194 


.0016 
.0022 


.63 

.57 


.0070 
.0065 


.0000 
.0001 


.5467 
.6234 


l.G 


Av. 








4.60 


1.95 


.0216 


1.3 













Odor, generally distinctly vegetable, sometimes also unpleasant; on heating, the odor is generally 
somewhat stronger. The samples were collected from a faucet in the city. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 219 

L.YSN AND SAUGUS. 

Microscopical 'Examination of Water from a Faucet in Lynn. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Jan. Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 



II 

11624 



11736 



8 
11864 



6 8 
12003 12163 



7 11 10 
12329;i2505il2691 



13 11 
12928 13110 



13 
13294 



11 

13466 



PLANTS. 
DiatomacesB, 



AHlcrionella, 
Melosira, 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, 



CyanophycesB, 

Clatbrocystin, 
Merismopcdia, 



AlgSB, 



ClOBtcrium, . 
ProtococcuB, . 
Sphicrozosmii, 
Staurastrum, . 



Fungi, Crenothrix, 



23 



163 



142 

2 





140 



22 



146 







148 



56 



ANIMALS. 



Infusoria, 



Dinobryon, . 
DInobryon cawee, 
Mallomonas, . 
rcridinium, . 
TrucheloinouHS, 



48 



203 


200 

3 




Mlacellaneous, Zoogloea, 



Total, 



96 



137 



26 



324 



800 



355 



280 



64 



147 



116 



189 



65 



19 



220 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



1.YNX AND SAUGUS. 

Table showing Depth of Water in Feet in the Ponds and Storage Reservoirs of 
the Lynn Water Woi'ks on the Dates when Samples of Water ivere collected 
for Analysis during the Year IS 94. 



Uretil's Pond. 


Birch Pond. 


Waldon Pond. 


Glen Lewis Pond 


11 ish Water, 
21.50 Feet. 


Hi;.'li Water, 
*-21.5(i Feet. 


Uiijli Water, 
17.00 Feet. 


HiKli Water, 
17.00 Feet. 


11.6 


7.4 


16.3 


10.3 


13.7 


9.3 


15.6 


9.6 


15.7 


18.8 


13.3 


7.4 


18.0 


19.7 


14.5 


10.6 


19.7 


22.4 


15.3 


13.4 


21.0 


22.8 


13.4 


15.2 


17.7 


21.9 


0.0 


15.4 


16.3 


17.5 


0.0 


15.3 


16.0 


11.2 


0.0 


15.0 


14.2 


7.7 


0.0 


15.1 


12.4 


8.9 


0.0 


14.7 


11.1 


11.4 


0.0 


14.8 



Jan. 3, 

Feb. 7, 

Murch 7, 

April 4, 

May 7, 

June 6, 

July 10, 

Aug. 8, 

Bept. 11, 

Oct. 9, 

Nov. 12, 

Dec. 10, 



• The water in this pond is sonaelinjes raised eomewhat above ordinary high water in the latter 
part of the spring, in order to increase the storage. 

Water Supply of Malden, Medford and Melrose. 

Spot Pond, the main source of supply of these municipalities, has 
not been filled since April, 1891 ; but, owing to the more extended 
use of supplementary sources by the three municipalities, the amount 
of water drawn from the pond in 1894 was considerably less than in 
1893. As a consequence of this diminished draft the surface of the 
pond stood 6^ inches higher at the end of 1894 than at the begin- 
ning, notwithstanding the nmch smaller amount of rainfall collected 
than in the previous year. The total quantity of water taken from 
the pond during the year represented only about 40 per cent, of the 
total consumption of water l)y these places. 

In the latter |)art of November complaint was made of the dis- 
agreeable taste and odor of the water of Spot Pond, and an exami- 
nation showed the presence of largo numbers of the organism 
Unxjh.na. A description of this organism and its ellect upon the 
taste and odor of water may be found in the annual report of the 
State Board of Health for 1891, pages 645-658. 

Analyses of water from the supi)lemcntary sources of supi)ly will 
be found under the names of the municipalities supplied. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



221 



MAJLDEN, MKDFOKD AND MELROSE. 

Chemical Examinatioyi of Water from Spul I'rmd, Stoneham, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Hesiduk on j 






1 


. 






B 
O 

o 

o 


APPEAR,\NXB. 

1 


EVAI'ORA- 1 
TION. 1 


.^VilMOMA. 1 


o 


IvITBOGEN 
AS 


a 

i 

o 

B 






>^ 


B 






a 

o 




Albuminoid. | 


B 


CD 




si 




•a 


■d 


« 


a 


« 


"Zt 


a 
1 


u 
o 


"5 


"S 


a 


"3 




■o 
^1 


o 
2 


2 


s 




a 

•E 


\^ 


a 


H 


cc 


O 


H 


*A 


bt 


r" 


Q 


CQ 


O 


!q 


^ 


o 


B 




1804. 




























11607 


Jan. 3 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


0.08 


7.15 


1.55 


.0070 


.0122 


.0110 


.0012 


.52 


.0110 


.0001 


.1833 


2.9 


11716 


Feb. 5 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.25 


6.50 


1.85 


.0058 


.0160 


.0142 


.0018 


.54 


.0070 


.0002 


.3466 


2.6 


11848 


Mar. 5 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.40 


6.50 


1.90 


.0042 


.0164 


.0144 


.0020 


.56 


.0000 


.0001 


.4240 


2.5 


11994 


Apr. 4 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.32 


6.15 


1.80 


.0004 


.0170 


.0136 


.0034 


.54 ; 


.0130 


.0001 


.3488 


2.3 


12155 


May 3 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.30 


6.15 


1.95 


.0010 


.0214 


.0190 


.0024 


.60 1 


.0090 


.0000 


.4840 


2.2 


12334 


June 5 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.30 


5.10 


1.70 


.0040 


.0212 


.0132 


.0080 


.54 


.0000 


.0000 


.4119 


2.2 


1-2518 


July 9 


Slight. 


Slight, 


0.18 


3.50 


1.00 


.0014 


.0186 


.0150 


.0036 


.58 


.0000 


.0001 


j.3727 


2.2 








green. 


1 






















12672 


Aug. 6 


Distinct, 


Slight, 


0.20 


6.25 


1.60 


.0000 .0198 


.0180 


.00"l8 


.59 

1 


.0000 


.0000 


'.3234 


2.2 


12898 


Sept. 4 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.23 


5.95 


1.95 


.0010 .0178 


.0162 


.0016 


.59 


.0020 


.0000 


.3388 


2.2 


13075 


Oct. 2 


Decided, 
milky. 


Heavy, 
brown. 


0.18 


5.85 


1.85 


.0072 


.0406 


.0192 


.0214 


.64 


.0000 


.0000 


1.3950 


2.2 


13261 


Nov. 5 


Distinct. 


Cons., 


0.12 


5.70 


1.65 


.0012 


.0208 


.0152 


.0056 


.61 


.0000 


.0000 


.2833 


2.3 






green. 


green. 










1 




1 










13365 


Nov. 21 


Distinct, 


Cons., 


0.23 


5.90 


1.55 


.0014.0230.0188 


.0042 


.62 


.0000 


.0000 


.3182 


2.5 






' green. 


green. 






















1 




133S6 


Nov. 26 


Slight. 


Cons., 


0.22 


5.85 


1.30 


.0026 


.0214 


.0158 


.0056 


- 


.0050 


.0000 


j.3870 


2.5 


13387 


Nov. 26 


Slight. 


Cons., 


0.20 


6.40 


1.90 


.0018 


.0246Loi82 


.0064 


- 


.0000 


.0000 


.3526 


2.3 


13435 


Dec. 4 


Distinct. 


Cons., lO.OS 


6.75 


1.40 


.0008 


.0282.0214 


.0068 


.57 


.0030 


.0000 


.3758 


2.5 








green. 








.0029 




.0160 


.0050 


.57 


.0039 




.3616 




A v.* 








0.23 


5.90 


1.68 


.0210 


.0001 


2.4 






1 












1 





Averages by Years. 



1887t 

1888 

1889 

1890 

1891 

1892 

1893 

1894 



0.25 


4.33 


1.24 ! 

1 


.0004 


.0207 


- 


0.22 


3.98 


1.24 j 


.0007 


.0225 


- 


0.26 


3.54 


1.17 ; 


.0017 


.0236 


.0198 


0.24 


, 3.96 


1.24 


.0019 


.0220 


.0180 


0.21 


' 3.70 


1.27 


.0008 


.0183 


.0161 


0.17 


4.28 


1.30 j 


.0035 


.0198 


.0157 


0.29 


5.70 


1.71 


.0085 .0107 


.0162 


0.23 

1 


5.90 


1.68 


.0029 


.0210 


.0160 



.46 
.44 
.0038 .44 
.0040' .42 
.0022 '.43 ! 
.0041 
.0035 



.0025 
.0054 
.0053 
.0069 
.0082 
50 .0081 
49 .0105 
0050 .57 .0039 



,0001 
.0002 
.0001 
.0001 
.0001 
.0003 
.0001 



1.7 
1.4 
1.7 
.34S6: 2.4 
.3616 2.4 



* Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has been 
used iu luukine the average. 
t May to December. 

Note to analyses of 1894: Odor, generally vegetable or none; in July, faintly disagreeable; and in 

December, distinctly oily. On heating, the odor is generally stronger. The samples were collected 

either from a faucet iu the pumping station of the Maiden water works or from the pond near by. 



222 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



MAIiDEX, MEDFORD AKD MELROSE, 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Spot Pond, Sloneham. 

[Xumber of organiemB per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Nov. 


Nov. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day uf examination, 


6 


7 


7 


5 


5 


12 


12 


7 


. 8 


5 


7 


22 


28 


28 


5 


Nnmber of sample, . 


11607 


11716 


11848 


11994 


12155 


12334 


12518 


12672 


12898 


13075 


13261 


13365 


13386 


13387 


13435 


PLANTS. 
































Diatomaceae, . 





3 


8 


43 


126 


64 


27 


5 


31 


100 


82 


105 











Asteriouella, . 
Cyclotella, 
Melosira, . 
Meridion, . 
Navicula, . 
Synedra, . 
Tabellaria, 













1 
1 





1 



1 
6 


1 



4 
2 
7 


4 
26 


28 
10 
9 


3 
76 




52 

8 
1 

3 



6 
18 

1 
2 



4 




1 



12 


17 



2 




8 
44 


14 

18 
16 


8 
36 

37 

1 




24 
56 
25 

































CyanophycesB, 














38 





12 


10 





10 

















Anabpena, . 
Microcystis, 







•0 











38 







12 





10 






10 
























Algse, . 











8 


10 


36 


90 


123 


1 


6 


5 














Chlorococcus, . 

Prolococcus, 

Kaphidium, 





u 













8 





10 




8 

28 






82 
8 


4 
111 

8 


1 





2 

4 



5 
























Fungi, Crenothrix, 











1 


7 





6 








6 


1 














ANIMALS. 
































Rhizopoda, 

Actiiioi>hry8, . 





2 


1 






































Infusoria, . 


pr. 


2 


6 


83 


45 


5 


16 


32 


3 


28 


191 


87 


15 


21 


40 


Dinobryon, 
Diiiobryon cases, 
I'eridinium, 
Trachelomonas, 
Uro(,'lena, . 
Voriicelta, 




pr. 







1 

1 

pr. 







4 





ir, 

64 
4 





2 
40 
1 






4 
1 






1 

15 







2t; 

6 

u 








2 
1 

u 



24 

4 




3 

i7i; 

10 



14 

52 
1 


•JO 







15 







21 





(1 
(1 


40 




Vermes, Anuroa, 














1 





1 


























Miscellaneous, 
Zoogliea, . 


2 


16 





6 





48 


52 





160 














. 





Total, . 


2 


23 


16 


141 


227 


153 


204 


170 


195 


150 


279 


102 


15 


21 


40 



TaOlc shovxincj Ueighls of Water in Spot Pond on the Dales when Sanijilrs of 
Water were collected for Analysis in 1894. 





DiHtnnce 




Distance 


Da IK. 


liclow IIIkIi- 


DATlt. 


IJclow IllKh- 




walcr Murk. 




wiitor Murk. 




Kect. 




Feet. 


Jan. 3, 


7.52 


July 0, 


4.00 


Feb. 7 


7.78 


Aug. (1 


5.08 


March 5 


5.15 


Kopt. 4 


6.42 


April 4, 


3.70 


Oct. 2 


7.54 


May 3 


2.88 


Nov. 5, 


7.37 


June 5, 


2.82 


Dec. 4 


8.00 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



223 



MALDEN. 



Water Supply of Malden. 



During 1894 the works for obtaining ground water at Maplewood 
were enlarged by putting in 26 additional wells. The new wells 
are each 2.V inches in diameter and average 41 feet in depth. They 
are located 24 feet apart, in a line 100 feet from the westerly edge 
of the driveway between Eastern Avenue and the drinking fountain 
at the pumping station. 



Chemical Examination oj Water from Tubular Wells at Majilewood (Webster 

Park), Maiden. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


APPEARANCE. 


Residue on 

Kvaporatlon. 


Ammonia. 


1 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•a 

a 

3 






a 

3 


:3 


c 
o 
B 

1 

CO 


u 

o 

8 


6 


•a 

is 


m 


s 


a 
2 




1»04. 


























11808 


Jan. 3 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


23.60 


.0000 


.oooc 


2.59 


.3800 


.0001 


.0000 


11.6 


.0000 


11717 


Feb. 5 


None. 


v. slight. 


0.00 


!24.50 


.0000 


.0012 


2.70 


.2000 .0000 


.0096 


12.4 


.0000 


11849 


Mar. 5 


None. 


Slight. 


0.00 


27.30 t 


.0000 


.0008 


2.60 


.3150 .0000 


.0480 


13.0 


.0450 


1199.i 


April 4 


None. 


earthy. 
None. 


0.00 


29.40 


.0000 


.0012 


2.77 


.4250 .0000 


.0038 


11.0 


.0020 


121:-.6 


Miiy 3 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


29.30 


.0000 


.0002 


3.00 


.4100 .0000 


.0440 


11.5 


.0000 


V2330 


■Iiinu 5 


\one. 


None. 


0.00 


30.10 1 


.0002 


.0020 


2.80 


.3400 .0000 


.0308 


14.2 


.0000 


1'2;-.19 


July 9 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


30. UO 


.0000 


.0020 


2.73 


.4000 .0000 


.0254 


13.0 


.0050 


126T:! 


Auu. 6 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


30.. 50 


.0000 


.0010 


2.64 


.2500 .0002 


.0000 


14.7 


.0000 


IJSO'.t 


Sept. 4 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


32.00 


.0000 


.0010 


2.58 


.5000 .0001 


.0077 


13. S 


.0100 


13070 


Oct. 2 , 


None. 


None. 


0.01 


27.80 


.0000 


.0016 


2.82 


.5250 .0000 


.0237 


13.6 


.0050 


13202 


Nov. 5 ' 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


25.80 


.0002 


.0016 


2.80 


..5500 .0000 


.0061 


13.5 


.0020 


13436 


Dec. 4 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


28.40^ 


.0000 


.0014 


2.79 1 


.4400 
.3946 


.0001 


.0077 


15.3 


.0010 


Att. 








0.00 


28.23 


.0000 


.0012 


2.74 


.0000 


.0172 


13.2 


.0058 













Averages by Years. 





1887* 






0.0 


17.03 


.0000 


.0008 


2.20 


.4050 










- 


1888 


_ 


_ 


0.0 


17.45 


.0000 


.0003 


2.30 


.5081 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1889 1 


_ 


_ 


0.0 


16.95 


1.0001 


.0031 


1.75 


.5500 


.0001 


1 - 


7.3 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


_ 


0.0 


18.19 


.0002 


.0014 


2.30 


.4904 


.0001 


_ 


8.0 


- 


- 


1891 


_ 


_ 


0.0 


20.83 


.0001 


.0007 


2.23 


.5146 


.0001 


- 


9.6 




- 


1892 


_ 


_ 


0.0 


23.00 


.0000 


.0005 


2.36 


.5129 


.0000 


- 


11.4 




- 


1893 


- 


_ 


0.0 


23.72 


.0001 


.0011 


2.48 


.4823 


.0000 


.0186 


11.1 


.0033 


" 


1894 


- 


- 


0.0 

1 


28.2.3 


.0000 


.0012 ' 


2.74 


.3946 


.0000 


.0172 


13.2 


.0058 



* Three samples in NoTsmber and December. 



t Jane and October. 



Note to analyaea of 1894: Odor, none; on heating, a distinct odor was developed in the August 
sample. The samples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 



Microscopical Examination. 

Insigniflcaut numbers of organisms were found in six of these samples, aud none in the others. 



224 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



MALDEX. 

Chemical Examiyiation of Water from Tubular Test Wells in the Vicinity oj 

Majylewood, Maiden. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 


API'KARASCE. 




c 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


•d 










































■.^ 


















1 








-2 




■d 








oa 


oi 




o 

a 

9 




5 


1 
•3 




2s 


(U 


o 

c 


c 


2 


m 

•2 


§5 

CD 
>> 




c 
o 


S5 


« 


H 


CO 


O 


« 


b< 


-^ 


O 


S 


S 


o 


n 


-* 




1894. 


























13404 


Nov. 27 


Distinct, 
clayey. 


None. 


0.05 


10.90 


.0000 


.0018 


1.17 


.1500 


.0000 


.0984 


4.7 


.0190 


13457 


Dec. 6 


Slight. 


Cons., 
brown. 


0.00 


9.40 


.0020 


.0010 


1.20 


.1700 


.0015 


.0308 


3.0 


.2000 



Odor of tile first sample, none, of the second, faiutly vegetable, becoming disagreeable on heating. 

The first sample was collected from a test well at the coiner of Columbia and Garden streets, and 

the last from a test well near the corner of Salem Street and Broadway. The samples were collected 
during an investigation for an additional water supply for Maiden. 



No organisms. 



Microscopical Examination. 



Chemical Examiyiation of Water from Tubular Test Wells South-west oj Martin'' s 

Pond, North Reading. 

[I'arts per 100,000.] 







AcrKAKANCK. 




_; 


AMMONIA. 




NrruooEN 


■a 














= s 








AS 


a 

a 






















B 

3 






a 

a 

5 


o 


°2 
1^ 


2 


o 

c 


e 
o 


1 


o 


c 
= o 


e 

0) 


c 
o 


"K 


A 


r-i 


w 


rj 


« 


b 


< 


U 


a 


1?5 


o 


W 






IS04. 
























13077 


Oct. 3 


Dec'd, 
milky. 


Slight. 


0.22 


8.65 


.0032 


.0050 


.32 


.0000 


.0000 


.1817 


3.4 


0050 


13331 


Nov. 16 


Distinct, 
clayey. 


V. slight. 


0.20 


4.90 


.0002 


.0012 


.28 


.0000 


.0000 


.OCOH 


1.1 


.o;juo 


13332 


Nov. 17 


None. 


Cons., 
sandy. 


0.05 


3.30 


.0000 


.0006 


.24 


.0000 


.0000 


.0280 


0.8 


.0120 



Odor of the flratanmplc, futntly musty; of thcothore, none. The first sample was collected from 

a well numbered 10, about 130 feet south of Martin's IJrook and 700 feet from the pond; the second 
from a well immbered 17 and the third from a well numbered 18, which were respectively OOU and 960 
feel from the pond and 700 and 1,000 feel from the brook. The samples were collected during an invcs- 
tigution for an additional water supply for Maiden. 



Microscopical Examviation. 

No. 13077. AIk'v, /'rolococcu/i, 4. Miscellaneous, 2o0{7^a8a, 92. Totol, I 
Nor. l.'jS.'il and 13.132. No organisms. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



225 



>rANCirESTKR. 



Water Supply of Manchester. 

Cheviical Examination of Water from the Well of the Manchester Water Work.i. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 

Q 


Appearance 


c 
o 

i! 

1 


Ammonia. 


c 


NlTBOOBN 
AS 


i 

s 

oa 

c 

=5 

1 

o 


c 




a 

a 

9 
'■A 




a 

•a 

CO 


u 

o 

o 


£ 


o 

c 

< 


•2 








1894. 


1 
























11665 


Jan. 22 


None. 


,V. slight. 


0.00 


9.90 


.0000 


.0000 


1.82 


.0800 


.0000 


.0056 


3.6 


.0000 


12222 


ifay 15 


None. 


V. Blight, 


0.00 


10.80 


.0000 


.0000 


1.93 


.0850 


.0000 


.0039 


3.5 


.0070 


12618 


July 26 


None. 


Bandy. 
V. slight. 


0.00 


9.50 


.0000 


.0006 


1.76 


.0500 


.0000 


.0169 


3.2 


.0040 


13551 


Dec. 26 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.01 


9.10 
9.82 


.0000 


.0016 


1.77 


.0650 


.0000 


.0000 


3.4 


.0000 


Av. 








0.00 


.0000 


.0006 


1.82 


.0700 


.0000 


.0060 


3.4 


0010 













Odor, none. The samples were collected from the well. 

Microscopical Examination. 

Nog. 1166') and 13551. Xo organisms. 

No. 12222. Dlatoraacea?, 5i/;;f(?r«, 1; Tabellaria, Z. Total, 4. 

No. 12018. DiatomacesB, Tabellaria, 1. 

Water Supply of Marbleiiead. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Large Collecting Well of the Marblehead 

Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



" 


a 
o 


Appbarangb. 


5 


Ammonia. 




Mtrookn 

AS 


•d 

1 

s 








8 








§2 




■d 












I 


2 


2 
s 

^ 


1 


i 


§1 
2^ 


6 


o 


i 


(0 

2 


1 




C 

•a 
u. 


d 






























7, 


Q 


fr- 


CO 


o 


e; 


b 


< 


o 


K 


•A 


o 


S 


a 




1801. 


1 
























11584 


Jan. 2 


Distinct, I None, 
milky, i 


0.04 


15.50 


.0184 


.0002 


3.00 

i 


.1100 


.0003 


.0390 


8.0 


.0120 


11801 


Keb. 22 


None. 1 None. 


0.00 


12.60 


.0000 


.0036 


2.07 


.0900 


.0001 


.0280 


6.0 


.0060 


12032 


Apr. 11 


None. None. 


0.00 


7.60 


.0006 


.0010 


1.96 


.0930 


.0003 


.0197 


5.3 


.0000 


12441 


June 27 


Slight, j Slight, 
milky. rusty. 


0.05 


14.60 


.0054 


.0016 


1.78 


.2650 


.0000 


.0346 


6.3 


.1060 


125.'-.2 


July 16 


Distinct. Slight, 

1 rusty. 


0.20 


15.00 


.0063 


.0008 


1.51 


.0350 


.0000 


.0285 


6.4 


.1100 


12804 


Aug. 22 


Distinct. Cons., 

rusty. 


0.05 


14.00 


.0118 


.0012 


1.70 


.0100 


.0001 


.0077 


5.5 


.0900 


13123 Oct. It 


Distinct, |V. Blight. 


0.00 


13.10 


!.0056 


.0032 


1.76 


.0300 


.0000 


.0190 


fl..3 


.0480 






milky. 
























13563 


Dec. 26 


Slight. 


Slight, 
rusty. 


0.02 


16.40 


.0082 


.0024 


3.24 


.0300 


.0002 


.0340 


8.0 


.1100 


Av.. 








0.02 


13.46 


.0071 


.0018 


2.13 


.0829 


.0001 


.0264 


6.4 


.0603 











Odor, none. The samples were collected either directly from the well or from a faucet at the 

pumping station whlli- pumping from the woll. A small amount of water from the small collecting well 
(No. 2) was llowinir into the large collecting well at the time of collectini; Nos. Il.'i84, 12441, 12552 and 
12804, and from the tubular wells numbered 42 to 47 at the time of collecting No. ISa.'SS. 



226 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



>L VR B LE HEAD . 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Large Collecting . Well of the 

Marblehead Water Works. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


April. 


July. 


July. 


Aug. 


Oct. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, 

Number of sample, .... 


4 

11584 


24 
11801 


13 

12032 


2 
12441 


17 
12552 


24 
12804 . 


15 
13123 


31 
13553 


PLANTS. 
Fungi, Crenothrix, 














1,280 


100 





2 


Migceltaneous, Zobgloea, . 











64 














Total 











64 


],2S0 


100 





2 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Small Collecting Well, Marblehead. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





i 

a 


Appbarance. 


d 

o 

Si. 


Ahuonia. 


a 

■c 

o 
o 


NITBOQKN 
AS 


1 

a 

c 

o 


1 




a 

3 


a 


1 
•a 


o 
"o 


1 


•a 

o 


I 


5 
'f1 


1 




1804. 


























11802 


Feb. 22 


Distinct, 


Cons., 


_* 


12.60 


.0118 


.0030 


1.35 


.0100 


.0000 


.0960 


5 . '.) 


.•2900 


12033 


Apr. 11 


milky. 
Slight, 


yellow. 

OOIIB., 


0.55 


12.50 


.0132 


.0042 


1.43 


.0000 


.0000 


.0885 


5.;? 


.3900 


12803 


Aug. 22 


milky. 
Decided. 


fibrous. 
Slight, 


0.10 


13.50 


.0180 


.0026 


1.40 


.0000 


.0000 


,0154 


4.7 


.2000 








rusty. 












.0038 


.0000 








Av. 








- 


12.87 


.0148 


.0033 


1.89 


.0666 


B.3 


.2933 













• Too turbid witli Iron to (lelormine. 

Odor of No. 11H02, somewhat unpleasant; of the other samples, none, 
lecterl from the well, which is known as Well No. 2. 



•Tlu' saujples were col. 



Microscojiiral l</j;aiiti.n(tLion. 



No. 11802. Kungi, Creiwl/irix, 100. 
No. 12033. Fungi, Crmothrlx, 920. 
No. 12803. Fungi, Crenolhrij-, 240. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 227 

M^XJIBLEIIEAD. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Tubular Wells in the Valley oj Forest River, 

Salem. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





i 


Appkarakcb. 


c 
o 


AUMUNIA. 




JilTKOOBN 
AS 


1 








tJ 








C °3 
















2i 




^ 




Oo 




•c 








00 


00 




a 


^6 


-a 
1 


c 
1 


c 

o 


u a. 

3 03 

ma 


6 


o 


c 

s 


fc. 


S 




C 

•E 


d 






























•a 


■ 


H 


CO 


O 


B 


(H 


<! 


o 


^ 


^ 


O 


R 






1804. 


























12440 


June 27 


Distinct, 


Cons., 


0.03 


18.90 


.0080 1.0016 


3.98 


.0355 


.0001 


.0423 


6.3 


.3000 






milliy. 


rusty. 






















12553 


July 16 


Slight. 


Cons., 
rusty. 


0.15 


27.50 


.0094 


.0012 


6.66 


.0180 


.0001 


.0300 


8.6 


.0700 



Odor, none. The samples were collected while pumping from the wells. 

Microscojncal Examination. 

No. 12440. Fungi, Cr'';(0</tWj:, 232. Infusoria, J/onas, 2. Miscellaneous, Zoojf/tfw, 134. Total, 368. 
No. 12553. Fungi, CrenoUn-ix, 1,200. 



Chemical Examination of Water from TFare's Pond, Marblehead. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Kesidl'k on 


■ 






■d 






o 


APPfiARANCK. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 






a 

3 

O) 

§ 






o 






tion. 




















B 

O 




Albuminoid. 


1 














u 

a 


o 


3 


s 

a 


o 


s 


It 


i 


a 


JjO 


■o 
1 c 


B 

i 


trnteg 
trltcs. 


1 


































% 


A 


H 


00 


O 


H 


hJ 


P^ 


H 


" 


OJ 


o 


!« 


1* 


o 


X 




1894. 




























13151 


Oct. 10 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.63 


9.35 


3.35 


.0528 


.0468 


.0430 


.0038 


1.59 


.0000 


.0008 


.7979 


3.1 



Odor, decidedly mouldy and unpleasant. The sample was collected during an investigation with 

reference to the quality of the Ice cut from this pond. 

Microscopical Examination. 

DlutoniaceaB, Diatnmn, 2; Jfelosira, 5; yavinila, 1; iSt/nedra, 32. Alpa;, Ctxlnfitnnn, 1; Dictyo- 
uphirriiim, 4; I'rotdcovcnn, 40; Selenastrum, 4. Infusoria, IHnobryon.lHZ; Diuobryou cases, 6A\ Trachelo 
mon(is,2. Vermea, Aniirea, \; J/onocerca, 1; J'otyart/ira, b; Rotatorian ova,'2. Total, 397. 



Water Supply of INIarlborough. 

During the spring of 1894, from February to May inclusive, a 
little over 44,000,000 gallon.s of water were pumped from Millham 
Brook for the supply of the city. Of this amount 18,000,000 gal- 
lons were pumped directly into the distributing reservf)ir and the 
remainder into Lake Williams. The quantity drawn fi-om the ])ro()k 
amounted to nearly a quarter of the total quantity consumed by the 



228 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



MARLBOROUGH. 

city during the year. A dam is now being constructed on this 
brook below the pumping station and below the junction with a 
northerl}^ branch, to form a large storage reservoir from which water 
can be drawn by the present pumps. 

A separate pipe system, for fire protection only, covering about 3 
miles, was constructed in 1894. Connected with this system is a 
covered iron tank 30 feet in diameter and 35 feet in height, elevated 
on a trestle 75 feet in heisht. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Lake Williams, Marlborough, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





O 

a 
Q 


Appearance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
■c 



6 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 




a 

1 

B 






Eh 


c 
1 


o 
o 

O 


o 


§ 

ri 
r 




Albuminoid. 


•.J 


'u 

2 




u 

a 


■5 



> 




c 
■a 

S5 




1894. 




























11929 


Mar. 19 


V. Slight. 


V. Slight. 


0.05 


4.00 


1.00 


.0002 


.0142 


.0114 


.0028 


.41 


.0090 


.0000 


.2370 


1.4 


12-t0'2 


June 9 


V. Blight. V. Blight 


0.12 


4.00 


1.15 


.0002 


.0128 


.0120 


.0008 


.46 


.0000 


.0000 


.2241 


1.7 


12994 


Sept.l9 


None. 1 None. 


0.15 


4.35 


1.25 


.0000 


.0106 


.0150 


.0016 


.46 


.0000 


.0000 


.1463 


1.7 


13519 


Dec. 19 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.04 


4.45 


1.45 


.0000 


.0180 


.0158 


.0022 


.48 
.45 


.0030 


.0000 
.0000 


.2910 


1.9 


Av. 








0.09 


4.20 


1.21 


.0001 


.0154 


.0136 


.0019 


.0030 


.2246 


1 7 













Averages by Years. 



1887* 


- 


- 


0.08 


4.10 


0.65 


.0010 


.0178 


- 


- 


.45 


.0017 


- 


- 


1888 


- 


- 


0.05 


3.99 


0.91 


.0005 


.0205 


- 


- 


.44 


.0054 


.0001 


- 


1889 


- 


- 


0.04 


3.92 


1.03 


.0007 


.0220 


.0182 


.0038 


.46 


.0064 


.0001 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.03 


4.41 


1.13 1 


.0007 


.0208 


.0165 


.0041 


.46 


.0078 


.0000 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.05 


4.12 


1.20 


.0009 


.0197 


.0162 


.0035 


.45 


.0072 


.0001 


- 


1892t 


- 


- 


0.08 


4.30 


1.48 


.0008 


.0244 


.0174 


.0070 


.46 


.0115 


.0003 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.05 


3.95 


0.88 


.0014 


.0169 


.0136 


.0033 


.40 


.0033 


.0000 


.2012 


1894 


- 


- 


0.09, 

1 


4.20 


1.21 


.0001 


.0154 


.0130 


.0019 


.45 


.0030 


.0000 


.2246 



• June to December. 



t Murcli iind April. 



NoTK to ikn.ilyHOH of 1S04 : Oilor of Ilie IIihI kiiiii|)1(!, vt^ry faintly vcm^tiililc, licconiini,' Hlri)tii;cr anil 
un|il>MHiinl on li<-iitlnK; of the n(!(;on<l, iliHatjrcenhle, bi^foinlnx vegeliible on luuitiiig; of Uie third, none?, 

becoming mouldy on healln«; and of the IbbI, none, becoming oily on heating. 'I'lic wunpU'H were 

collected from a faucet ut the pumping Htation. 



Microscopical /examination. 

The total number of organlwrnH per cubic centimeter found in each of tbene HamplcH waH as follows: 
No. 11929, 26; No. 12402, 581 ; No. 12094, 19; No. 1.'1510, 13, 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



229 



MARI.BOROLC;ir. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Millham Brook, Marlborough. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
o 

1 


Appearance. 


liKSIDUE ON 

Evapora- 
tion. 


Amuonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


i 

1 






t:. 








s 




Albuminoid. 














_;l 


09 


1 

a 

3 




•3 


c 

1 
•a 


S 


i 




ft 


« 


•a 

01° 


■O 


c 
1 


09 

1 


b 


1 


e 
■a 


iz; 


O 


H 


CO 


o 


H 


\^ 


EH 


O 


CO 


u 


iz; 


!zi 


o 


n 




1894. 




























11928 


Mar. 19 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.68 


4.25 


1.25 


.0008 


.0166 


.0154 


.0012 


.31 


.0150 


.0001 


.5822 


1.4 


12054 


Apr. 16 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0..53 


3.65 


1.45 


.0002 .0158Loi34 

1 1 


.0024 


.35 


.0220 


.0001 


.4891 


1.1 



Odor of the firet sample, none, becoming vegetable on heating; of the second sample, distinctly 
vegetable. The samples were collected from a faucet at the Millham Brook pumping station. 



Microscopical Exaviination. 

No. 11928. Diatomacese, Cyclotella, 1; Diatoma, 1; iferidion, 3; Navicula, 1; Odontidium, 2; 
Syncdra,\\; Tabcllaria,Z. Fungi, (7rc«oWrJx, 20. Miscellaneous, Zoo(7/«a, 34. Total, 76. 

No. 12054. Diatomace:^^ Diatoma, 3; Epithemia, 1; Fragilaria, 2; Jferidian, 4; Ndvicu/a, 3; 
Pinnttlaria,\; Synedra,20; Tabellariu, 20. Algie, Closterium,!. Total, 55. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Faucets in Marlborough. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Kksiduf. on 














1 


Appearancb. 




Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammo.nia. 




AS 


s 

3 

« 
c 
o 






>> 








c 
o 




Albamlnold. 












•d 


•6 




































1 


•M 


z 


a 




"3 


°S) 




"5 


1 o 


•o 


s 


2 


S 


p^ 


■s 


































» 


O 


H 


X 


U 


H 




'■^ 


H 


5 


cc 


u 


S5 


S5 


O 


ta 




1894. 




























12549 


July 16 


None. 


V. slight 


0.05 


4.15 


1.75 


.0000.0172 


.0146.0026' 


.48 


.0050 


.0000 


.1925' 2.2 


12550 


July 16 


Slight. 


Cous., 
rusty. 


0.05 


5.20 


1.70 


.0000 .0190 


.0144 .0046 

1 1 


.48 


.0050, .0000 


.2125 2.1 



Odor, none. The first sample was collected from a faucet on Maple Street and the second from a 

faucet on Weed Street. 



Microscopical Exaviination. 

No. 12549. Alga3, /"ro^ococci/s, 10; Staurastnim,'!. Total, 12. 

No. 12550. Diatomacere, TabeUaria,\Z. Cyanophycea;, Cieloi>p/i(rnum, l. A\gm, Protococcus, 10; 
Staura8ttitm,2. Fnugi, Crenot/irix,!; Holds, 9. Miscellaneous, Zo(>^/a>a, 124. Total, IfiO. 



230 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



makshfiel.!). 

Water Supply of Brant Kock, Marshfield. — Brant Rock 

Water Company. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Works of the Brant Rock Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 




Odor, none. The sample was collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 



Microscopical Examination. 



No organisms. 



Water Supply of Maynard. 
Chemical Examination, of Water from the Maynard Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 

"s 

I 


Appeahance. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Amuonia. 


a 

i 

.a 
O 

.23 


NlTKOOKN 
AS 


! i 
i 

a 

1 

e 

1 






■o 


a 

■3 

o 


O 


"3 


s 
o 

r 


i 


Albuminoid. | 


1 
"A 


S 

S 




u 

o 

8 

s 

IZi 


"5 


•d 

1 o 
n go 

5 


•s' 
ill 

a 1 


s 

m 


11796 


Feb. 21 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


0.04 


2.45 


0.40 


.0006 


.0068 


.0054 


.0014 


.0020 


.0000 


.1320 


0.6 


12403 


June20 


V. slight. 


None. 


0.08 


3.30 


0.90 


.0000 


.0076 


.0062 


.0014 


.27 


.0000 


.0000 


.2002 


1.3 


13206 


Oct. 24 


Distinct 


Cons., 
green. 


0.03 


2.05 


1.00 


.0006 


.0164 


.0130 
.0082 


.0034 


.28 
.26 


.0000 


.0000 
.0000 


.1319 
.1647 


0.5 


Av. 








0.06 


2.60 


0.77 


.0004 


.0103 


.0021 


.0007 


8 













Odor of the firHt and lust samplcH, faintly vegetable; of the second, none. On hoiititig, all the sani- 

plcs had a dinllnctly vegetable odor. The (Irst two samples were collected from faucets and the last 

■ample from the pond. Tlie difference between tlie analyses of sam[>les collected In the village and that 
from the pond Indicates that a large amount of ground water (Inds its way into the pipe leading from the 
pond to the pumping itallon. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



231 



>LVYNAKD. 

Microscopical Examination of Walerfrom the Maynard Water Works. 

[Number of organlems per cubic centimeter.] 



Febmary. 



October. 



Day of examinatloQ 

Number of sample 

PLANTS. 
Diatomaceee 

ABterionella, 

Cyclotella 

Syuedra, 

Tabellaria, 

Cyanophycese, Microcyells, 

ANIMALS. 
Infusoria, Dinobryon cases, . 

Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, . 

Total 



23 
11796 



22 25 

12403 13206 



48 


26 
3 



104 

34 


38 
32 



22 



192 



107 



Medfield. 

Chemical Examination of Water Jrom a Spring, Medfield. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





5 
o 
a 


Appeaeance. 


s 

si 

II 
s 

» 


Amuoma. 


B 
Z 

o 

o 


NiTKOGSH 
AS 


■3 
1 

J 
1 


00 

•5 

a 
S 




i 

25 


•5 

3 

3 


1 

•3 

00 


u 

1 


1 


2 

O 

a 

< 


00 

1 


BO 

s 
S 


1 


12848 


1804. 

Aug. 31 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


3.80 


.0002 


.0026 


.2S 


.0000 


.0000 


.0000 


1.4 


.0050 



Odor, none. The sample was collected from a spring near Vine Brook, about a third of a mile 

above North Street. This spring is used as a source of water supply by a large straw factory and by a 
portion of the Tillage of Medfield. 



Microscopical Examitiation. 



No organisms. 



232 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



MEDFORD. 



Water Supply of Medford. 



As noted in the previous annual report, works were constructed 
early in 1894 for pumping water for the supply of the city of Med- 
ford from three small brooks flowing from a water-shed which is 
contiguous to that of Spot Pond on the south. On the largest of 
the brooks is situated a small ice pond known as Wright's Pond. 
The works were of a temporary character, constructed with a view 
to utilizing the water of these streams during times of high flow. 
More permanent works are in process of construction, with a view 
to securing a larger quantity of water from this source, and for the 
purpose of supplying the higher portions of the city by means of a 
high-service system. During 1894 the pump was run from January 
24 to May 24 inclusive, and from December 20 to the end of the 
year, the water being discharged into the main leading from Spot 
Pond to the town, the surplus not used by the town going back into 
the pond. 

Further information regarding the water supply of Medford from 
Spot Pond and analyses of water from the pond may be found on 
pages 220-222. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the WrighVs Pond Source, Medford. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











KE8IDDB ON 










— 




c 
_o 

1 
a 

o 


Afpeasancb. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 






s 

9 
§ 

9 










tion. 




c 










i 






_o 




Albuminoid. | 


<u 






i 




■d 


•s 

■a 


m 


a 

9 


S 

03 




a 


s 


2 


i 


« 


1 o 
in so 


, c 

9 P- 


fe 


u 


5 




^ 


"x, 


Q 


H 


O) 


o 


H 


►J 


(h 


E- 


Q 


CO 


u_ 


-A 


'A 


o 


B 




1894. 




























12063 


Apr. 17 


V. alight. Blight. 


0.40 


4.35 


1.45 


.0004 


.0126 


.0104 


.0022 


.45 


.0050 


.0001 


.4251 


1.6 


12789 


Aug.20 


DlBtlnct, Slight, 
green. 


0.73 


6.10 


2.80 


.0018 


.0564 


.0408 


.0156 


.47 


.0000 


.0000 


.6530 


1.9 





Odor of the flrnt naniplc, none, becoming decidedly vegctnblc and iinpIcaHunt on heating; of the 

Becond Maniple, fairilly V('(;elable, becoming Htrongcr on berating. 'I'lii' fiiHt naiiiplo was collected 

from a faucet at tlie temporary pumping Htatlon and the second from Wrigbl'H I'uiid. 



Microscopical Examination. 

No. 12083. Diatomaccas, 3/(?to»«Va, 25; Meridion, 1; Synedra, 1.30. Algas, Zoonporen, 20. Fungi, 
Crenothrlx, iH. Jufunor\a, I^inoljri/oii, l] ; /)inobryo7i canes, 120; Pi-ridiiilum, i. 'J'otal, 356. 

No. 12789. niatoinacea), 3A'to«/;-«, 2 ; /'Innnlaria, 1; Synednt, 2\0. (Jyanophyccu), Olalhrocynlis, 
96; AIgm, ('lonterlum, 6; reiHuHtrum, 2; Stuurastrwn, 2. ln(uHor\ii, /'eridlnium, 7 ; Trachelomonaa, 
2. Vvnoen, J/ono':ercu, I; J'olyarthra, 4; IioU/er,2. Total, 365. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 233 



MELROSE. 



Water Supply of Melrose. 



For information regarding the water supply of Melrose from Spot 
Pond and for analyses of water from the pond see pages 220-222. 
The results of analyses of samples of water from the auxiliary 
ground-water supply introduced in 1894 are given in the following 
table. This source furnished about one-third of the water used by 
the town in 1894. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Ttdmlar Wells in the Valley of Spot Pond 
Brook, near Wyoming Avenue, used as an Additional Source of Water Sujiply 
for Melrose. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

_o 

o 
o 

a 


Appearanck. ' 


ft 


AUMOMIA. 


6 

a 

M 

_o 

2 



NITBOGBN 
AS 


•d 

a 

« 
e 

g6 





c 
•0 




a 

a 


2 

3 


1 
•3 






t-i 


2 
c ' 

-0 




1 

00 



9-, 


B 

hi 


11800 


1894 

Feb. 


22 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


11.60 


.0000 


.0032 


1.33 


.0970 


.0000 


.0320 


6.1 


.0040 


12241 
12388 


May 
June 


18 
18 


Slight, 

clayey. 
Slight, 

clayey. 
Distinct, 

clayey. 
None. 


Slight. 
None. 


0.10 
0.08 


10.50 
11.55 


.0024 
.0014 


.0006 
.0000 


1.09 
1.^0 


.0700 
.0500 


.0000 
.0002 


.0351 
.0162 


5.9 
5.9 


.0060 
.0170 


12793* 
12852 


Aug. 
Sept. 


21 
4 


Cons., 

earthy. 
None. 


0.00 
0.02 


11.50 
15.50 


.0056 
.0000 


.0008 
.0008 


1.65 
1.45 


.0100 
.1050 


.0006 
.0001 


.0000 
.0077 


5.9 
7.4 


.0030 
.0050 


12907 
13178 


Sept. 
Oct. 


10 
22 


Slight, 

clayey. 
None. 


None. 
None. 


0.05 
0.02 


13.00 
14.90 


.0014 
.0012 


.0008 
.0010 


1.46 
1.55 


.0500 
.0770 


.0001 
.0004 


.0000 
.0181 


7.4 
8.3 


.0200 
.0060 


13366 
13511 


Nov. 
Deo. 


21 
18 


V. Blight, 

white. 

V. slight. 


Slight, 

earthy. 
V. slight. 


0.04 
0.05 


16.30 
16.30 


.0010 
.0010 


.0016 
.0034 


1.33 
1.36 


.0700 
.0960 


.0001 
.0002 


.0328 
.0770 


8.9 
8.4 

7.1 


.0110 
.0080 


Av.t 








0.04 


13.24 


.0017 


.0014 


1.38 


.0684 


.0002 


.0269 


.0084 











* This sample is said to have been affected by an accidental breaking of some of the wells, 
t Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has 
been used in malilDg the average. 

Odor of No. 12793, distinct; of No. 12907, faintly tarry; of the other samples, none. The 

samples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station, with the exception of No. 12907, which 
was collected from a faucet on Wiuthrop Street. 



Microscopical ExamiiuUion. 



No. 12388. Miscellaneous, Zodgl<xa, 28. 

No. 12793. Fungi, Crenothrix, 9. 

No organisms were found in tlu- reinalning samples. 



234 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



MEXDOX. 



Mendon. 
Chemical Examination of Water from Mendon Pond, Mendon. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





S 

1 
o 

a 


Appeakance. 


Resiude O^' 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
*S 

!c 


.27 
.21 
.29 

.26 


Nitrogen 
as 


•a 

a 

a 
I 

1 

& 







2 

S 


a 


c 








i 

c 




1 


Albuminoid. 


1 


1 

1-1 




B 

3 


"3 


■6 

> 

J, 

5" 


•d 
■0 

= S. 


1 


11676 
11813 
11964 


1894. 

Jan. 24 

Feb. 27 
Mar. 29 


V. Slight. 
V. Blight 
Distinct. 


V. slight. 

Slight. 

Cons. 


0.05 
0.04 
0.06 


1.95 
1.85 
2.00 


0.60 
0.90 
0.85 


.0010 
.0010 
.0012 


.0100 
.0118 
.0156 

.0125 


.0086 
.0096 
.0132 


.0014 
.0022 
.0024 

.0020 


.0030 
.0000 
.0030 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 

.0000 


.1698 
.2416 
.1925 

.2013 


0.6 
0.3 

0.4 


Av. 








0.05 


1.93 


0.78 


.0011 


.0105 


.0020 


4 











Odor of the first and third samples, none; of the second, faintly vegetable. - 
collected from the pond. 



-The samples were 



Microscopical Examination of Water from Mendon Pond, Mendon. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



January. 



Day of examination 

Namber of sample 

PLANTS. 
Dlatomaceee 

Asterionella 

Synedra 

Tabellaria 

Cyanophycese, Oeclllaria, 

Algee, 

ChlorococcuB, . . . . 
Protococcus, . . . . 

ANIMALS 
Infusoria 

DInobryon, 

Dlnobryon cases, 

PerldiDlum, . . . . 

Vermes, I'olyarlhra, 

Crustacea, Daphola, . 

MUcellaneouH, ZoSglcea, . 

Total 



25 
11676 



1 

11813 



30 
11964 



542 



2 

540 










14 

pr. 

14 

2 

2 

2 




23 

2 
11 
10 

I 

.04 



4 

648 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 235 

METHUEN. 

Water Supply of Methuen. 

The works are owned by the town, and were completed in the 
latter part of 1894. The supply is derived from tubular wells in 
the valley of the Spicket River, near the point where it is joined by 
Harris Brook. The wells are each 2| inches in diameter, and are 
in two groups. One group, located west of the Miller Road and 
north of Harris Brook, consists of 27 wells, ranging in depth from 
25 to 37 feet, and averaging 29^ feet. The other group, located 
east of the Miller Road and along the southerly side of the Spicket 
River, consists of 18 wells, ranging in depth from 25 to 32^ feet, 
and averaging 28^ feet. The wells in the westerly group are con- 
nected with a 10-inch main 516 feet long, and those in the easterly 
group with a U'-inch main 390 feet long. The mains connect before 
reaching the pumps at the pumping station, and there is a third pipe 
laid to the Spicket River for drawing water from the river in case 
of necessity. Provision was also made for the connection in the 
future of a pipe from Harris Pond, a large pond about two miles up 
the valley of Harris Brook. 

From the pumping station water is forced to a covered distrib- 
uting reservoir on Foster's Hill. The reservoir is a cylindrical 
chamber, the inside diameter of which is 95 feet at the top and 93 
feet at the bottom, and the depth inside is 21 feet. The wall is 2 
feet 6 inches thick at the top and 5 feet 6 inches thick at the bottom, 
which is 2 feet below the finished bottom of the reservoir. It is 
built of field stone, laid in American cement mortar, plastered inside 
with a coat of Portland cement mortar. The bottom slopes down- 
ward from the circumference to the centre, and at the latter point is 
6 inches lower than at the wall. It consists of 5 inches of American 
cement concrete, covered with a layer of Portland cement plastering 
1 inch in thickness. The covering of the reservoir consists of a brick 
dome in the centre, surrounded by 3 concentric brick arches 8 inches 
in thickness, supported by brick piers connected by brick lintel 
arches and by the outer wall. There are 3 rows of piers, the diame- 
ter of the outer of which is 72 feet, of the middle 48 feet and of the 
inner 24 feet. There arc 30 piers in the outer circle, 20 in the 
middle and 10 in the inner. The [)iers are 7 feet 6i inches apart on 
centres, measured along the circumference of the circle in which 
they are placed, and are each !(> inches square. Over the top of 
the reservoir is a fillinix of earth and loam. 



236 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



METBTUEX. 

Water enters the reservoir at its centre near the bottom through 
a cast-iron main 14 inches in diameter, and is drawn out through the 
same pipe. Provision is mide for drawing all of the water out of 
the reservoir, if necessary, by means of a 6 inch waste pipe, pass- 
ing from the bottom of the reservoir at its centre to the surface of 
the ground several hundred feet below. An overflow is also pro- 
vided, extending vertically from the waste pipe to high-water level, 
which is 20 feet above the bottom at the circumference. An iron 
ventilator extends from the centre of the brick dome to a short dis- 
tance above the surface of the ground. The capacity of the reser- 
voir is a little over 1,000,000 gallons. Distributing mains are of 
cast iron, service pipes are of wrought iron lined with cement. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Tubular Wells oj the Methuen Water 

Works. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





c 

o 

o 

Q 


AprBARANCE. 


a 
o 

§1 
P 


Ammonia. 


a 

■c 

o 


NiTKOGKN 
AS 


a 

s 
a 

£5 

1 


c 
•o 

m 




a 

= 

•A 


s 

2 

a 
H 


c 

a 


u 
o 
o 
O 




o 
1 c 

^a 

< 


1 
^ 


5 


1 




1894. 


























12935 


Bept. 10 


None. 


Slight, 


0.00 


7.60 


.0000 


.0014 


.23 


.0080 


.0000 


.0000 


2.5 


.0050 


13137 


Oct. 13 


v. slight. 


clayey. 
ConH., 

clayey. 
Slight, 


0.05 


7.20 


.0000 


.0038 


.27 


.0020 


.0000 


.1272 


3.6 


.0020 


13473 


Dec. 8 


None. 


0.00 


8.60 


.0006 


.0046 


.27 


.0070 


.0000 


.0323 


3.1 


.0080 








clayey. 




7.77 




.0033 


.26 












Av. 








0.02 


•0002 


.0057 


.0000 


.0532 


3.1 


.0050 













Odor, none. The HumploB were collected at tlio piiinping Htatlou. 



Microscopical Examination, 



No organiMmH, 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 237 

METHUEN. 

Chemical Examination of Waterfront the Covered Reservoir of the Methuen 

Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





i i 


Appearance. 




3 


Ammonia. 




NiTEOGBN 
AS 


■d 
o 

s 


















































































"O 














a 

3 




•3 

3 


1 
•5 


a 


II 


6 


o 
, s 

51 


o 


a 


m 


tc 


1 


1 


!zi 


Q 


^ 


(B 


O 


M 


b 


< 


o 


K 


% 


O 


s 






1 
1894. 


























12936 


Sept. 10 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.00 


6.80 


.0008 


.0000 


.19 i 


.0080 


.0003 


.0154 


2.7 


.0050 


13138 


Oct. 13 \ 


None. 


None. 


0,05 


7.80 


.0000 


.0018 


.26 


.0040 


.0006 


.0553 


3.5 


.0110 


13474 


Dec. 8 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


7.40 


.0010 


.0036 


.30 

1 


.0070 


.0000 


.0231 


3.2 


.0120 


Av. 








0.02 


7.33 


.0006 


.0018 


.25 


.0063 


.0003 


.0313 


3.1 


.0093 













Odor, none. The aamples were collected from a faucet near the covered reeervoir, and represent 

water flowing out of the reservoir. 



Microscopical Examiiiation. 



No organisnis. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Hawkes Brook, Methuen. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





e 
o 


Appeabahce. 


Kksiduk on 

EVAPOBA- 
TIOS. 


Ammonia. 




NiTROGBN 
AS 


•d 

a 

s 






S 

6 

"5 

o 


B 


1 


i 

o 
O 


"3 


c 

c — 
o = 

5 




Albuminoid. | 


c 
1 


1 


X 

S 


a 

c 

1 

o 




B 


1 


T3 

30 S 


1 
•d ' 

1 c 
■ a) 

CO 


c 

•3 




1894. 




























13496 


Dec. 17 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.30» 


7.45 


3.05 


.0002 


.0312 


.0282 .0030 

1 


.33 


.0320 .0000 

1 


1.2820 


... 



* Bright yellow. 

Odor, faintly vegetable, becoming stronger on heating. The sample was collected from Hawkes 

Brook, during an investigation for an additional water supply for Haverhill. 



Microscopical Examination. 

Diatoniacem, Diatoma, 2; Jferidion, 1; Sijnedra, 8. Algse, Oosmarium,!. Fungi, Crenothrii,Z. 
Infusoria, J>mobryon cases, 1. Total, 16. 



238 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



middleborougii. 

Water Supply of Middleborough Fire District, 

MiDDLEBOROUGH . 
Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the Middleborough Fire District. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appkaranck. 


B 

si 

o o 

a? 


Ammokia. 


c 

1 s 


Nitrogen 
as 


•d 

a 

o 

c 
a o 
So 

O 


a 
•a 




B 

a 


3 

3 


1 
•3 


s, 

"3 1 

o ! 


0) 

1 1 


2 

o 

, c 


to 


1 i 

5 

2 


a 


12428 
12805 
12858 
12915 
13097 
13273 
13446 


1894. 

June 25 

Aug. 22 
Sept 3 
Sept. 10 
Oct. 8 
Nov. 7 
Dec. 5 


None. 

V. slight, 
milky. 
None. 

None. 

V. slight. 

Slight, 

clayey. 
None. 


V. Slight. 

None. 

None. 

Slight. 

Slight. 

Slight. 

None. 


0.08 
0.15 
0.08 
0.15 

0.07 
0.08 
0.01 


5.90 
5.75 
5.75 
6.00 
6.50 
5.90 
7.00 


.0004 
'.0008 
^0002 

.0000 

1 

;.ooo2 

.0004 
.0002 


.0026 
.0038 
.0020 
.0026 
.0060 
.0018 
.0024 


.62 
.62 
.66 
.62 
.73 
, .76 
i -78 


.0480 
.0800 
.0380 
.0400 
.0430 
.0550 
.0980 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0002 
.0001 


.0986 
.1001 
.1155 
.0385 
.0836 
.0770 
.0462 


2.2 
2.1 
1.8 
2.1 
2.1 
2.9 
2.7 


.0240 
,0300 
.0100 
.0200 
.0250 
.0200 
.0280 


Av.* 








0.09 


6.16 


.0004 


.0032 


1 .69 


.0572 


.0001 


.0804 


2.3 


.0237 



Averages by Years. 



- 


1887t 


- 


- 


0.00 


8.39 


.0004 


.0019 


.96 


.1519 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1888 


- 


- 


0.00 


8.67 


.0001 


.0025 


.90 


.1494 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


- 


18891 


- 


- 


0.00 


8.77 


.0002 


.0024 


.98 


.1770 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1893§ 


- 


- 


0.05 


6.53 


.0006 


.0024 


.73 


.0775 


.0001 


.0840 


2.6 


.0070 


- 


1894t 


- 


- 


0.09 


0.16 


.0004 


.0032 


.69 


.0572 


.0001 


.0804 


2.3 


.0237 



* Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for that month has been 
used In making the average, 
t June to December. 
X January to May. 
§ April and September. 



Odor of No. 12915, faintly dlHagrceablu, becoming dJHtinctly mouldy on heating; of the other Ham- 
pies, none. On beating, the odor of No. 13097 was decidedly grasHy, and of No. 13273, fuiully mouldy. 

The samples wore collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATIOX OF WATER SUPPLIES. 239 



MIDDLEBOROUGn. 

Microscopical Examinaiion of Water from the Well of the Middleborough Fire 

District. 

[Number of orgauisniB per cubic centimeter.] 











1894. 










June. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Sept. 


Oct, 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 


27 
12428 


23 
12805 


6 
12858 


12 
12915 


9 
13097 


8 
13273 


7 
13446 


PLANTS. 
Fungi, Crenothrix, . 


28 


5 


88 


92 


80 


32 


38 


Miscellaneous, Zoogloea, 


86 








2 


108 








Total, .... 


114 


5 


88 


94 


189 


32 


38 



Chemical Examination of Water from Faucets in Middlcborongh. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 


Appkaba:<cb. 




s 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


•a 














= 








a 








s 








"^ 




^ 








2 


OD 




b 


o 




s 




§? 




o 




o 


m 


sa 






s 


a 


"C 




o 


1« 




Sa 




g 


"Z 


it 

if 


•a 


c 
2 


S5 


D 


E- 


rji 


O 




b 


< 


o 


5 


2 


o 


n 






1894. 


























12806 


Aug. 23 


V. Slight, 
raillty. 


V. slight, 
rusty. 


0.15* 


5.85 


.0036 


.0060 


.62 


.0300 


.0000 


.1155 


1.9 


.0300 


12807 


Aug. 23 


V. slight. 


Slight, 
rusty. 


0.08t 


6.10 


.0018 


.0042 


.62 


.0400 


.0000 


.1116 


2.2 


.0360 



• Four days later, .08. t Four days later, .15. 

Odor of the first two samples. Done. The samples were collected from faucets in the town. 

Microscopical Examiiialion. 

No. 12801. Fungi, CVcnoWrir, 32. Misct-Ilaneoue, Zo(Vj//aa, 108. Total, 140. 
No. 12S07. Fungi, Crenothrit, 20. 



Water Sutply or Middleton. 
(See Danvers.) 



240 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



MTLFORD AXD HOPEDALE . 

Water Supply of Milford and Hopedale. — Milford Water 

Company. 
The advice of the State Board of Health to the Milford Water 
Company, relative to increasing its water supply, may be found on 
pages 26 and 27 of this volume. Analyses of samples of water col- 
lected from the present sources, and from sources examined in con- 
nection with the investigation for an additional water supply, are 
given below. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Wells of the Milford Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 


Appearance. 


s 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


s 
























a 

s 


■s 


3 


1 

■3 


o 




I 


•a 
.1 

Si 


6 
o 




'u 


a 
cm 


a 
■a 

OS 


g 


'A 


a 


E-1 


03 


O 


» 


fe 


< 


O 


-A 


A 


O 


M 






1894. 


























12101 


Apr. 24 


None. 


Slight. 


0.02 


3.15 


.0000 


.0018 


.37 


.0280 


.0000 


.0893 


1.1 


.0025 


12847 


Aug. 31. 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.05 


3.50 


.0000 


.0022 


.30 


.0150 


.0000 


.0308 


1.3 


.0080 



Odor of the first sample, faintly vegetable; of the second, none, 
from a faucet at the pumping station. 



-The samples were collected 



Microscopical Examination. 

No. 12101. Fungi, Crenothrix,20. 

No. 12847. Fangl, Crenothrix,2i. MiscManiioas, Zoogleu, 22. Total, 46. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Glajlin Pond and Echo Lake, Milford, 

[Parts per 100,000]. 





o 

o 

e 
t5 
a 


APPKA RANCH. 


ItKSIDUK ON 

EVAl'ORA- 

TION. 


Ammonia. 


V 

a 
1 
u 

.31 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 

i 

o 

O 






•3 
2 

H 


1 

■5 

CO 


o 

8 


1 


.1 


1 


Albuminoid. 


9i 


■c 




i 

o 
•A 


"3 


•a 

> 

1 o 

a 


1 o 

o o. 
CO 


d 


12100 


1804. 

Apr.24 


V. Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.45 


2.30 


1.35 


.0004 


.0274 


.0250 


.0024 


.0030 


.0000 


.5332 


0.0 


12144 


May 2 


DlBtiact. 


Cons. 


0.26 


2.40 


0.90 


.0000 .0248 


.0106 .0082 


.30 


.0000 


.0000 


.4480 


0.5 



Odor of the first sample, decidedly vegetable; of the second, distinctly dlsagrooablo, becoming less 

strong on heating. The lirHt sample was collected from (Jliidlii Pond and the Hcconil from Echo 

Lake. 

Microscopical Exaynination . 

No. 12100. Dlulomace»;, Naniiiilu, 1; Si/itedra, 1. Oyanophycejn, Aimhirtia, 1. AIk'o, liatra- 
rMoHjjurrnuia, 3; I'rotococcuH, 30; Unpludluni, 4; Slauraatrum, 1. Infusoria, lUiioliri/iin, 108; Dino- 
hryon cuHf.H, nfi; /'erl'Utiium, 5; TrachelonionuH, \. CruBtucoii., JJoHmhia, 1. hlUcuWuitooua, Zoiigluea, 
52. Total, 384. 

No. 12144. Dlatomaceo), AHlerionf.Ua, 2; Synf.dra, 148; Tabellaria, 1. Algas, Scanedc.amua, 1. 
Infusoria, Ciliated infuHorlan, 1; Oryjdomonan, 26; OUnodhiium, 132; MonuH, 60. Miscellaneous, 
Zoiiglwx, 600. 'i'otal, 960. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



241 



MILFORD AND HOPEDAl,E. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Charles River at Milford. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Kksiuce on I 






NiTBOOKN 


•d 






_o 


Appkarance. 




TION. 


ASIMONIA. 




AS 


a 






o 










s 
o 




Albaminotd. 




1 


c 
o 

u 
















ca 


u 

.a 

'A 


o 




■3 

s 
H 


1 

•a 


c 
o 


5 
o 


o 

.J 


1 


2 


•c 

>■ 
1 o 

5 


•a 

•3 

1 c 
So. 
m 


c 


1 
^ 


CO 


a 
5 


c 

■2 

a 

n 




1894. 






























12145 


May. 2 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.75 


3.20 


1.65 


.0018!. 0200 


.0178 


.0022 


.29 


.0000 


.0000 


.7280 


0.5 



Odor, distinctly aromatic, becoming vegetable on heating. The sample was collected from the 

basin near the pumping station. This basin is formed by a dam across the river a short distance below 
the wells. 

Microscopical Examiyiation. 

Diatomacerc, Cocconcma, 2; Epitltemia,2\ ifelosira, 5; Meridion, 1; Synedra, 72; Tahellaria.l. 
A\%v, l!apliidiinn,i; Scenedesmua, S. Vangi, Crcnol/irix, 5. Infnaona, Peridiniiim, 1. Total, 97. 



Water Supply of Millis. — Millis Water Company. 

The works of the Millis Water Company were purchased by the 
town of Millis in 1894, but the town did not take possession until 
Jan. 1, 1895. 

Cheviical Examination of Water from the Aqua Rex Spring, Alillis. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





S 
o 


Appkabanxe. 




Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


■d 
1 

9 








>. 


^ 






■d 








u 

a 

a 




3 


a 

-5 


o 


1« 




o 
, c 

5s 


c 
o 




ao 


1^ 


B 
■3 


a 
g 


^ 


a 


H 


CO 


o 


» 


b 


< 


O 


^ 


Se; 


o 


R 






1804. 


























12826 


Aug. 27 


Sligbt. 


Slight, 
green. 


0.07 


7.00 


.0016 


.0036 


.42 


.1260 


.0001 


.0000 


2.1 


.0060 





Odor, none. The sample was collected from the spring. 



Microscopical Examination. 

Diatomaceee, Xaoicuhi, 1. Infusoria, C/ilamydoinonas, 180. Total, 181. 



242 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



MTLTOX. 

Water Supply of Milton. — Milton Water Company. 

The water suppli,ed by this company to the town is purchased 
from the Hyde Park Water Company. Analyses of the water may 
be found on pages 182-184. 

The reply of the State Board of Health to an application of the 
Milton Water Company, relative to taking water from the ground in 
the vicinity of Pine Tree Brook in Milton, may be found on pages 
27-29 of tiiis volume. 

Analyses of samples of water collected in connection with the 
investigation of the proposed source of supply are given below and 
on page 225 of the annual report of the Board for 1893. 

The rei)lies of the State Board of Health to the school committee 
of Hyde Park and to the Hyde Park Water Company, relative to 
the water supply of Hyde Park and Milton, may be found on pages 
21-24 of this volume. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Tubular Test Wells in the Valley of Pine 

Tree Brook, Milton. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 



















NlTROQKN 












Appkabance. 




o 


Ammonia. 




AS 


a 
























c 

a 

s 


ate of 
CoUe 


1 


a 
5 


1^ 


a o, 

3 05 




■a 
o 


(U 

a 
o 


a 


•c 


B 
B O 


00 

a 
■o 
a 


a 

2 


!25 


« 


H 


CO 


O 


» 


Cu 


■< 


O 


'A 


•je-f 


o 


M 


l-H 




1804. 


























12098 


April 21 


None. 


V. slight, 
sandy. 
Slight, 


0.0 


4.30 


.0012 


.0010 


.48 


.1100 


.0000 


.0237 


1.7 


.0020 


12090 


April 21 


None. 


0.0 


4.50 


.0000 


.0008 


.51 


.1100 


.0000 


.0118 


1.7 


.0050 








sandy. 























Odor of the first siirnple, none; of Iho Hocoiid, (Jistinct. Tlie lirst sample was collected from a 

tubular well near I'ine Tree Brook on the eanterly wide of llarlatul Street, and about 700 feet south of 
Canton Avenue, Milton; the second sample was collortcd from u tCHt well ou the westerly side of Pine 
Tree lirook, in Safford's Meadow, on the easterly side of llarland Street. 



Microscopical Examination, 



No organisms. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 243 

MONSON. 

Water Supply of Monson. 
The advice of the State Board of Health to the town of Monson, 
relative to taking a public water supply from the water-shed of 
Conant Brook in Monson, may be found on pages 29 and 30 of this 
volume. Analyses of samples of water from Conant and Ingalls 
brooks and from a test well near their junction are given l)clow. 



Chemical Examination of Water /rorn Conant and Ingalls Brooks, Monson. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 







.s 

a 

a 


Appkaiiance. 


Kesidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 



.12 


Nitrogen 
as 


a 

a 

OD 

c 




1 








1 


c 
1 


c 





1 


c 

r 




Albuminoid. 1 


1 


5 
% 




.0 

S 

s 
SB 


Total. 

Dis- 
solved. 


i 

•a 

3 s. 

00 


i 

c 

■s 

e 
03 


11868 


1H94. 

Mar. 8 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.35 


2.40 


0.95 


.0006 


.0108 .0090 


.0018 


.0030 .0000 


.4184 


0.2 


11914 


Mar 17 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.25 


2.45 


0.95 


.0004 .0100 


.0050 .0050 


.11 


.0030 .0000 


.3081 


0.3 


11915 


Mar. 17 


V. Blight. 


Cons., 
earthy. 


0.15 


2.25 


0.60 


.0000 


.0088 


.0054 .0034 


.12 


.0070 


.0000 


.2315 


0.6 



Odor of the first two samples, distinctly vegetable; of the last, none. The first sample was col- 
lected from Conant Brooli, just below its junction with Ingalls Brook; the second and third from the 
north and south branches of Ingalls Brook respectively, just above their junction. 

Microscopical Examination. 

The total number of organisms per cubic centimeter found in each of these samples was as follows : 
No. 11868, 3; No. 11914, 26; No 11915, 7. 

Chemical Examinatioii of Water from a 7'est Well near the Junction of Conant and 

Ingalls Brooks, Monson. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 






Appbaramck. 




c 



Ammonia. 


_. 


N1TROOR8 

AS 


i. 

B 

















- a 
































































a 















•0 














1 

s 

s 




■3 
3 




1 
■3 


u 






«! 

Z 



, c 


c 


1 


1 


§5 


c 

I 


i 


!?5 


« 


H 




60 


8 


« 


t^ 


■< 





581 


^ 





ca 


•- 




1894. 




























11869 


March 8 


None. 




Cons., 


0.00 


3.05 


.0000 


.0000 


.10 


.0000 


.0000 


.0216 


0.6 


.0270 






; 


sandy. 

1 
















I 







Odor, none. The sample was collected from a 24-lnch test well, 500 feet above the Junction of 

Conant and logalla brooks. 



Fungi, Crenothrix, 4. 



Microscopical Examination. 



244 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



montague. 

Water Supply of Turner's Falls Fire District. — Montague. 

Chemical Examination of Water from, Lake Pleasant, Montague. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





S 

o 
o 

9 

Q 


Appearanxe. 


Residue on 

EVAPOBA- 
TION. 


Ammonia. 


c 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•6 

a 

a 

c 
o 
u 

1 

o 






2 
B 

3 


1 

•a 


o 


"3 
1 


c 

O 2 


£ 


Albuminoid. 


1 
1 


2 

s 




c 

A 

» 




> 

5" 


5^ 


c 
■a 




1894. 




























11610 


Jan. 8 


V. Blight. 


Slight, 
fibrous. 


0.10 


2.05 


0.60 


.0030 


.0104 


.0076 


.0028 


.12 


.0050 


.0000 


.0858 


0.5 


11719 


Feb. 6 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.05 


1.95 


0.65 


.0028 


.0126 


.0098 


.0028 


.11 


.0030 


.0000 


.1600 


0.3 


11847 


Mar. 6 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.05 


1.85 


0.50 


.0052 


.0092 


.0080 


.0012 


.09 


.0050 


.0000 


.1560 


0.3 


11997 


Apr. 4 


V. slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.03 


2.20 


0.70 


.0064 


.0102 


.0072 


.0030 


.10 


.0030 


.0001 


.0885 


0.3 


12166 


May 7 


V.|!light. 


V. Blight. 


0.03 


2.15 


0.95 


.0000 


.0088 


.0070 


.0018 


.12 


.0030 


.0000 


.1279 


0.3 


12307 


June 4 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.02 


2.25 


0.95 


.0004 


.0098 


.0086 


.0012 


.13 


.0030 


.0000 


.0847 


0.3 


12496 


July 9 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.02 


2.30 


0.65 


.0000 


.0126 


.0084 


.0042 


.13 


.0000 


.0000 


.0986 


0.8 


12678 


Aug. 7 


V. Blight. 


Slight, 
fibrous. 


0.02 


2.25 


0.75 


.0006 


.0090 


.0068 


.0022 


.10 


.0000 


.0001 


.0770 


0.5 


12909 


Sept.lO 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.01 


2.15 


0.35 


.0000 


.0072 


.0060 


.0012 


.11 


.0020 


.0000 


.0770 


0.5 


13070 


Oct. 2 


V. Blight. 


V Blight. 


0.02 


2.35 


0.85 


.0000 


.0058 


.0046 


.0012 


.14 


.0000 


.0000 


.1185 


0.3 


13258 


Nov. 5 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.08 


2.05 


0.40 


.0018 


.0100 


.0080 


.0020 


.14 


.0030 


.0001 


.1116 


0.5 


13433 


Dec. 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.03 


2.05 


0.75 


.0058 
.0022 


.0102 
.0097 


.0086 
.0076 


.0016 


.11 

.12 


.0030 
.0025 


.0000 
.0000 


.1001 
.1071 


0.5 


Av. 








0.04 


2.13 


0.68 


.0021 


4 













Averages by Years. 



1887* 


- 




0.03 


1 

1 2.74 


0.81 


.0018 


.0116 


- 


- 


.10 


.0007 


- 


- 


1888 


- 


- 


0.00 


2.33 


0.49 


.0027 


.0071 


- 


- 


.09 


.0085 


.0000 


- 


1889t 


- 


- 


0.01 


2.19 


0.40 


.0008 


.0083 


.0052 


.0011 


.09 


.0088 


.0000 


- 


1893 


- 




0.04 


2.28 


0.68 


.0023 


.0115 


.0083 


.0032 


.12 


.0046 


.0000 


.1137 


1894 


- 




0.04 


1 2.13 

1 


0.68 


.0022 


.0097 


.0076 


.0021 


.12 


.0025 


.0000 


.1071 



0.8 
0.4 



• June to December. 



t January to Juno. 



Note to aniilyHOH of 1894: Odor, generally vegetable or unplonsnnt, Hornollinos none, generally 
becoming somewhat stronger on heating. The samplcH wore collected from faucets in the town. 



No. 84.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 245 



MONTAGTJE. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Lake Pleasant, Montague. 

[Number of orgnnisrag per cubic centimeter.] 



1894. 



Feb. 



Mar. 



Apr. 



May. 



July. 



Aug. Sept. Oct. 



Day of examination, 
Namber of sample, 



11610 



7 
11719 



11847 



5 
11997 



8 
12166 



6 
1230; 



10 
12496 



8 12 3 
1267812909113070 



PLANTS. 
Diatomaceae, 



Cyclotella, 

Frugiliiria, 

Melo8ira, 

Synedra, 

Tabellaria, 



Cyanophycese, Anabtenn spores, 



Alg89, 



Protococcus, 
Kaphidiura, 
Tetraspora, 



44 



68 



13258 



13433 



47 



ANIMALS. 



Infusoria, 



Dinobryon cases, 
Peridinlum, . 



pr. 



Miscellaneous, Zobglcea, 



140 



100 2 



Total, 



102 171 542 



105 4 49 17 14 



Water Supply of Nahant. 
(See Swampscott.) 



Water Supply of Nantucket. — Wannacomet Water Com- 
pany. 
By reference to the table of averages by years on the following 
page, great fluctuations in the amount of albuminoid ammonia in the 
water in different years will be noticed. The larger amounts have 
been due to the presence in the water of abundant growths of the 
organism Anabcuna, which is sometimes present in great numbers 
from midsummer until October. During 1894 the water remained 
of satisfactory quality throughout the year, and in the microscopical 
examinations of samples collected for analysis no Anabcena were 
found. 



246 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



NANTUCKET. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Wannacomet Pond, Nantucket. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 




Averages by Years, 



_ 


1887t 


- 


- 


0.08 


6.72 


1.20 


.0002 


.0175 


- 


- 


{2.20 


.0020 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1888t 


- 


- 


0.05 


5.98 


0.98 


.0002 


.0153 


- 


- 


2.11 


.0048 


.0002 


- 


- 


- 


1889§ 


- 


- 


0.10 


- 


- 


.0031 


.0416 


.0269 


.0147 


1.99 


.0035 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


189011 


- 


- 


0.00 


- 


- 


.0006 


.0188 


.0127 


.0061 


1.95 


.0025 


.0000 


- 


- 


_ 


18911T 


- 


- 


0.22 


7.54 


2.33 


.0112 


.0588 


.0317 


.0271 


1.86 


.0076 


.0001 


- 


1.4 


- 


1892** 


- 


- 


0.03 


6.84 


1.08 


.0004 


.0136 


.0111 


.0025 


2.22 


.0033 


.0000 


- 


1.0 


_ 


1893ir 


- 


- 


0.22 


7.00 


2.02 


.0013 


.0469 


.0208 


.0201 


2.08 


.0025 


.0000 


.2167 


i.a 


- 


1894tt 


- 


- 


0.05 


6.74 


1.65 


.0015 


.0131 


.0108 


.0023 


2.30 


.0000 


.0000 


.1227 


1.6 



* Where more than one sample was collected In a month, the mean analyels for that month has been 
UBcd in making the average. 

t July to November. J February to May. § September to November. 

II March and April. II August to December. ** May to October. 

\\ .June to December. 



Note to analyses of 1894: Odor, goncrully vegetable or disagreeable, sometimes none.- 
•amples were collected from the pond. 



■ The 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 247 

NA^VTUCKET. 

Microscopical Examination oj Water from Wannacomet Pond, Nantucket. 

[Namber of organisiiiB per cubic centimeter.] 











1894. 










June. 


July. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examinatioD, 


19 


11 


31 


9 


8 


• 5 


8 


7 


Number of sample 


12377 


12500 


12623 


12680 


12900 


13085 


13271 


13451 


PLANTS. 


















DiatomacesB 


1 








59 


2 


4 


34 


5 


Cyclotella, 

Synedra, 


1 











3 

56 



2 



4 



34 



5 


Alg88 








80 


4 











10 


Chlorococciis 

Protococcus 











80 



4 
















10 


ANIMALS. 


















Infusoria 


561 


255 


200 


105 


2 


1 


152 


109 


Ceratlum 

Dinobryon 

DlDobryoD caBes, 

Peridinium 

Tintinnidium, .... 
Vorticella 





560 


1 



3 
2 
250 







200 





1 
2 
100 
■2 




1 






1 






1 






7 
144 
1 





5 
104 





Vermes 


2 


pr. 








3 


2 


pr. 


2 


Anurea 

Polyarthra, .... 
Rotifer 


2 






pr. 














2 

1 




2 


pr. 


1 



1 


Miscellaneous 





38 


16 


64 





24 








Acarlna 

Zooglcea 






.03 
38 



16 



84 






.02 
24 


.01 







Total, 


664 


293 


296 


248 


7 


81 


186 


126 



248 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

NATICK. 

Water Supply of Natick. 
Chemical Examination of Water from Dug Pond, Natick. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 
o 

o 

o 

2 

a 

O 


Appeakaxce. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 

o 

!c 
U 

.78 
.75 
.81 
.81 
.82 
.77 
.83 
.84 

.80 


Nitrogen 

AS 


s 

a 

B 

8 

c 
to 

B 






^ 2 
IB 


1 


i 

o 
O 




u 

Cm 


Albuminoid. 


1 


1 




o 

a 


3 

o 


o 
o 

1-^ 




> 


•3 
1 C 

a o. 
00 


c 

•s 

n 


11579 
11698 
11833 
11970 
12139 
12466 
12883 
13275 


1894. 

Jan. 1 

Feh. 1 
Mar. 1 
Apr. 2 
May 1 
July 2 
S.ept. 4 
Nov. 5 


Slight. 

V. Blight. 

V. slight. 

Slight. 

Slight. 

Distinct. 

Slight. 

Distinct. 


Cons. 

Slight, 
white. 

Slight, 

white. 
Slight. 

Cons., 

white. 
Slight. 

Slight. 

Slight. 


0.10 
0.02 
0.08 
0.18 
0.08 
0.10 
0.10 
0.10 


5.15 
5.25 
5.70 
5.55 
5.65 
6.55 
6.00 
5.25 


1.05 
1.55 
1.55 
1.10 
2.15 
2.60 
1.70 
1.50 


.0070 
.0156 
.0058 
.0026 
.0006 
.0010 
.0012 
.0142 


.0152 
.0136 
.0118 
.0124 
.0156 
.0184 
.0206 
.0164 


.0138 
.0114 
.0090 
.0106 
.0128 
.0160 
.0178 
.0144 

.0132 


.0014 
.0022 
.0028 
.0018 
.0028 
.0024 
.0028 
.0020 


.0170 
.0150 
.0370 
.0300 
.0470 
.0230 
.0020 
.0030 

.0218 


.0000 
.0003 
.0001 
.0002 
.0004 
.0001 
.0000 
.0000 


.2168 
.1999 
.2400 
.1910 
.2240 
.2156 
.1848 
.2271 


2.3 
2.1 

2.6 
2.2 
2.2 
2.5 
2.2 
2.3 


Av. 








0.10 


5.64 


1.65 


.0080 .01.5.'; 


.0023 


.0001 


.2124 


?..3 






" "1 









Averages by Years. 



- 


1887* 


- 


- 


0.14 


5.25 


1.21 


.0039 


.0215 


- 


- 


'.70 


.0050 


- 




- 


- 


1888 


- 


- 


0.18 


5.24 


1.09 


.0070 


.0228 


- 


- 


.68 


.0197 


.0003 


- 


- 


- 


1889 


- 


- 


0.16 


5.51 


1.22 


.0044 


.0242 


.0196 


.0046 


.71 


.0289 


.0004 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.14 


5.85 


1.36 


.0027 


.0199 


.0166 


.0033 


.72 


.0227 


.0002 


- 


2.7 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.09 


5.71 


1.45 


.0085 


.0207 


.0167 


.0040 


.69 


.0326 


.0003 


- 


2.4 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.06 


5.38 


1.24 


.0068 


.0173 


.0135 


.0038 


.72 


.0323 


.0001 


- 


2.4 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.08 


5.28 


1.39 


.0062 


.0192 


.0158 


.0034 


.71 


.0193 


.0003 


.2346 


2.1 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.10 


5.64 


1.65 


.0060 


.0155 


.0132 


.0023 


.80 


.0218 


.0001 


.2124 


2.3 



* June to December. 

NOTR to analyHCH of 1894 : Odor, generally vegetable, HomctimcH also vegetiiblo or dlHagrcouble. 
-The samples were collected from a faucet at the pumping station. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 249 

NATICK. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Dug Pond, Natick. 

[Number of organiems per cubic centimeter.] 











1894. 










Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


Jlay. 


July. 


Sept. 


Nov. 


Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 


2 
11579 


2 
11698 


3 
11833 


3 
11970 


3 
12139 


3 
12466 


6 
12883 


8 
13275 


PLAN' 
Dlatomacese, 

Asterionella, 
Cyclotella, 
MeloBira, . 
Synedra, . 
Tabellaria, 

Cyanophycese, 

Algee, . 

ChlorococcuB, 
Protococcus, 
Scenedesmus, 
Staurogcnia, 

Fungi, Crenothrij 


rs. 

Mici 


ocye 


tis, . 


138 

8 

82 
18 
20 
10 



2 


2 



pr. 


29 



14 

14 

1 















28 

2 
13 

■s 




pr. 




^% 
pr. 


376 

6 

54 

280 

6 
30 










.1 


955 

19 
100 
640 
120 

76 



42 



33 

1 

8 




67 

4 

13 
27 
15 

8 

56 

214 

212 

2 





112 



92 

19 

1 















491 

13 

12 

464 

1 

1 



12 



8 
4 

° 
3 


ANIMALS. 
Bhizopoda, Euglypha, . 

Infusoria 

Dinobryon caees, 

Peridinium 

Traohelomonae, 

Crustacean remains, 




1 
1 

















1 




1 






pr. 





pr. 

.04 


5 

5 



.01 















3 


1 






8 

7 
1 





Mitcellaneous, Zooglcea, 





1 





IB 


56 28 


60 





Total 


141 


so 


29 


393 


1,059 


365 


175 


514 



Table showing Heights oj Water in Dug Pond on the First of Each Month in 1894. 
Note. — High-water mark is 13.0 feet. 



Jan. 1, 
Feb. 1, 
March 1, 
April 1, 
May 1, 
June 1, 



Height of 
Water. 



Feet. 
9.33 
10.08 
11.46 
13.12 
13.17 
12.33 



July 1 
Aug. 1 
Sept. 1 
Oct. 1 
Nov. 1 
Dec. 1 



Height of 
Water. 



Feet. 
11.17 

9.75 
S.25 
7.46 
7.17 
8.67 



250 



JTEEDHLAJVI. 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



Water Supply of Needham. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Well of the Needham Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 
O 

^ O 

» 

OS 

a 


Appearancb. 


c 

= 1 
o o 

0) ^ 

il 


Ammonia. 


.1 

O 

6 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•a 

a 

a 

ga 

& 
O 


a 
•o 

93 




u 

s 

s 
S5 


2 

a 
s 
H 


c 
o 
S 
•3 


o 

a 


v. 


!2 
"S 

< 


1 

2 


1 
'u 

>? 


S 




i8n4. 


























11948 


Mar. 27 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


5.65 


.0034 


.0008 


.77 


.1950 


.0000 


.0164 


1.8 


.0000 


12609 


July 25 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


5.10 


.0000 


.0000 


.60 


.1100 


.0000 


.0000 


1.4 


.0030 


13380 


Nov. 26 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


4.80 


.0006 


.0008 


.60 


.1050 


.0000 


.0287 


1.8 


.0030 


Av. 








0.01 


5.18 


.0013 


.0005 


.66 


.1367 


.0000 


.0147 


1.7 


.0020 













Averages by Years. 



1891* 


- 


- 


0.00 


6.10 


.0022 


.0022 


.72 


.1500 


.0000 


- 


1.7 


18921 


- 


- 


0.00 


6.12 


.0000 


.0001 


.65 


.1400 


.0000 


- 


2.1 


1893 


- 


- 


0.00 


5.28 


.0000 


.0007 


.63 


,1230 


.0000 


.0622 


1.9 


1894 


- 


- 


0.01 


6.18 


.0013 


.0005 


.66 


.1367 


.0000 


.0147 


1.7 



* November. 



t July ahd August. 



0072 
.0000 
.0020 



Note to analysefl of 1894 : Odor, of the second sample, faintly vegetable, disappearing on heating; 
of the other samples, none. The samples were collected from faucets In the town. 



Microscopical Examination. 



No organisms. 



Water Supply of New Bedford . 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the city of New Bed- 
ford relative to takinf^ an additional water .supply from the great 
ponds in Lakeville may be found on pages 30-34 of this volume. 
Analyses of samples of water from Little Quittacas, Great Quitta- 
cas and Long ponds are given on pages 252-25(1. For analyses of 
samples of water from Assawompsott and Elder's ponds, which are 
now used as sources of water supply ))y Taunton, sec Taunton. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF AVATER SUPPLIES. 



251 



NEW BEDFORD. 

CJiemical Examinaiion of Water from the Conduit of the New Bedford Water 

Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 
o 

1 

o 
e 
« 

a 


Apfbarancb. 


Residoe on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


AUHOKIA. 


1 

6 

.62 


NiTBOOBN 
A8 


■6 

a 

3 

1 

a 

s 






•3 

9 


a 


o 

8 


S 
o 

5.85 


a 
o 

c — 
o = 

o I* 

00 "^ 

O 
>-i 


^ 


Albuminoid. 


m 

1 
^ 


00 




i 


2 

o 


> 


■a 
m - 
5^ 


•5 

a 
3 


11675 


Jan. 24 


V. Slight. 


V. Blight. 


1.45 


2.50 


.0012 


.0152 


.0144 


.0008 


.0070 


.0000 


1.2877 


1.4 


11806 


Feb. 26 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.40 


5.30 


2.25 


.OOOOJ.0196 


.0178 


.0018 


.47 


.0050 


.0000 


1.1960 


1.3 


11955 


Mar. 27 


V. slight. 


Cons. 


1.00 


4.05 


1.45 


.0016 .0158 


.0146 


.0012 


.45 


.0100 


.0000 


.8200 


0.9 


12088 


Apr.23 


Slight. 


Cons., 

rusty. 
Cons., 
brown. 

Slight. 


1.50 


4.25 


2.00 


.0012 .0160 


.0128 


.0032 


.49 


.0120 


.0000 


.9930 


0.8 


12265 
12448 


May 21 
June 28 


V. slight. 
V. slight. 


1.40 
1.70 


4.30 
5.05 


2.25 
2.65 


.0008 
.0002 


.0184 
.0202 


.0160 
.0186 


.0024 
.0016 


.48 
.49 


.0000 
.0030 


.0000 
.0000 


.9360 
1.2081 


0.9 
0.9 


12598 
12784 


July 24 
Aug. 20 


None. 
V. slight. 


Cons., 

brown. 
Slight. 


1.40 
0.85 


4.80 
3.95 


2.65 
1.50 


.0000 
.0000 


.0230 
.0194 


.0218 
.0174 


.0012 
.0020 


.52 
.48 


.0040 
.0000 


.0000 
.0001 


1.1073 
.4774 


0.9 
0.8 


13031 


Sept. 25 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.50 


3.45 


1.45 


.0000 


.0160 


.0152 


.0008 


.50 


.0060 


.0000! 


.4427 


0.5 


13187 


Oct. 23 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.45 


3.75 


1.40 


.0000 .0178 


.0170 


.0008 


.56 


.0030 


.0000 


.4479 


0.9 


13381 


N'ov.27 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


1.40 


6.60 


3.15 


.0036 .026i 


.0248 


.0016 


.66 


.0110 


.0000 


1.6646 


1.7 


13648 


Dec. 26 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


1.50 


6.80 


2.95 


.0060 
.0012 


.0254 
.0194 


.0232 
.0178 


.0022 
.0016 


.64 
.53 


.0080 
.0058 


.0000 

.ooooj 


1.2782 


0.8 


Av. 








1.21 


4.80 


2.18 


.9882 


1 













Averages by Years. 



1887* 




- 


1.37 


5.16 


1.95 


.0021 


.0296 


- 


- 1 


.56 


.0137 


- 


- 


1888 


1 


- 


1.48 


5.19 


2.32 


.0014 


.0254 


- 


1 


.53 


.0183 


.0001 


- 


1889 




- 


1.51 


3.96 


1.74 


.0014 


.0241 


.0206 


.0035 


.50 


.0103 


.0001 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


1.48 


5.01 


2.41 


.0013 


.0232 


.0195 


.0037J 


.45 


.0126 


.0001 


- 


1801 


- 


- 


0.95 


3.90 


1.81 


.0005 


.0197 


.0171 


.0026 


.42 


.0103 


.0000 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


1.10 


4.87 


2.24 


.0008 


.0227 


.0194 


.0033 


.52 


.0108 


.0001 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


1.35 


5.05 


2.36 


.0022 


.0224 


.0189 


.0035 


.51 


.0061 


.0001 


1.0440 


1894 


- 


- 


1.21 


4.80 


2.18 


.0012 


.0194 


.0178 


.0016 


.63 


.0058 


.0000 


.9882 



1.2 
0.8 
1.0 
1.0 
11.0 



* June to December. 



Note to analyses of 1894: Odor, generally distinctly vegetable, eonietlnies also mouldy or unpleas- 
ant. The samples were collected from the conduit at its entniiico to the receiving reservoir, and 

represent water from the storage reservoir. Water from T.illlo (^iiitliica« I'oiiil was drnwii into the 
storage reservoir from June 22 to August 14, inclusive, and from August IS to Siptember 'Jo, inclusive. 



252 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



NE^T BEDFORD. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Conduit of the New Bedford Water 

Works. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


July! 


July 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. Dec. 


Day of examination 


25 


27 


30 


24 


23 


2 


25 


22 


27 


24 1 


28 27 


Number of sample, .... 


11675 


11806 


11955 


1208812265124481 


1259S 


127S4[1303l|l3187 


13381 13548 


PLANTS. 


























Diatomaceae, Synedra, 


2 





pr. 


36 


10 


1 


2 








1. 


4 





Cyanophycese 

















8 


448 


14 





8 








Merismopedia 

Microcystis, ..... 






















8 



448 



14 









8 










Algee 

















29 


4 


72 





8 








Cblorococcus, .... 
Protococcus, 






















29 



4 





72 






8 











Fungi, Cronothrix 


pr. 





1 


84 


1 


15 


18 


9 


4 


7 


4 





ANIMALS. 


























Infusoria, 


21 


12 


3 





1 











3 











Dinohryon, 

Dinobryon cases, . . . 
Glenodinium, .... 

Peridinium 

TrachelomoDas 


5 
14 

2 



5 

7 


^^6 




1 

2 













1 































3 























ifiscellaneoua, Zo'ogloja, 


30 


8 


42 


440 


84 


15 


28 


84 


15 


16 


128 





Total, 


53 


j 20 


46 


560 


1 96 


68 


500 


179 


22 


40 


136 


■ 



Chemical Examination of Water jrom Little Quittacas Pond, Lakeville. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





8 

a 

o 

s 

13 
a 


Appeabakce. 


Kbsidub cm 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


s 

■c 



.45 

.48 

.60 
.49 

.48 


NiTBOQBN 
AS 


1 

s 

c 



g 






1? 

1 

Eh 


a 


c 

o 

3 




B 
O 

3" 




Albuminoid. | 


a; 


i 




u 

s 
a 

a 


■3 


> 

5" 


■6 
■0 

s. 


1 


11967 
12446 

13029 
13547 


1894. 

Mar. 27 
June 28 

Bept.2& 
Dec. 26 


' SliKht. 
Distinct. 

|v. slight. 
V.Hllght. 


Blight. 
Slight, 

groen. 
Cons. 
V. Blight. 


0.12 
0.20 

0.18 
0.20 


2.75 
3.05 

2.95 
2.90 

2.01 


0.80 
1.05 

1.00 
0.95 

0.95 


.0000 
.0002 

.0004 
.0000 


.0152 
.0186 

.0158 
.0160 


.0118 
.0108 

.0120 
.0142 

.0137 


.0034 
.0018 

.0038 
.0024 


.0030 
.0000 

.0000 

I.OOOI) 

|.0008 


.0000 
.0000 

.0000 
.0000 

.0000 


.3405 
!.342(i 

.2787 
.2018 


0.8 
0.0 

0.5 
0.8 


Av. 


!| 




0.18 


.0002 


.0165 


.0028 


|.3074 


7 


I| 







Averages by Years. 



_ 


1887* 


_ 


_ 


0.23 


! 2.92 


1.16 


.0003 .0140 


_ 


.51 


.0035 


_ 




_ 


_ 


1888t 


_ 


- 


0.15 


3.00 


1.15 


.0003 .0171 


- 


.48 


.0035 


.0001 


- 


- 


_ 


1893 


_ 


- 


0.11 


3.02 


1.23 


.0015. 0156 


.0128 .0028 


.48 


.0025 


.0000 


.2904 


O.B 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.18 


1 2.01 


0.95 


.0002;. 0165 


.0137 .0028 


.48 


.0008 


.0000 


.3074 


0.7 



• June and September. 

Note to unaly«og of 1894: Odor, vegetable. - 
800 fbut from the southerly shore. 



t January and May. 
The samples were collected from the pond, about 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



253 



NEW BEDFORD. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Little Quittacas Pond, Lakeville. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



July. 



Sept 



Day of examinatloD, 
Number of eample, 



30 
11957 



2 
12446 



27 
13547 



PLANTS. 



Diatomaceee, 



Asterionclla, 
Cyclotella, 
Fragilaria, . 
Synedra, . 
Tabellaria, 



CyanophyceEB, Anabaena, 



Algee, 



Chlorococcus, 

I'l'OtOCOCCUB, 



144 

80 

26 

2 

30 



433 

428 


5 

pr. 



26 



ANIMALS. 



Infusoria, 



Dinobryon cases, 

Perldiniuni, 

Trachelonionas, 



Crustacea, Cyclops, 



68 



pr. 



22 


22 
pr. 



Miscellaneous, 



Acarina, 
Zooglcca, 



24 



Total, 



Table showing Heights of Water in Acushncl Reservoir and Little Quittacas Pond 
on Dates tvhen Samples of Water were collected Jor Analysis. 





Acushnet 


Little Quit- 




Acushnet 


Little Quit- 




Reservoir. 


tacas I'oiid. 




Reservoir. 


tacas Pond. 


18U1. 


Distance be- 


Distance be- 


1894. 


Distance bo - 


Distance be- 




low High- 


low IllKh- 




low High- 


low HJKh- 




water Slark. 


water Mark. 




water Mark. 


watcrMark. 




Feet. 


Feet. 




Feet. 


Feet. 


.Tan. 24 


0.08 


1.42 


July 24, . 


0.75 


2.33 


I<'ob. 26 


0.00 


0.75 


Aug. 20 


1.00 


3.67 


March 27 


0.00 


0.83 


Sept. 2.5, .... 


0.50 


5.50 


April 23, .... 


0.00 


0.83 


Oct. 23 


0.75 


5.00 


May 21 


0.25 


1.33 


Nov. 27 


0.17 


3.67 


June 28 


0.50 


1.50 


Dec. 26 


0.00 


0.58 



254 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



XE\r BEDFORD. 

Chemical Examination of Water from G-reat Quittacas Pond, Lakcville. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 
_o 

o 

1 

o 
2 

d 
O 


Appeakanck. 


Rbsidce on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Amuokia. 


i 

_o 

.47 
.49 
.54 

.50 
.43 


NiTROGBK 

AS 


i 

B 

3 

c 
o 

c 

o 






■o 

€ 

3 
Eh 


i 

w 


c 

o 

6 


"3 
o 


i 
§1 

CD 

5 


£ 


Albamlnoid. | 


03 

1 


5 

S 




o 

1 


1 


1 o 

5 


•6 

•a 
1 c 

s o. 
CO 


00 

c 
•a 

« 


11956 
12447 
13028 


1894. 

Mar. 27 

JnDe28 
Sfipt.25 


V. Blight. 
' Slight, 
'v. Blight. 


V. slight. 
V. Blight. 
V. slight. 


0.50 
0.67 
0.30 


3.20 
3.85 
2.85 


1.15 
2.00 
0.90 


.0000 
.0000 
.0006 


.0166 
.0172 
.0124 


.0154 
.0156 
.0108 

.0139 
.0144 


.0012 
.0016 
.0016 


.0030 
.0000 
.0020 

.0017 
.0018 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.5082 
.6006 
.4004 


0.5 
0.6 
0.6 


Av. 


1894 
1893* 






0.49 
0.85 


3.30 
3.65 


1.35 
1.92 


.0002 
.0000 


.0154 
.0166 


.0015 
.0022 


.0000 
.0000 


.5031 
.7812 


0.6 


Av. 






0.3 















* Five Bamples, July to September. 

Odor, vegetable, of the second sample not as strong as of the other two. 
collected from the pond, 600 to 1,000 feet from the southwesterly shore. 



• The samples were 



Microscopical Examination of Water from Great Quittacas Pond, Lakeville. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



1894. 



March. July. September. 



Day of ezaminatioD, . . . . 
Number of sample 

PLANTS. 
DiatomacesB, . . . . 

Asterlonella 

Cyclotella 

Synedra 

CyanophycesB 

ChroococcuH 

Microcystis, . . . . 

Algee, Chlorococcua, 

Fungrl. Crenothrlx, 

ANIMALS, 
Infusoria 

DlnobryoD casBH, 

Perldlnium, 

VermeSi Monocerca, 
MUcellaneou»,Zo'6g\<jiA, . 

TOTAI>, 



30 
11956 



2 
12447 



26 
13028 



136 

102 

4 

30 



37 



85 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



255 



NEW BEDFORD. 

Chemical Examination of WaXer from, Long Pond, Lakeville. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 
o 

I 

o 


Appearance. 


Rksidue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


AUHONIA. 


o 
O 

.44 


NiTROOBN 
AS 


a 

3 

C 
O 

O 

1 






•3 


S 

a 

■3 

OQ 


c 

o 
o 


3 

o 
H 


s 
o 

11 


1 


Albuminoid. 




<0 

X 


OB 


u 

a 

a 




> 
a 


•a 


m 


11958 


1894. 

Mar. 27 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


1.05 


4.00 


1.75 


.0006 


.0166 


.0150 


.0016 


.0030 


.0000 


1.0010 


0.6 


12445 Apr. 28 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


1.20 


4.10 


2.30 


.0000 


.0178 .0160 


.0018 


.45 


.ooooj.oooo 


.9425 


0.3 


13030 eept.25 


V. Blight 


Slight. 


0.55 


2.90 


1.40 


.0000 


.0154 .0138 


.0016 


.46 


.0020'. 0000 


.5221 


0.5 


13546 Dec. 26 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


1.20 


4.20 


2.30 


.0000 
.0002 


.0232 .0200 


.0032 
.0021 


.52 

.47 


.0000 
.0013 


.0000 
.0000 


1.1442 


0.5 


Av. 








1.00 


3.80 


1.94 


.0183 


.0162 


.9026 


0.5 













Averages by Tears. 



- 


1891* 


- 


- 


0.55 


3.15 


1.62 


.0000 


.0130 


'.0114 


.0016 


.49 


.0020 


.0000 


1 
- 0.3 

1 


- 


1893t 


- 


- 


0.85 


3.65 


1.92 


.0000 


.0166 


.0144 


.0022 


.43 ' 


.0018 


.0000 


.7812 0.3 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


1.00 


3.80 


1.94 


.0002 


.0183 


.0162 


.0021 .47 

1 1 


.0013 


.0000 


.9025 0.5 



* December, two samples. 



t July to September, five samples. 



Note to analyses of 1894: Odor, distinctly vegetable. The samples were collected from the 

middle of the easterly cove, at the southerly end of the pond, about 1,000 feet from shore. 



256 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



>T:^Y BEDFORD. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Long Pond, Lakeville. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



July. 



September. 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 

PLANTS. 
Diatomaceae, . 

Asterionella, 

Melosira, .... 

Navicula 

Synedra 

Cyanophyceee, Microcystis, 

Algae, 

Chlorococcus, . 
Protococcus, 

ANIMALS 
Infusoria 

Dinobryon cases, 

Peridinlum, 

Trachelomonas, 

Vermes, Anurea, 
Miscellaneous, Zooglcca, 
Total 



30 
11958 



2 
12445 



27 
13030 



27 
13546 



pr. 
pr. 



pr. 

pr. 

1 



22 



38 



14 

36 



Water Supply of Newburyport. — Newburyport Water 

Company. 

The reply of the State Board of Health to an application of the 
Newhuryport Water Company relative to increasing its sources of 
water supply by taking water from wells to be located upon the 
l)anks of the Artichoke River in Newburyport, may be found on 
pages .'>4 and 35 of this volume. Analyses of sam[)les of water col- 
lected from test wells in the region in which it was proposed to 
locate the wells may be found on page 259. 

The reply of the State Board of Health to an ap[)lication of the 
Mayor of Newburyport for its opinion as to the probable efficiency 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 257 

NETVBUHTPORT. 

of a filter constructed by the Newburyport Water Company for the 
filtration of water from the Merrimack River, and as to whether the 
river water thus filtered would be safe for drinking in the public 
schools or by the citizens of Newburyport, may be found on page 
34 of this volume. 



Chemical Examination of Water from a Faucet in Neioburyport, supplied jrom the 
Works of the Newburyport Water Company. 

[Parts per 100,000. 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appearakcb. 


II 


Ammonia. 


o 


NiTBOQEN 
AS 


•d 

s 

3 

00 

c 


00 

B 




a 

s 
'A 




1 

•3 

CO 


O 

5 


1 


1 

is 
< 


i 
1 


5 

2 


d 
2 


11041 
11756 
11897 
12062 
12-2-23 
12391 
12556 
12763 
12983 
13143 
13342 
13512 


1894. 

Jan. 16 

Feb. 14 
March 14 
April 17 
May 15 
June 19 
July 17 
Aug. 15 
Sept. 18 
Oct. 16 
Nov. 20 
Dec. 18 


V. slight, 

milky. 
Slight, 

milky. 
Slight, 

milky. 
Distiuct, 

milky. 
Slight. 

Slight. 

Slight. 

Slight, 
milky. 

Slight, 
milky. 

Slight, 
milky. 

V. slight. 

Slight. 


V. slight. 
None. 

Slight, 

green. 
V. slight, 

white. 
Slight. 

Slight. 

Slight. 

V. slight. 

None. 

None. 

V. slight. 

V. slight. 


0.10 
0.10 
0.15 
0.10 
0.05 
0.07 
0.12 
0.20 
0.20 
0.20 
0.12 
0.10 


6.60 
5.50 
5.20 
5.80 
5.60 
5.80 
5.70 
6.00 
7.30 
6.70 
6.00 
5.80 


.0000 
.0000 
.0006 
.0002 
.0000 
.0006 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0002 
.0000 


.0014 
.0026 
.0054 
.0052 
.0050 
.0044 
.0042 
.0048 
.0026 
.0064 
.0028 
.0014 


.44 
.44 
.36 
.52 
.42 
.47 
.50 
.44 
.48 
.48 
.51 
.46 


.0200 
.0200 
.0120 
.0120 
.0050 
.0070 
.0080 
.0050 
.0200 
.0080 
.0180 
.0250 


.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 
.0000 


.0156 
.0352 
.1320 
.1131 
.0920 
.1063 
.0847 
.1155 
.0693 
.1619 
.0796 
.0269 


2.5 
2.1 
1.7 
2.2 
2.1 
2.3 
2.5 
2.3 
2.3 
2.6 
2.5 
2.3 


.0320 
.0500 
.0430 
.0420 
.0140 
.0170 
.0340 
.0300 
.0300 
.0200 
.0350 
.0220 


Av. 








0.13 


6.00 


.0001 


.0039 


.46 


.0133 


.0000 


.0860 


2.3 


.0308 













Averages by Years. 



. 


1887-88* 


- 


- 


0.03 


5.39 


.0004 


.0032 ! 


0.45 


.0312 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.11 


8.50 


.0013 


.0048 


3.44t 


.0178 


.0000 


.1391 


2.7 


.0164 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.13 


6.00 


.0001 


.0039 1 


0.46 


.0133 


.0000 


.0860 


2.3 


.0308 



* June, 1887, to May, 1888. 

t The very high chlorine present in the water in 1893 was due to the use at times of water from the 
Merrimack River which contained a small amount of sea water. 



Note to analyses of 1894: Odor, of Nos. 12223 and 1314:?, aromatic; of Nos. 12391, 12556, faintly 
vegetable; of the other samples, none. A distinctly unpleasant oily odor was developed in No. 11897 on 
heating. The samples were collected from a faucet at No. 2 State Street. 



258 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



KE WB URTPORT. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from a Faucet in Newburyport, su2)pUed from 
the Works of the Newburyport Water Company. 

[Number of organiBms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of ezarainatioD, . 
Number of sample, 


18 
11641 


15 

11756 


15 
11897 


18 
12062 


16 
1222.3 


21 
12391 


18 
12556 


16 
12763 


20 
12983 


17 
13143 


22 
13342 


24 
13512 


PLANTS. 
Diatomaceee, 

Fragllaria, . 
Synedra, 

Alg89, Protococcus, . 


















18 

2 
16 




4 


4 




10 

3 
7 




4 

4 
pr. 

7 


















6 

3 
3 




1 



1 




6 


6 




1 


1 

1 


AiaMALS. 
Infusoria, 

DInobryon, . 
DInobryon cases, . 
Glenodinium, 
Mallomonas, . 
Peridinium, . 




















78 

14 
64 














126 

2 

106 

16 



2 


pr. 





pr. 


36 




36 





















404 


400 


4 


21 

3 

18 

I 



2 


2 





Miscellaneout, Zobgloea, . 











4 


26 


6 








7 











Total 








*96 


8 


162 


17 


36 





13 


405 


27 


4 



* Disintegrated remains of some organism were present in large nambers in this sample. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



259 



NEWBUIIYPORT. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Wells in the Valley 0/ Artichoke River, East 
of the Old Newbury Boad, Newburyport. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





Date of 

Collection. 


Appeabancb. 


e 
o 

§1 

9 >■ 


AUUONIA. 


6 

a 

1 

o 


NiTBOOBN 
AS 


1 

3 

1 


B 

■s 

09 

B 




a 


2 
2 

3 


i 


o 

5 


1 


2 
o 

is 
< 




1 

5 
5 


i 


12472 
12473 
12487 
12488 
12489 
12490 


1 
1804. 

July 5 

July 5 
July 9 
July 9 
July 9 
July 9 


Decided, 

milky. 
Decided, 

milky. 
Distinct, 

milky. 
Slight, 

milky. 
V. slight, 

milky. 
V. slight. 


Heavy, 

clay. 
Heavy, 

sandy. 
Slight, 

rusty. 
Slight, 

rusty. 
Slight, 

rusty. 
V. Blight. 


0.02 
0.03 


13.10 
5.10 

1 " 


.0012 
.0004 


.0002 
.0002 


.44 
.80 
.84 

2.10 
,41 

1.15 


.0000 
.0200 


.0000 
.0000 


.0000 
.0000 


6.4 
2.1 


.0100* 

.0060* 

(.1760 

/.1400* 

^.5400 

M700* 

1.0550 

1.0550* 

.0070 



* In each of these cases the amount of iron was determined after the water had been filtered through 
filter paper. 

Odor of the first two samples, distinctly earthy. The samples, with the exception of the last, were 

collected from tubular test wells. The last sample was collected from an old well lined with a stone 
curbing. 



Water Supply of Newton. 

The works for obtaining ground water for the supply of the city 
of Newton were extended again in 1894, the extension in this case 
being made in a direction away from the river, whereas previous 
works were nearly parallel with the river. Beginning at the upper 
end of the system already in existence, the extension is a brick con- 
duit for a distance of 90 feet, and beyond this conduit a double line 
of 24-inch drain pipe, laid with open joints, excepting at places 
where poor material, such as mud or quicksand, was encountered, 
where the joints were cemented. In places where there was a 
stratum of coarse, water-bearing gravel beneath the stratum in 
which the conduit was laid, 2^-inch wells were driven on either side 
and connected with it. The conduit is embedded in, and covered 
with screened gravel, forming a layer 2^ feet in thickness all around 
it. The total number of wells connected with the conduit is 52, 
and their average depth is about 35 feet. The total length of 
new conduit, including the brick section already mentioned, is 
3,268 feet, and as the works previously constructed had a length 
of 2,795 feet, the total length of filter-gallery or conduit is now 
7,050 feet. 



260 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



XETTTOX. 

Chemical Examination of Water from a Faucet at the Neioton Water Work^ 

Pumping Slatio7i. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 
o 

o 

Q 


Appeabancb. 


1 

2a 


Ammonia. 


1 
o 

o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


a 

3 

<3 






a 

3 

S5 


3 

3 


a 
1 

00 


o 

O 




2 
o 

1^ 


V 

S 




£ 




1894 


. 


























11779 


Feb. 


19 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


6.35 


.0000 


.0008 


.40 


.0180 


.0000 


.0304 


2.9 


.0085 


12273 


May 


22 


V. Blight. 


Cons., 


0.02 


6.85 


.0000 


.0020 


.36 


.0200 


.0000 


.0406 


3.2 


.0600 


12415 


June 


21 


None. 


rusty. 
None. 


0.05 


4.80 


.0000 


.0014 


.36 


.0150 


.0000 


.0539 


2.2 


.0j55 


12567 


July 


18 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


5.80 


.0000 


.0022 


.40 


.0190 


.0000 


.1116 


2.2 


.0100 


12754 


Aug. 


15 


Blight, 


Slight. 


0.08 


6.25 


.0004 


.0022 


.34 


.0150 


.0000 


.0485 


3.0 


.0040 


13001 


Sept. 


19 


milky. 
None. 


None. 


0.02 


6.50 


.0000 


.0030 


.42 


.0100 


.0000 


.0462 


3.3 


.0050 


13168 


Oct. 


18 


V. Blight. 


V. Blight. 


0.04 


5.90 


.0000 


.0036 


.41 


.0100 


.0000 


.0671 


2.3 


.0060 


13324 


Nov. 


19 


None. 


V. Blight. 


0.02 


6.50 


.0002 


.0026 


.47 


.0120 


.0000 


.0452 


2.9 


.0070 


13487 


Dec. 


17 


None. 


None. 


0.03 


5.00 


.0000 


.0014 


.42 


.0220 


.0000 
.0000 


.0447 


2.3 


.0030 


Av. 




1 


0.03 


5.99 


.0001 


.0021 


.40 


.0157 


.0542 


2.7 


.0110 






1 





Averages by Fears. 



1887* 

1888 

1889 

1890t 

1891t 

1802 

1893 

1894 



0.00 


4.97 


.0005 


.0070 


.38 


.0047 


- 


- 


- 


O.Ol 


4.64 


.0009 


.0111 


.35 


.0072 


.0001 


- 


- 


0.00 


3.93 


.0002 


.0001 


.30 


.0126 


.0001 


- 


" 


0.00 


- 


.0000 


.0014 


.32 


.0250 


.0001 


- 




0.00 


4.25 


.0002 


.0072 


.31 


.0250 


.0000 


- 


1.8 


0.02 


5.13 


.0006 


.0028 


.85 


.0190 


.0001 


- 


2.4 


0.03 


5.08 


.0004 


.0010 


.38 


.0104 


.0000 


.0866 


2.3 


0.03 


6.99 


.0001 


.0021 


.40 


.0157 


.0000 


.0642 


2.7 



0119 
0110 



* Jone to Decernbor. 



t February. 



NoTK to analyses of 1894 : Odor, none. The samples were collected from a faucet at the piimp- 

Idk station. 

Analyses for the years 1887 to 1890, Inclusive, represent water drawn from an open flltor-basin. In 
1890 the works for coIIccIIdk ground water were cnlarKcrl by the construction of a lon^ woodon filt-r- 
gullery, reinforced by tubular wells. A portion of tb'iH jjalkiry, 732 feet In IctiKtli, replaced an ('(jiial 
portion of the old open filtcr-baHln. In 1S92 the remaining portion of the open lillcr-baHln was replaced 
by an extension of the HIter-Kallery, and after December of that year the water pumped for the Hupply 
of the city was not exposed to light at any point. In 1804 the works were again enlarged, as described 
above. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



261 



XEWTON, 

Microscopical Exarninalion of Water from a Faucet at the Newton Water Works 

Pumping Station. 

[Number of organiemB per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Feb. 


May. 


June 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of ezaminntlon, 

Number of sample 


20 
11779 


24 
12273 


23 
12415 


18 
J 2567 


16 
12754 


21 
13001 


19 
13168 


20 
13324 


18 
13487 


PLANTS. 
Fungi, Crenothrix 


2 


104 





3 














1 


Miscellaneous, Zoogloja, .... 


1 


4 








4 


10 











TOTAI, 


3 


108 





3 


4 


10 








1 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Covered Distribicting Reservoir of the 

Newlon Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000 ] 





B 




Appeabance. 




a 


Ammonia. 




NiTROOKN 


i> 








C 

■3 








It 






c 


AS 


S 

a 
00 

B 

g<s 


CO 

e 

■2 




1 

9 


•3 


I 







2 
"3 


BO 

1 


flO 



5 


c 


'A 


Q 




H 


ao 





K 


b 


< 





^ 


S5 





BS 






IM!>I 




























11780 


Feb. 


19 


None. 


Slight. 


0.02 


5.90 


.0000 


.0014 


.40 


.0120 


.0000 


.0440 


2.9 


.0210 


12274 


Afay 


22 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.03 


5.70 


.0000 


.0012 


.37 


.0200 


.0000 


.0468 


2.2 


.0130 


12416 


June 


21 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.03 


5.40 


.0002 


.0026 


.35 


.0180 


.0000 


.0616 


2.7 


.0065 


125G6 


July 


18 


Distinct. 


Conp., 
brown. 


0.00 


7.50 


.0002 


.0070 


.38 


.0150 


.0000 


.0739 


2.9 


.0750 


12755 


Aug. 


15 


V. slight. 


Slight, 
earthy. 


0.04 


7.55 


.0000 


.0026 


.38 


.0200 


.0000 


.0924 


3.6 


.0080 


13002 


Sept. 


19 


V. slight. 


Cons., 
yellowish. 


0.04 


7.00 


.0002 


.0030 


.34 


.0100 


.0000 


.0539 


3.1 


.0300 


131C9 


Oct. 


18 


Distinct, 
milky. 


Slinht. 
flbrous. 


0.07 


7.10 


.0002 


.0030 


.44 


.0080 


.0000 


.0766 


3.1 


.0300 


13323 


Nov. 


19 


Slight. 


Cous., 
dark. 


0.03 


6.40 


.0000 


.0062 


.48 


.0130 


.0000 


.0975 


3.2 


.0600 


13488 


Dec. 


17 


V. slight. 


CODB. 


0.03 


5.40 


.0008 


.0076 


.46 


.0180 


.0000 


.0654 


2.3 


.0730 


Av. 








0.03 


6.44 


.0002 


.0038 


.40 


.0149 


.0000 


.0680 


2.9 


.0362 











Averages by Years. 



1892 
1893 
1894 



0.03 
0.04 
0.03 



6.40 
6.40 
6.44 



.0022 
.0000 
.0002 



.0038 
.0027 
,0038 



.0246 
.0220 
.0149 



.0003 
.0000 
.0000 



,0678 
.0680 



3.0 
3.0 
2.9 



.0242 
.0196 
.0352 



NOTK to analyses of 1894: Odor of No. 13169, very faintly vegetable; of No. 13323, distinct and 
unpleasant; of the other samples, none. In July a distinctly oily odor was developed on heating, and 
In December a distinctly unpleasant odor. The samples were collected from the reservoir. 



262 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



XETTTOX. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Covered Distributing Reservoir oj 

the Newton Water Works. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





IS94. 




Feb. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, 

Number of sample 


20 
11780 


24 
12274 


23 
12416 


18 
12566 


16 
12755 


21 
13002 


19 
13169 


20 
13323 


IS 
13488 


PLANTS. 
Fungi, Crenothrix 


40 


3 


7 


312 


34 


11 


9 


1 


44 


Miscellaneous, Zobgloea 


10 








60 





52 











Total, 


60 


3 


7 


372 


34 


63 


9 


1 


44 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Main Underdrain oJ the Hyde Brook 
Division of the Newton Sewerage System. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 







Appeakanck. 




i 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


•6 














« 








a 








Q> 


































o S 




■a 














a 


r 


•3 

5 


1 


o 


1^ 


<u 


o 
si 


o 




CD 


1" 


c 
•o 


C3 






























5^ 


o 


e- 


01 


O 


K 


^ 


< 


O 


'A 


S 


o 


m 


M 




1894. 


























11912 


Mar. 19 


V. slight. 


None. 


0.00 


22.90 


.0070 


.0032 


2.33 


1.0000 


.0004 


.0497 


8.7 


.0050 


12584 


July 18 


None. 


V. slight. 


0.05 


30.80 


.0052 


.0022 


3.00 


.9300 


.0021 


.0115 


9.0 


.0050 


13305 


Nov. 14 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.03 


25.10 


.0192 


.0048 


2.68 


1.0500 


.0011 


.0741 


10.0 


.0000 


Av. 








0.03 


26.27 


.0105 


.0034 


2.67 


.9933 


.0012 


.0451 


9.2 


.0033 













Averages by Years. 



1891* 


- 


- 


0.00 


28.05 


.0200 


.0086 


3.15 


1.6000 


.0050 


- 


,.., 


1892 


- 


- 


0.00 


27.08 


.0126 


.0029 


3.18 


1.1068 


.0016 


- 


10.1 


1893 


- 


- 


0.03 


25.43 


.0140 


.0037 


2.48 


,9550 


.0018 


.0640 


9.4 


1894 


- 


- 


0.03 


26.27 


.0105 


.0034 


2.67 


.9933 


.0012 


.0461 


0.2 



.0052 
.0099 
0033 



* December. 

NoTB to nnalyHCB of 1894 : Odor of the (irst and socond HainploB, none; of the third, faintly nniHty, 
disappcarinx on heating. The Bamplcs were colloctud from the underdrain, at its outlet. 



Microscopical Examination. 

No. 11912. VwafiX, Grenothrix, Z, MlHcellaneoUM, 2o6i//foa, 8. Total, 11. 
No. 12.'>84. Fungi, C7r«noWtHx, 8. MiBcellaneous, ZorV^tea, 18. Total, 21. 
No. 13305. Fungi, Orenothrix, 3. MlsccllaDooufl, ZooyUea, 62. Total, 55. 



^o. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



263 



NETVTON. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Main Underdrain of the Cheesecake 
Brook Division of the Newton Sewerage System. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 


ArPBABANCB. 




s 
o 


Ammonia. 




NiTBOOEN 


•d 














a a, 

= <8 
■O > 






B 

i 

S ■ 

o 




s 

o 

o 


n 






3 


3 


s 

• 1 

•3 


o 


2 


■3 

o 
1 ^ 

< 






c 
o 


11911 


1894. 

Mar. 19 


Distinct. 


(Jons., 
yellow. 


0.08 


18.90 


.0102 


.0022 


1.25 


.2200 


.0001 


.0474 


7.7 


.0920 


12585 


July 18 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.03 


20.60 


.0188 


.0024 


2.40 


.6500 


.0080 


.0385 


7.1 


.0100 


13306 


Nov. 14 


V. Blight. 


V. slight. 


0.00 


22.10 


.0506 


.0074 


2.51 


.8000 


.0008 


.0608 


8.9 


.0000 


Av. 


1894 






0.04 


20.53 


.0265 


.0040 


2.05 


.5567 


.0030 


.0489 


7.9 


.0340 


Av. 


1893* 






0.08 


15.83 


.0075 


.0016 


1.51 


.3225 


.0006 


.0217 


6.0 


.0520 











* July to December. 
Note to analyses of 1894: Odor of the first and second samples, none; of the third, decided. 
The samples were collected from the underdrain, at its outlet. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 11911. Fungi, Crenothrix, 480. Miscellaneous, Zuiiglaa, 2'. Total, 482. 
No. 12585. Fungi, Crpno^AWa:, 108. Miscellaneous, Zoti'jrtea, 13. Total, 121. 
No. 13306. Diatomaceaa, Melosira, 4. Fungi, Crenotkrix, 5. Total, 9. 



Chemical Examitiation of Water from the Main Underdrain Beneath the Laundry 
Brook Valley Sewer, Netvton. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 



















Nitrogen 


. 








o 


Appeabanck. 




o 


Ammonia. 




A3 


s 

o 








S 




^ 




a 1 




•6 












c 

Si 

B 

3 


■35 

4) 


3 

J 


1 

■3 


_o 


(U o. 

1 3 a 

TJ > 


2 


o 
, a 

5a 


B 
o 


s 

2 


5 


1* 


a 
•a 


B 
O 


'A 


« 


H 


a> 


u 


I M 


(H 


< 


S 


g 


z 


o 


X 






1^404. 


























11913 


Mar. 19 


DiStiDCt. 


Cons., 
yellow. 


0.08 


17.20 


.0098 


.0020 


1.68 


.4000 


.0003 


.0790 


7.1 


.0700 


12583 


July 18 


Slight. 


Slight, 
yellow. 


0.03 


18.00 


.0102 


.0012 


1.60 


.3500 


.0010 


.0308 


6.7 


.0280 


13304 


Nov. 14 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.01 


16.50 


.0108 


.0024 


1.76 


.3800 


.0002 


.0429 


6.7 


.0360 


Av. 


1894 






0.04 


17.23 


.0103 


.0019 


1.68 


.3767 


.0005 


.0509 


6,8 


.0447 


Av. 


1893* 






0.08 


16.90 


.0082 


.0026 


1.51 


.3500 


.0006 


.0782 


7.1 


.0526 











* October and December. 
Odor, none. The samples were collected from the underdrain, at its outlet. 

Microscopical Examinatio7i. 

No. 11913. Fungi, CrenothrU, 4,000. 

No. 12583. Fungi, Crenothrix, 480. Miscellaneous, Zooglaa, 14. Total, 494. 

No. 13304. Fungi, Crenothrix, 1,900. 



264 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



NEAVTON. 

Chemical Examinatio7i of Water from Test Wells in Needham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 


ArPEARANCE. 




Ammokia. 




Nitrogen 

AS 


a 


























^ 


£>> 


^ 




5° 




•a 










en 




a 

3 


s 


5 
S 


c 

1 
■a 


o 


l« 


i 


o 

5a 


c 


2 


"C 


bo 


C 
■a 


c 
o 


% 




EH 


n 


o 


K 


fe 


-<; 


O 


'A 


'A 


O 


ffl 


" 




1894. 


























12006 


April 7 


Decided. 


Heavy, 

sandy. 
Cons., 


0.02 


3.90 


.0028 


.0018 


.43 


.0600 


.0003 


.0240 


1.1 


.0050 


12007 


April 7 


Distinct. 


0.00 


6.60 


.0000 


.0010 


.75 


.3500 


.0000 


.0080 


2.3 


.0030 








sandy. 























Odor, none. The samples were collected from test wells in land taken by the city of Newton for 

water-supply purposes, to determine whether the water was polluted by a piggery upon the land. 



Micrvscojncal Examination. 



No. 12006, Fungi, Crenothrix, 5. 
No. 12007. No organisms. 



Water Supply of Northampton. 

In 1894 a new storage reservoir was constructed on Roberts' 
Meadow Brook between the upper and lower reservoirs constructed 
in previous years, the dam being located about 500 feet above the 
upper end of the lower reservoir. The new reservoir has an area 
of 26 acres and a capacity of 84,000,000 gallons, which can be in- 
creased to 114,000,000 gallons by means of Hash-boards 3 feet in 
height. Its greatest depth is 30 feet, and its average depth at 
ordinary high-water mark 9.9 feet. The reservoir was prepared 
for the storage of water by the removal of the soil, stumps and 
vegetable matter from the area flowed. Provision has been made 
for drawing water from the brook above this reservoir directly to 
the city if desired. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



265 



NORTHAMPTON. 

Cliemical Examination of Water from the TJpptr Storage Reservoir of the North- 
ampton Water Works on Roberts'' Meadow Brook. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 













Kesiduk on 






NiTBOGBN 


•s 








API'EARANCK. 




EVAI-OllA- 1 


Ammonia. 




AS 








~ 










. 






i 






o 


!2 


1 


o 


a 


— 

o a 

OS U) 


o 


Albuminoid. 


o 

s 

o 


s 

2 


00 


c 
o 
O 

>> 




u 

S 


« 


■d 
> 


•3 

•a 

00 O 


a 


































X, 


o 


H 


m 


O 


H 


I-) 


% 


H 


» ' 


CO 


O 


IZi 


w 


o 


a 




18»4. 




























126S4 


Aug. 7 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.10 


5.05 


2.00 


.0008 .0048 


.0040 


.0008 


.12 


.0060 


.0001 


.1001 


2.2 


12887 


Sept. 5 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.10 


6.15 


1.10 


.0088 .0080 

1 


.0052 


.0028 


.12 


.0050 


.0002 


.1001 


2.1 



Odor, faintly vegetable. The samples were collected from the reservoir. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 12684. DiatoraaciB, Cijclotella, 36; Cymbella, 1; Diatoma, 1; Fragilaria, 21; Mclosira, 2; 
Synedratl. Cyauophycex, Mic7-iicy^lis,l. Alga?, Olceocapsa,!; SCaurastrum,l. Faogi, Beijgiatoa, 1. 
Infusoria, Dinobryon cases, 7. Total, 79. 

No. 12887. DiatomacesB, Cydolella, Q; Cymbella, 2; 2>jatoTOa, 1; Epithemia,\; Gomp/ionema, 1; 
Naoicula, 1; Pinnuluria, 1; Synedra, 22. AlgiB, Arlhrodesmus, 3; Sce/iedesmun, 9; Startrastriim,Z. 
Fungi, Crenothrix, •". Infusoria, Dinobryon cases, 6 ; Monas, 1 ; Pertdinium, 1. Miscellaneous, Zoogloia, 
6. Total, 70. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Lower Storage Reservoir of the North- 
ampton Water Works on Roberts'' Meadow Brook. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





e 


ArPEARANCK. 




I5BSIDUE ON 

Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




NlTBOGEN 


"S 














tion. 








1 






o 

o i 
« 1 


6 

1 


o 


^ 


"3 


c 
o 

ll 




Albuminoid. 


1 


00 

V 

a 
ki 




s 

8 

a 
1 




1 

a 


3 


•3 

> 


•a 
■ c 


S 

a 

•z 
























s 










yi 


Q 


H 


to 


u 


H 


^ 


fa 


t- 


Q 


00 °' 


Zi 


» 


o 


a 




1891. ' 






























12685 


Aug. 8 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.20 


4.70 


0.90 


.0002 


.0114 


.0078 


.0036 


.12 


.0000 


.0001 


.1548 


2.3 


12888 


Sept. 5 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.23 


6.65 


1.45 


.0000 


.0178 


.0106 .0072 


.13 


.0000 


.0000 


.2541 


2.9 



Odor, faintly vegetable. 



- The samples were collected from the reservoir. 



Microscojiical Examinatioti. 

No. 126S5. Diatomaceae, Cyclotella, 1040; Cymbella, 2; Fragilana, 4; Kavicula, 2; Synidra,6Q. 
Algw, Arthrodesmus, 1; Polyedrium,\. Fungi, Crenothrix, 23. Rhizopoda, Z>i^/M^iu, 1. Infusoria, 
Dinobryon cases, 22. Total, 1,161. 

No. 12888. Diatomacea<, Cyclotella, 156; J^avicula,3; Pinniilaria, 1; Synedra,338; Tahellaria,!. 
Alga), Coelastrum, 1; Cosmariuin, 1; I'andorina, 1; Pediastnun, 9; Scenedesinris, 2. Fungi, Creno- 
thrlx,'Z. Viitmca, Triarthra,!. Miscellaneous, Jcartna, .01; Zoop'tea, 13. Total, 579. 



266 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



xorth attleborough. 

Water Supply of North Attleborough. 

The advice of the State Board of Health to the town of North 
Attleborough, relative to a proposed additional water supply for the 
town, may be found on pages 35 and 30 of this volume. Analyses 
of samples of water collected in connection with the investigation 
of the proposed sources of additional supply may be found on pages 
267 and 268. 



Chemical Examination of Water from the Wells of the North Attleborough Water 

Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





o 

r 

s 
a 


Appearance. 


s 


Ammonia. 


a 
1 
o 


Nitrogen 

AS 


1 

J 

to 


c 

■s 

03 

n 




s 

a 

3 


a 


1 
•3 


u 
o 

6 


1 


s 

o 

c 

< 


1 

2 


5 
i 




11704 
12655 
12984 
13136 
13470 


1894. 

Feb. 2 

Aug. 3 
Sept. 18 
Oct. 15 
Dec. 11 


V. Slight, 

railky. 

V. slight. 

V. slight, 
milky. 

Slight, 
milky. 

None. 


None. 

None. 

v. Blight. 

v. slight. 
None. 


0.00 
0.05 
0.08 
0.07 
0.00 


6.00 
7.10 
7.80 
7.20 
6.10 


.0000 
.0010 
.0008 
.0012 
.0014 


.0000 
.0006 
.0000 
.00'J4 
.0022 


.61 

.68 
.80 
.76 
.67 


.0550 
.0090 
.0400 
.0700 
.0800 


.0002 
,0001 
.0000 
.0001 
.0000 


.0284 
.0000 
.0154 
.0213 
.0192 


2.6 
3.1 
3.8 
3.0 
2.0 


.0140 
,0050 
.0300 
.0380 
.0020 


Av. 








0.04 


6.84 


.0009 


.0010 


.70 


.0508 


.0001 


.0169 


3.1 


.0178 













Averages by Tears. 



1887* 


- 


- 


0.00 


6.28 


.0001 


.0011 


.60 


.0290 


- 




- 


1888 


- 


- 


0.00 


6.27 


.0002 


.0018 


.50 


.0288 


.0000 


- 


- 


18891 


- 


- 


0.00 


6.09 


.0000 


.0012 


.66 


.0414 


.0000 


- 


- 


18921 


- 


- 


0.00 


6,95 


.0008 


.0018 


.53 


.0416 


.0000 


- 


3.0 


1893§ 


- 


- 


0.00 


6.88 


.0003 


.0006 


.00 


.0460 


.0000 


.0109 


2.8 


1894 


1 


- 


0.04 


6.84 


.0009 


.0010 


.70 


.0508 


.0001 


.0169 


:!.l 



0040 
0178 



* Jane to December. 



t January to May. i April to December. 



§ March and July. 



Note to unalyHcs of 1894; No. 12665 liad ii fuiiil odor of Hulphurctled hydrogen, becoming distinct 
on heating. There was no odor in the other sumples. On houtiiig, a distinct marshy odor was de- 
veloped In No. 12984. The suiiiples were collected either from the well or from u faucet at the 

pumping station. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. 11704. MlHcellaneoiiR, Zoor/lfjea, 1. 

No. 12984. Miscellaneous, Zo/iglnf/i, 22, 

No organisms were found in the remaining samples. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



267 



NORTH ATTLEBOIIOUGH. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Faucets in North Attleborough, supplied 
from the North Attleborough Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





d 


Appbabancb. 




a 


Ammomia. 




NITKOGBN 


■s 
















3 










a 








S. 




J 








•d 










03 




IH 


^^ 


■3 


c 

1 
5 




ss 




o 


e 


flO 


s 


s§ 






a 

s 




€ 


S 


:y« 


fi 


5 a 


jo 


g 


s 


? 


■2 


i 


7i 


Q 


6h 


CO 


O 


« 


u. 


<! 


O 


2i 


!?; 


o 


w 




1894. 














' 












11705 


F-eb. 2 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


5.90 


.0000 


.0004 


.61 


.0600 


.0000 


.0000 


2.6 


.0050 


12604 


Aug. 3 


None. 


None. 


0.02 


8.00 


.0010 


.0000 


.68 


.0100 


.0001 


.0000 


3.4 


.0040 


13469 


Dec. 11 


None. 


None. 


0.00 


6.00 

1 1 


.0008 


.0030 


.65 


.0750 


.0001 


.0023 


3.0 


.0050 



Odor, none. The samples were collected from faucets in the town. 



Microscopical Examination. 



No organisms. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Test Wells in the Vicinity oj the Pumping 
Station of the North Attleborough Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





1 


Appbarance. 


c 
"2 


AUHOKIA. 




NITKOGEN 
AS. 


•d 

a 

a 
























c 

B 
a 
"A 


^5 


2 

2 

s 


1 

ID 
00 


i 

5 





1 


s 
< 


c 
1 




2 


«0 


1^ 

X 




a 


1 




1804. 


























12937 


Sept. 12 1 Decided, 


Heavy, 


0.12 


6.20 


.0000 


.0002 


.25 


.0000 


.0000 


.0308 


2.9 


.2400 


12038 


1 clayey. 
Sept. 12 1 Distinct, 


rusty. 
Cons., 


0.02 


6.20 : 


.0000 


.0004 


.71 


.0100 


.0000 


.0308 


2.6 


.0280 


129:59 


clayey. 
Sept. 12 None. 


earthy. 
Slight, 


0.00 


6.50 


.0004 


.0000 


.27 


.0000 


.0000 


.0462 


3.1 


.1450 


12940 


Sept. 12 None. 

1 


rusty. 
Cons., 
rusty. 


0.50 


1 
4.80 


.0000 


.0000 


.27 


.0000 


.0000 


.1001 


3.0 


.2500 



Odor of the flrst saiiiple, faintly tarry; of the others, none. The samples were collected iu the 

order of their numbers from test wells numbered 2, 4, 6 and 9. The wells were distant between 300 and 
900 feet in a northerly direction from the present source of supply. 



Microscopical Examination. 



No organiams. 



268 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



NORTH ATTLEBOROUGH. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Ten Mile River above the Village oj 

Plainville in Wrentham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 











Kesidub on 















c 


Appearance. 




Evapora- 


Ammonia. 




NiTROGKN 








O 






tion. 








a 

s 





















Albuminoid. 
















00 


































1 

s 


o 


*T3 
£1 


1 




o 


55 






1 


, C 

3 a 






"n 




c 

■2 




Q 


H 


X 


O 


H 


>J 


fc. H 





ifi 





'A 


2 





M 




1894. 




























12941 


8ept.l2 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.25 


3.45 


1.00 


.0000 


.0098 


.0076 


.0022 


.24 


.0000 


.0001 


.2233 


0.6 



Odor, distinctly mouldy. The sample was collected from the river at Fuller's Dam. 



Microscopical Examination. 



Miacellaneous, Zooglcea, 1. 



Water Supply of Northborough. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Upx>er Reservoir of the Northborough 

Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





§ 




s 


Appearance. 


Kesidde on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 

.30 
.30 


Nitrogen 

AS 


•d 
1 

1 

M 







•3 


I 
•3 


1 





■3 
I 


_5 
c 




Albuminoid. 




'ki 

2 




B 
1 





5" 


■0 

1 s 

1^ 


c 
W 


12696 
12774 


1804. 

July 24 

Aug.17 


Decided, 

green. 

DlBtlnct. 


Cons., 

green. 
Slight. 


0.70 
0.70 


4.00 
4.85 


2.10 
2.35 


.0000 
.0008 


.0542 
.0284 


.0192 
.0250 


.0350 
.0034 


.0040 
.0000 


.0001 
.0000 


.6198 
.5559 


1.1 

0.8 



Odor, diMtinctly vegetable. The Hamplos were collected from the reservoir. 



Microscopirat Examiiuition. 

No. 12.090. A\iiai, Eiulorlna, 50; Pandorina,S; /'rolococcm, 200. liifuHcjriu, Oilinted hi/uHorian, 
300; /'eritJinlitin, 200. Total, 7.08. 

No. 12774. Dlatomacen), .VfloHtru, 4; Ndvlrula, 1; Synedra, 72. Cyanophycoas, Anabmna, 3. 
A\gBB, /'edia^tnim, 2; I'roUjcaccus, 15; ,Scenede»mu/t, I. Fungi', Orenot/irix, 2. Infusoria, Euglena,!; 
Monas,l; J'ertdinium, 14S. MIscolIaneouB, Zoo^toa, 44. Total, 204. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



269 



NORTIIBOROUGH. 

Chemical Examination of Water from the Lower Reservoir of the Northborough 

Water Works, 

[Parts per 100,000.] 




Odor, distinctly vegetable, and of the second sample, also oily. The samples were collected from 

the reservoir. 

Microscopical Examination. 

NO.J2597. Diatoiiiaceae, Cymbella, 1; Diatoina.i; Melosira,2&Q; SiriateUa,i; Synedra, 184; 7*06- 
ellaria, 1,320. Cyunophyca), Anubana, 16; Rimdaria,!. AlgiB, Arthrodesmus,\; Closlfriiim, 1; Stau- 
rastrum, 520. Fungi, Crenothrix, 1. Ilhizopoda, Difflugia, 5. Infueoria, Dinobryon cities, 12; 
Peridinium,Vl; Phuciis.l; Trachetomoiias, 1. Vermes, Jnurea, 2; Pulyart/ira,2. Cruelacca, Daph- 
nia, .02. Miscellaneous, Acariiia, .02. Total, 2,350. 

No. 12775. Diatoniaceie, J/e/ostra, 26; Tabellariu, Z20. A\gm, 311 era stenas,!. Infusoria, I'eridin- 
ium, 44; Syncrypta volvox, 80. Vermes, Anitrea, 70; Polyartlira, 7. Crustacea, Cyclops, 1. Total, 548. 



Water Supply of North Brookfield. 

Chemical Examination of Water from Doa?ie Pond, North Brookfield. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





d 






AlTEARANXK. 


Kksidueon 
Evapora- 
tion 


Ammonia. 


6 
1 


Nitrogen 

AS 


■d 

a 

« 

s 

5 

c 

1 








c 

a 





« 


S 
= 





Albuminoid. 


S 
S 








a 







•0 
1 B 


■1 

e 
"2 


































>'( 


a 


H 


m 





E-c 


^ 


b 


E- 


Q 


CO 


U 


X 


'A 





B 




1804. 




























11646 


Jan. 17 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.65 


4.00 


1.30 


.0002'. 02:50'. 0134 


.0096 


.22 


.0050 .0000 


.4914 


1.1 


11742 


I-Y-b.l2 


Distinct. 


Cons. 


0.35 


5.05 


1.30 


.0076 .0208 .0162 .0046 


.24 


.0120 .0000 


.3856 


l.fl 


11916 


Mar. 19 


Distinct. 


V. slight. 


0.30 


2.70 


1.05 


.0004 .02.3ri .0182 .0054 


.15 


.0050 .0000 


.3634 


0.6 


TJ014 


Apr. 10 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.30 


3.05 


1.05 


,.0010 .0308 .02r)6 .00.V2 


.20 


.0030 .0000 


.3934 


0.8 


1 •21711 


May 9 


DiHtinct. 


Sliu'ht. 


0..53 


3.60 


1.60 


1.0012 .0264 .0220 .0044 


.17 


.W30 .0000 


.6068 


0.9 


l'.>;i.'>5 .Tunol2 


Slight. 


Slluht. 


1.20 


4.20 


2.00 


.0038 .03J4 .0284 .0040 


.16 


.0000 .0000 


.7969 


1.3 


12538 1 July 10 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


1.50 


4.70 


2.30 


1.0028 .0380 .0300 .0080 


.19 


.0000 .0004 


.7538 


1.4 


12759 


Auy.lS 


Distinct, 


Slight, 


1.30 


4.85 


2.30 


.0026 .0410.0326.0084 


.14 


.00701.0000 


.7084 


1.4 






green. 


yellow. 








1 ' 1 












12972 


Sept. 18 


Distinct. 


Cons., 
flbrous. 


1.30 


4.30 


2.00 


.0022 .0488, .0344 .0144 


.18 


.0000 


.0000 


.7777 


0.0 


13152 


Oct. 17 


Slight. 


Cons., 
brown. 


1.30 


4.10 


2.10 


.0248 .0368 .0300 .0068 


.17 


.0000 


.0002 


.7758 


0.6 


13367 


Nov. 22 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


1.25 


4.85 


2.10 


.0448 .0580 .04.i6 .0124 


.16 


.0170 


.0003 


.7800 


1.4 


13520 


Dec. 19 


Slight. 


V. Blight. 


0.90 


5.50 


2.10 


.0408 .0436|. 0390 .0046 
.0110 -OSM .n2Rft'.007.'» 


.24 
.19 


.0130 


.0002 


.5967 


1.7 


Av. 








0.91 


4.24 


1.77 


.0064 


.0001 


.6192 


1.1 





















Iron, .0477. Odor, generally distinctly vegetable, aonietimcs also moaldy, unpleasant or disagree. 
oble. The samples were collected from the pond, uour the filter. 



270 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



XORTH BROOKFIELD. 

Microscopical Examination oj Water from Doane Pond, No7'th Brookfield. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examinatioi 


1, . . 18 


13 


20 


11 


11 


14 


17 


16 


19 


18 


23 


20 


Number of sample 


. 11646 


11742 


11916 


12014 


12179 


12355 


12538 


12759 


12972 


13152 


13367 


13520 


PLANTS 


!. ! 
























Diatomacese, 


. . 23 


3 


132 


220 


154 


28 


30 


145 


59 


166 


25 





Asterionella, 











6 


83 


4 


28 


144 


17 


116 


11 





Cyclotella, 








20 


pr. 


1 


3 




















Deemidium, 














6 























Diatoma, . 








pr. 

















5 


2 








Frngilaria, 














6 























Navicula, . 























1 


1 


2 


3 





Synedra, . 


1 


3 


26 


120 


40 


1 


2 





20 


32 


5 





Tabellaria, 


22 





86 


94 


24 


20 








16 


14 


6 





Cyanophycese 


























ChrooL-Qccus, 


. . 























9 











Algae, . 


. . 50 


3 


2 


6 


19 


94 


28 


478 


259 


42 


19 





ArtLrodesmus, 


1 











2 





5 


3 


15 


1 


1 





BotrycoccuB, 

















10 




















Chlorococcue, 











5 





19 


5 

















Cosraarium, 


. 48 








pr. 


1 


3 




















Dictyosphteriur 


n, . . 











1 





6 








3 








Hyalotheca, 

















15 











. 








Prolococcus, 








2 











6 


466 


75 


4 


10 





Raphidium, 














10 





6 


10 


164 


4 


4 





ScenedesmuB, 














1 


1 





1 


5 


6 


2 





Selenastrum, 





























24 








8tauraetrum, 











1 


4 


44 




















Staurogenia, 























8 








2 





Zoospores, 


1 


3 


pr. 


pr. 





2 




















Fungi, Crcnothri 


s, . . 


1 


5 


pr. 


200 


48 


48 


2 








1 


1 


ANIMAL 


3. 
























Rhlzopoda, 


. . 





6 

















6 











Actinophrys, 








6 





























Arcella, . 


























6 











Infusoria, . 


■ • 331 


93 


119 


220 


1,523 


32 


276 


6 


149 


3 


16 


25 


Dlnobryon, 


. 44 





80 


68 





5 








3 





8 





DInobryon caBC 


8, . . 2 








100 


1,520 


25 


268 





8 





5 


1 


Kuglena, . 


1 








3 























3 


Mallomonas, 

















2 




















MOIIUH, 





1 


1 





























Perldlulum, 


. 264 


92 


36 


40 


1 








] • 








3 


21 


Pljacus, . 























1 


132 











Hynura, . 


. 20 





2 


16 


2 























'I'ititlniildium, 








pr. 


3 











4 





2 








'I'racheloriioriaH 














(1 





- 





fi 


1 








Vermes, 





1 


pr. 


5 


1 


2 


2 


2 


4 


1 








Anurea, . 











1 


1 








(1 


1 


1 








Moiioccrca, 








u 








1 








1 





t) 





I'olyartbra, 











pr. 





] 


1 


2 





II 








Kotatorian ova, 








pr. 


2 














(1 











PkOllfor, . 





1 





2 


1) 





1 





- 











Jftacellaneoua, 


. . 





4 


.05 


520 





.03 





132 


360 








AcarlDa, . 








.01 


.06 








.03 





.82 











ZooKl'jea, . 








4 





620 











i:}2 


360 








TOTAI,, . 


. . 404 


101 


268 


4fil 


2,417 


204 


384 


638 


618 


672 


61 


26 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 271 



NORTH BROOKFIEI.D. 

Chemical Examinalion of Water from the Fillered-water Well oj the North Brook- 
field Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





S 

a 

o 

o 

a 


Appeara.nck. 


Kehidue o.v 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


a 
•n 

o 


HITKOGEN 

AS 


■d 

1 

s 

e 

5 

a 

1 






3 

H 


1 
■5 


o 


s 

o 


S 

!i 


1 


.-Vlbuminoid. j 


m 

I 






1 

3 


"3 


•a 
> 

1 "o 

5 


■a 

a c 
CO 


a 
•a 

a 

u 


11743 


IS94. 

Feb. 12 


Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.35 


4.70 


_ 


.0058 


.0126 


_ 


_ 


.24 


.0100 


.0000 


.3664 


1.6 


11917 


Mar. 19 


Distinct. 


V. slight. 


0.23 


3.40 


1.05 


.0004 


.0176 


.0132 


.0044 


.16 


.0100 


.0001 


.31201.4 


1201.'S 


Apr. 10 


DietiDct. 


V. slight. 


0.32 


3.60 


- 


.0004 


.0166 


- 


- 


.16 


.0070 


.0001 


.35711.3 


12180 


May 9 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.30 


8.80 


1.40 


.0026 


.0160 


.0144 


.0016 


.16 


.0050 


.0001 


.42481.8 


12356 


June 12 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.90 


4.50 


1.45 


.0014 


.0272 


.0242 


.0030 


.13 


.0030 


.0001 


.64681.3 


12.539 


July 16 


Slight. 


Slight. 


1.20 


5.60 


2.25 


.0044 


.0336 


.0292 


.0044 


.26 


.0030 


.0003 


.65601.9 


12758 


Aug. 15 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.80 


5.40 


2.40 


.0198 


.0172 


.0154 


.0018 


.16 


.0050 


.0001 


.5467 1.9 


12973 


Sopt.18 


Slight. 
Slight. 
Distinct. 


Cons. 


1.00 


5.20 


2.40 


.0108 


.0362 


.0310 


.0052 


.19 


.0020 


.0002 


.66221.4 


13153 
13368 


Oct. 17 
Nov. 22 


Slight, 

brown. 
Slight. 


0.90 
1.28 


5.40 
4.70 


2.10 
1.90 


.0092 
.0360 


.0274 
.0446 


.0244 
.0422 


.0030 
.0024 


.20 
.21 


.0080 
.0230 


.0002 
.0003 


.6478 
.7800 


2.3 
1.4 


13521 


Dec. 19 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.70 
0.73 


5.15 


1.80 


.0146 
.0096 


.0378 


.0326 .0052 


.19 


.0280 


.0011 
.0002 


.56981.8 


Av. 








4.68 


1.86 


.0288* 


.0252 -00S4 


.0095 


.64271.6 






1 













* Exclusive of Nos. 11743 and 12015. 



Iron, .0498. Odor, generally vegetable, becoming stronger on heating; in May, none, 
samples were collected from the flltered-water well. 



-The 



272 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



NORTH BROOKI^IELD. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Filtered-water Well of the North 
Brookfield Water Works. 

[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



Feb. Mar. Apr. May. June. July. Aug. Sept. Oct. Nov. Dec 



Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 



13 
11743 



20 
11917 



11 

12015 



11 

12180 



14 

12356 



17 16 19 
12539 12758 12973 



18 
13153 



23 
13368 



20 
13521 



PLANT 
Diatomaceaj, 

Asterionella, . 
Melosira, 
Synedra, 
Tabellaria, 

Algae, . 

Chlorococcus, 
Closterium, . 
Co»marium, . 
Hyalotheca, . 
ProtococcuB, . 
Huphidium, . 
StauraBtrum, . 
Staurogenia, . 



Fungi, Crenothrix, 



48 







pr. 









pr. 



320 



32 



48 



44 



ANIMALS. 



Infusoria, 



Dlnobryon casea, 
Euglena, 
MallomonaB, . 
Poriflinium, . 
Phacus, . 
Tinlinnidium, 
Traclielomonafl, 



Vermes, liotlfer, 
Crustacean remains, 



MUcellaneoua, 

Acarina, 
Koiigl(i;a, 

Total, . 



24 



22 



60 
26 

34 





127 119 



140 

140 










460 



144 



96 



260 


260 



392 



243 



20 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



273 



NORTOX. 

Norton. 
The reply of the State Board of Health to certain petitioners in 
the town of Norton, relative to a water supply for a proposed fire 
district in that town, to be obtained either from sources in the town 
or from the works of the towns of Attleborough or Mansfield, may 
be found on pages 30-38 of this volume. Analyses of samples of 
water from various sources in the town are given below. 

Chemical Examination oj Water from the Rumford and Wadinrj Rivers, Norton. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





B 
O 

O 

o 

o 


Appkaranxe. 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


c 
o 

.44 
.41 


NiTROQBN 
AS 


a 

s 

OD 
C 

o 
u 

c 

s 








1 

■3 

CO 


o 
o 


o 


S 

1" 


S 

b 


Albuminoid. 




5 
§ 




a 

a 


"a 
1 


So 


■a 

i C 

5S. 


a 

a 
•H 
W 


i:«39 

13440 


1894. 

Dec. 

Dec. 5 


Slight. 
|V. slight. 


V, slight. 
V. slight. 


0.67 
0.70 


4.80 
4.40 


1.60 
1.70 


.0016 
.0004 


.0150 
.0134 


.0100 
.0112 


.0050 
.00122 


.0050 
.0030 


.0000 
.0000 


.6098 
.6545 


1.3 
1.1 



Odor, distinctly vegetable, becoming stronger on heating. — :— The first sample was collected from 
Talbot Mlllpond, a small niillpoud on the Rumford River, a short distance below the Norton Reservoir; 
the last, from the Wading Jliver at the road crossing about Ik miles above Barroweville, and just above 
the point where the river is joined by Chartley Brook. 

Microscopical Examination. 

No. l.'!439. DiatoraaceaB, CijcloUUn, 1 ; Dialoma, 1 ; FvugiUtria, 3; Meloxira, 6; Si/necJra, 8. Alga?, 
Cfilorococcus, 1. Fungi, Molds, 1. Infusoria, Dinobryon cases, 56. Miscellaneous, Zodglcea, 04. 
Total, 141. 

No. 13440. DXaXomiicevz, Diatoma,\; Meridion,\; Synedra,Z; Tabellariu, i, Fuag't, Crenol/irix, 
3. Total, 12. 



Chemical Examination of Water from Test Wells in Norton. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





d 


Appeaiuncb. 




c 


Ammonia. 




Nitrogen 


■d 






















AS 


a 








^ 








r- S 


t 










a 






« 

a 


^5 


1 


c 

a 


c 

o 


2w 


1 


2 
o 

c 


1 


2 


5 


e 

1? 


s 


d 






























>?; 


Q 


E- 


m 


U 


M 


1^ 


< 


u 


^^ 


»5 


o 


m 






1894. 


























13050 


Oct. 1 


Slight, 
milky. 


None. 


1.00 


9.00 


.0064 


.0010 


.81 ' 


.0020 


.0000 ' 


.0553 


3.0 


.2550 


13051 


Oct. 1 


Slight, 
milky. 


None. 


0.80 


8.00 


.0016 


.0008 


.60 


.0020 


.0000 


.0869 


3.0 


.2600 



Odor, very faint or none. These samples after standing for one day in the laboratory became 

decidedly turbid, owing to the oxidation of the large amount of iron in them, and a slight, rusty sediment 
was deposited. The hlitb color of the water was caused by the presence of the Iron oxide, and could be 
nearly all removed by liltration through filter paper. The colore after filtration were respectively 0.12 
and 0.08. The samples were collected from test wells near the factory of A. U. Sweet, ami near the 
road from Norton to Attleborough. 



No organisms. 



Microscopical Examination. 



274 STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 

NORWOOD, 

Water Supply or Norwood. 
Chemical Examination of Water from Buckmaster Pond, Dedham. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





a 


1 
» 


Appearance. 


Residdk on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 


a 




Nitrogen 
as 


S 

3 

a 

a 

1 








i 


a 

1 
•3 

03 







c 


c c 

3 


6 
u 


Albuminoid. 


1 


1 




.0 

a 
1 


■3 



> 
i 


3 Q. 


a 
EQ 




1894. 




























11591 


Jan. 3 


None. 


Slight. 


0.05 


2.75 


0.86 


.0094 


.0192 


.0176 


.0016 


.34 


.0040 


.0000 


.I960 


0.5 


11714 


Feb. 6 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.05 


2.95 


1.20 


.0168 


.0166 


.0134 


.0022 


.37 


.0070 


.0000 


.2200 


0.5 


11838 


Mar. 5 


Slight. 


Slight. 


O.OS 


2.85 


0.90 


.0120 


.0150 


.0124 


.0026 


.32 


.0070 


.0000 


.2240 


0.5 


11990 


Apr. 2 


j Dietinct. 


Cons., 


0.15 


2.60 


0.90 


.0010 


.0156 


.0122 


.0034 


.33 


.0030 


.0000 


.2117 


0.5 


12153 


May 2 


: Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.10 


2.65 


1.15 


.0004 


.0158 


.0110 


.0048 


.36 


.0050 


.0000 


.3216 


0.3 


12312 


June 4 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.20 


2.60 


1.10 


.0006 


.0160 


.0144 


.0016 


.32 


.0000 


.0000 


.2733 


0.5 


12501 


July 9 


Distinct. 


Slight. 


0.10 


2.60 


1.00 


.0010 


.0200 


.0182 


.0018 


.36 


.0050 


.0000 


.2710 


0.4 


12681 


Aug. 7 


' Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.10 


3.20 


1.50 


.0004 


.0216 


.0186 


.0030 


.40 


.0000 


.0000 


.2502 


0.5 


12897 


Sept. 5 


Slight. 


Slight, 


0.10 


3.30 


1.45 


.0000 


.0210 


.0156 


.0054 


.37 


.0000 


.0001 


.2387 


0.6 


13082 


Oct. 4 


Slight. 


green. 
Slight. 


0.15 


3.00 


1.50 


.0014 


.0210 


.0170 


.0040 


.39 


.0000 


.0000 


.2015 


0.5 


1.3260 


Nov. 5 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.08 


2.45 


1.00 


.0080 


.0204 


.0182 


.0022 


.41 


.0030 


.0000 


.2387 


0.5 


13430 


Dec. 3 


Slight. 


Cons. 


0.05 


2.85 
2.82 


1.05 


.0150 
.0055 


.0172 
.0182 


.0162 
.0153 


.0020 


.36 


.0000 


.0000 
.0000 


.2017 


0.3 


Av 








0.10 


1.13 


.0029 


.0028 


.2373 


5 













Averages by Tears. 



- 


1887* 


- 


- 


0.09 


2.64 


1.06 


.0058 


.0212 


- 


- 


.30 


.0018 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1888 


- 


- 


0.15 


2.66 


0.95 


.0069 


.0248 


- 


- 


.29 


.0066 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


1889 


- 


- 


0.11 


2.43 


0.78 


.0025 


.0106 


.0172 


.0024 


.30 


.0070 


.0001 


- 


- 


- 


1890 


- 


- 


0.05 


2.59 


0.99 


.0015 


.0180 


.0147 


.0033 


.30 


.0076 


.0000 


- 


1.0 


- 


1891 


- 


- 


0.06 


2.48 


0.97 


.0014 


.0166 


.0140 


.0020 


.26 


.0075 


.0000 


- 


0.7 


- 


1892 


- 


- 


0.07 


2.88 


1.24 


.0019 


.0219 


.0172 


.0047 


.32 


.0007 


.0000 


- 


0.7 


- 


1893 


- 


- 


0.07 


2.62 


1.08 


.0052 


.0109 


.0166 


.0043 


.33 


.0028 


.0000 


.2544 


0.7 


- 


1894 


- 


- 


0.10 


2.82 


1.18 


.0055 


.0182 


.0153 


.0020 


.36 


.0028 


.0000 


.2378 


0.5 



* Juno to December. 

NOTK to analysoBOf 1894: Odor, f,t<!"erally faintly vegetable, HomotlmoH also mouldy or unpleasant; 
occanlonaily none. The samplcH were collected from the poud. 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 275 



NORWOOD. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from Buckmaster Pond, Dedham. 

[Number of orgaDlBioB per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Jan. 


Feb. 


Mar. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of exaniinatioD, . 
Number of sample, . 


5 
11591 


6 6 
11714 11838 


5 
11990 


3 
12153 


6 
12312 


11 

12501 


9 
12681 


8 
12897 


5 
13082 


7 
13260 


6 
13430 


PLANTS. 

Diatomaceee, 

Asterionella, 

Cyclotella 

Melosira 

Bynedra 

Tabellaria 

Cyanophycese, . 

AnaboJDa, .... 
Chroococcus, 
Clathrocystis, 
CffiloBphajrium, . 
Microcystis, 

Algse 

Artbrodesmus, . 

Botrycoccus, 

ProtococcuB, 

Kapbidium, 

Scenedesmua, 


10 

5 




5 

2 






2 










180 
180 





1 






1 



2 




2 



2,400 
2,400 





















3,000 
3,000 



















1,046 

880 

24 



128 

14 

16 

16 





11 

4 

6 

1 


171 

31 
84 

32 
24 

5 

4 



1 


70 




70 


•0 


1 


1 



4 

2 


2 


6 



2 
4 









25 


18 
4 

3 

10 


8 

2 



10 


6 
1 
4 

11 

1 

3 

7 

6 


1 

4 

1 


2 

1 


1 









12 
2 



10 



46 


44 

2 









15 
2 
1 
4 
8 



37 
13 
13 
5 
4 
2 
















ANIMALS. 

Infusoria 

Dinobryon cases, 

MonaB, 

Peridiniuui 

Trachelomonas, . 

Vermes, 

Monocerca 

Polyartbra, .... 


20 





20 



1 
1 


16 

2 

14 


pr. 

^'6 


pr. 









pr. 








3 
3 















2 

2 



pr. 



2 


2 


1 



1 








9 




7 
2 






15 
4 



11 

1 

1 



178 

176 





2 






48 

48 









Miscellaneous, Zooglcea, . 


2 








2 











9 


108 


104 








Total 


35 


199 


2,400 


3,002 


1,076 


248 


13 


46 


144 


134 


289 


85 



Table showiiig HeigMs of Water in Btickmaster Pond on the First of Each Month 

in 1894. 

[Distance below crest of dam.] 



Jan. 1, 

Feb. 1, 
March 1, 
April 1, 
May 1, 
June 1, 



Date. — 1894. 



6.25 
4.42 
2.60 
0.75 
0.00 
0.50 



July 1, 

Aug. 1, 

Sept. 1, 

Oct. 1, 

Nov. 1, 

Deo. 1, 



Datk. — 1894. 



1.92 
3.38 
5.00 
5.75 
6.33 
5.42 



276 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ORAJiTGE. 

Water Supply of Orange. 

Early in the spring of 1894 the water supplied to the town had a 
disagreeable taste and odor, and upon making a special investigation 
it was ascertained that the odor was caused by the presence of the 
organism Ui'oglena, which was found in large numbers in the dis- 
tributing reservoir. In the main source from which water may be 
pumped to the distributing reservoir no Uroglena was found, but it 
was subsequently learned that a very small amount of water had been 
pumped from the Greenhalge Reservoir, a small mill pond the water 
of which is used to furnish power for pumping, which was not ex- 
amined. After the distributing reservoir had been emptied and 
refilled the Uroglena disappeared. A description of this organism 
is given in the annual report of the State Board of Health for 1891, 
pages 645-658, and a statement as to the odor which it imparts to 
water, and the probable origin of the odor, may be found in the 
annual report for 1892, pages 370-375. 

In connection with the investigation as to the cause of the taste 
and odor noticed, many examinations were made of water from 
sources connected with the Orange Water Works, and the results 
are given in tables which follow. 

Chemical Examination of Water Jrom North Pond, Oramje. 

[Parte per 100,000.] 





1 
o 


Appearance. 


Kksiuue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


Ammonia. 




NiTnOGEN 
AS 


•a 

a 

3 

i 

o 

a 






>, 


c 










Albiiralnoiil. | 


. 






c 




■d 


-o 


S 


o 

a 

s 
'A 


o 

S 

Q 


'I 

3 


a 


o 

5 


I 


o c 

m ^ 
O 


6 




J,© 

(5" 


•a 

3 O. 


•c 

_o 

a 
O 

.11 


2 


•c 
'9i 


^, 

M 

c 

.4480 


w 


11906 


1804. 

Mar. 16 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.30 


2.70 


1.15 


.0004 


.0182 


.0150 


.0026 


.0050 


.0000 


0.5 


12018 


Apr. 10 


V. Blight. 


Slight. 


0.30 


2.80 


1.15 


.0000 


.0164 


.0144 


.0020 


.13 


.0050 


.0000 


.3607 


0.0 


12372 


Junel3 


DlBtinct, 


Slight. 


0.00 


3.10 


1.55 


.0004 


.o:!l2 


.0202 


.0050 


.14 


.0000 


.0000 


.5013 


0.9 


12542 


July 16 


grcon. 
DiBllnct. 


Slight. 


0.65 


3.65 


1.90 


.0000 


.0274 


.0236 


.0038 


.14 


.0000 


.0002 


.0730 


1.1 


12764 


Aug. 15 


Distinct, 


Slight. 


0.70 


3.75 


2.00 


.0000 


.0250 


.0198 


.0052 


.11 


.0000 


.0000 


.6111)!) 


1.0 


12977 


Bept.18 


V.Hllght. 


Slight. 


0.75 


3.95 


1.75 


.0002 


.0218 


.0200 


.0018 


.15 


.0000 


.0000 


.5920 


1.1 


i:il59 


Oct. 17 


DiHtlnct. 


Cona., 


0.80 


3.35 


1.65 


.0000 


.0278 


.0200 


.0072 


.12 


.0020 


.0000 


.6091 


1.1 


133&9 


Nov. 21 


Slight. 


brown. 
Blight, 


0.90 


3.80 


1.70 


.0064 


.0218 


.0198 


.0020 


.10 


.0000 


.0000 


.0240 


0.1) 


13527 


Dec. 19 


V.Hllght. 


brown. 
Blight. 


1.10 


3.80 


1.80 


.0042 
.0012 


,0166 
.0229 


.0150 
.0194 


.0016 
.0035 


.13 
.13 


.0050 
.0010 


.0000 
,0000 


.8200 
.5904 


0.5 


Av. 








0.67 


3.38 


1.63 


0.9 











Odor, gcnorally vcgetalilc, BomelimcB uIho mouldy, becoming atrongor on heating.- 
'were collected from the pond. 



- The Bamplcs 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 



277 



ORANGE. 

Microscopical Examination oj Water from North Pond, Orange. 

[Number of organiamB per cubic centimeter.] 



Mar. April 



July. 



Ang. 



Sept. 



Oct. 



Nov. 



Dec. 



Day of examinatioD, 
Number of sample, . 



TLANTB. 
Dlatomaceee, 



Aeterionella, 
Cyclotella, . 
Meloeira, 
Plnnularlii, . 
Syocdra, 
Tabellaria, . 



Cyanophyceee, 

Clathrocystis, 
Ccelosphaerium, 



AlgSB, 



Artbrodesmua, 

ChlorococcuB, 

CloBterlum, . 

ProtococcuB, 

Kaphldium, 

BcenedesmaB, 

StauraBtrum, 



Fungi, Crenothrix, 



17 
11906 



93 



11 
12018 



14 
12372 



17 
12542 



16 
12764 



19 
12977 



18 
13159 



22 
13359 



505 

480 
3 
5 

pr. 
16 
1 



348 

20 

48 







280 



313 


1 







312 



260 






260 



289 

1 
4 

272 


12 



200 



16 


184 



200 


200 








399 



212 

1 

44 



4 
136 



21 
13527 



ANTMALS. 
Rhlzopoda, Actlnophrya, 

Infusoria, 

Oeratium, . 
Diuobryon,. 
Dinobryon casea, 
EplBtyllB, . 
MallomonaB, 
Peridinium, 
Bynura, 
TrachelomonaB, . 

Vermes, Polyarthra, . 



14 37 




2 
10 


pr. 





5 

32 



pr. 

pr. 





MiacellaneouB, Zoogloea, . 



Total, 



107 



66^ 



414 



56 



628 



88 



439 



244 



800 



278 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ORA2s"GE. 

Chemical Examinalion of Water fi'om Coolidgc Brook Reservoir, Orange. 

• [Parts per 100,000.] 





c 

o 
3 ; 

o 
o 

« 


Appearance. 

1 


Residue on 
Evapora- 
tion. 


! 

Ammonia. 


a 
o 
o 

.10 
.14 
.14 

.16 

1 


Nitrogen 

AS 1 


■3 

a 

3 
C 

s 

C 

1 






"Z 

u 
9 


c 
o 

S 
■o 


1^ 

o 


2 

o 


B 

o 

§1 

o 


1 


Albuminoid. 




s 1 




u 
o 

a 


1 


1 O 

5 


•d 

1 c 
s c, 


a 


11935 
12019 
12373 


1894. 

Mar. 22 

Apr. 10 

June 13 

1 


V. Blight. 
None. 
V. Blight. 


Slight. 
Slight. 
Slight. 


0.30 
0.23 
0.43 


2.05 
2.40 
1.90 


0.70 
0.75 
1.15 


.0010 
.0000 
.0000 


.0142 
.0090 
.0148 

.0127 


.0120 
.0066 
.0128 

,0105 


.0022 
.0024 
.0020 


.0050 
.0050 
.0030 

.0043 


.0000 
.0000 
.0001 


.3579 
.3160 
.4474 


0.2 
0.5 
0.8 


Av. 


1 






0.32 


2.12 


0.87 


.0003 


.0022 


.0000 


.3738 


0,5 




1 









Odor, vegetable. The sampleB were collected from the reservoir. 



Microscopical Examination of Water from Coolidge Brook Reservoir, Orange. 



[Number of organisms per cubic centimeter.] 



April. 



Day of examination 

Number of sample, .... 

PLANTS. 
Diatomaceee, . . . . 

Cyclotella, 

Dlatoma, 

Meridlon, 

Bynedra 

Tabellaria, 

ANIMALS. 
Infusoria 

Monas 

Perldlnium, 

Vermes 

J'olyartbra, 

Rotifer, 

MUcellaneouH, Zocigicca, . . . 

» 

Total, 



23 
11935 



11 
12019 



16 
12373 




pr. 


pr. 







1 

2 

pr. 



923 

3 


020 




042 



No. 34.] EXAMINATION OF WATER SUPPLIES. 279 

Chemical Examination oj Water from the Distributing Reservoir of the Orange 

Water Works. 

[Parts per 100,000.] 





i 

o 

o 
2 


Appbarancb. \ 


Resid 

EVAI 
TI 

■3 



DB ON 
•ORA- 
3N. 


Ammonia. 


1 



a 


NlTBOGBM 
AS 


•3 

1 

s 


e 
.^ 

K 







' 1 


i 

•5 


u 

o 
o 
O 


a 



gl 
1" 


2 


Albuminoid. 


08 


1 




i4 

1 

a 
•A 


"3 


Dis- 
solved. 

Sus- 
pended. 


01 

3 
1 




1894. 






1 










1 


1 






11936 Mar. 22 


Slight. 


Slight, 
white. 


0.22 


2.45 


1.05 


.0010. 0128 .0098 .0030 


.09 


.0050 .0000 


.34360.2 

1 


11987 ! Apr. 2 


Slight. 


Slight. 


0.18 


2.60 


0.65 


.0006;. 0094 .00721.0022 


.11 


.0030 .OOOOi 


.2903 0.3 


12020 Apr. 10 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.20 


2.65 


0.70 


.0002 .0086.0072 


.0014 


.14 


.0030.0000 


.278l]o.3 


12121 1 Apr. 30 
12374 ! June 13 


V. slight. 
Slight. 


Cons., 

sandy. 
Slight. 


0.28 
0.40 


2.10 
3.30 


0.65 
1.20 


.0000 
.0018 


.0126.0096 

! 
.0184 .0166 


.0030 

.0018 

1 


.16 

.28 


.0030 .0000 
.0000 .0001. 


.0987 
.4543 


0.6 
0.8 


12543 ' July 16 


1 Slight. 


V. slight. 


0.20 


4.25 


1.50 


.0006 


.0114 .0006 .OOISJ 


.11 


.0000 


.0004 


.3303 


0.9 


12765 Aug. 15 1 Distinct. 


Slight. 


1.40 


5.00 


2.65 


.0018 .0346 


.0302 .0044 


.11 


.0030 


.0000 


1.0395 0.9 


12978 Sept.18 Slight. 


Slight. 


0.85 

1 


4.75 


2.50 


.0004 .0288 


.0240 


.0048 


.13 


.0020 


.0001: 


.7469 1.3 


13160 


Oct. 17 li Slight. 


Slight. 


0.50 


3.90 


1.75 


.0000 .0150 


.0140 


.0010 


.14 ; 


.0020 


.0000 


.54511.1 


13360 


Nov.21 


V. slight. 


V. slight. 


0.53 


3.75 


1.65 


.0006 .0122 


.0100 


.0022' 


.13 


.0070 


.0000 


.6226 


0.9 


13528 


Dec. 19 


V. slight. 


Slight. 


0.38: 


3.25 


1.25 


.0000 .0106 

1 


.0090 
.0146 


.0016 
.0025 


.16 
.14 


.0030 
.0028 


.0000 
.0001' 


.4173 


1.1 


Av.* 








0.62 


3.68 


1.58 


.0007 


.0171 


.5136 


0.8 











* Where more than one sample was collected in a month, the mean analysis for tliat month has been 
used in making the average. 



Odor of No. 1193G, very faintly aromatic; of Nos. 11987, 12374, 12765, 12978 and I33ti0, vegetable; of 
No. 12020, distinctly disagreeable and fishy; of the remaining samples, none. On heating, the odor of 
the first four samples was decidedly oily. The samples were collected from the reservoir. 



280 



STATE BOARD OF HEALTH. [Pub. Doc. 



ORAXGE. 

Microscopical Examination of Water from the Distributing Eeservoir of the Orange 

Water Works. 

[Number of organiBrns per cubic centimeter.] 





1894. 




Mar. 


Apr. 


Apr. 


May. 


June. 


July. 


Aug. 


Sept. 


Oct. 


Nov. 


Dec. 


Day of examination, 
Number of sample, 


23 
11936 


4 
11987 


12020 


1 
12121 


16 
12374 


17 
12543 


16 
12765 


19 
12978 


18 
13160 















u 




22 
13360 


21 
13528 


PLANTS. 
Diatomaceee 

Aeterionella 

Cyclolella, .... 
Melosira, .... 

Synedra, 

Tabellaria 

Algse 

Cblorococcus 

CloBteriura 

Protococcus 

RapbidiuiD 

Fungi, Crenotbrlx, . 


9 



1 

8 

pr. 



1 
1 








28 



21 
2 
5 



u 
1) 






9 



3 
5 
1 











28 





28 












57 




56 
1 

10 



10 





24 


1 


12 
11 

4 




4 




156 







3G 

120 

48 



48 





5 


71 

47 
6 


1 
17 

13 




(